Skip to main content

Full text of "Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal"

See other formats


mmm 




Til E 



EDINBUBGH NEW 



PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL. 



p , L\ it if, 



THE 

— 

EDINBURGH NEW 

PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL, 



EXHIBITING A VIEW OF THE 



PROGRESSIVE DISCOVERIES AND IMPROVEMENTS 



SCIENCES AND THE ARTS. 



EDITORS. 

THOMAS ANDEKSON, M.D, F.E.S.E., &c, 

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW ; 

Sir WILLIAM JAEDINE, Bart, F.E.S.E., &c, 

AND 

JOHN HUTTON BALFOUR, M.D, F.R.S.E, &c, 

'ROFESSOR OF MEDICINE AND BOTANY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. 



JANUAEY APEIL 1855. 



VOL. I. NEW SERIES. 



EDINBURGH : 

ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK. 

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS, LONDON. 

MDCCCLV. 




I DIMM' M. II •• 

Ti.iN CED JM M.H.I. ISJi COMPANT, <>l,n ri6UKARK£1 . 



CONTENTS. 



1. On the Means of realizing the Advantages of the Air- 

Engine. By William John Macquorn Rankine, 
Civil Engineer, F.R.SS. Lond. and Edin., &c, . 1 

2. On the Intrusion of the Germanic Races into Europe. By 

Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Professor of History and 
English Literature, University College, Toronto. 
Communicated by the Author, . . .33 

3. On the Hyposulphites of the Organic Alkaloids. By 

Henry How, Professor of Chemistry and Natural 
History, King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, 47 

4. On some of the more recent changes in the Area of the 

Irish Sea. By the Rev. J. G. Cumming,M.A.,F.G.S., 
Vice-President of King William's College, Castletown, 
Isle of Man, ..... 57 

5 . On the Chemical Composition of some Norwegian Minerals. 

By David Forbes, F.G-.S., A.I.C.E., . . 62 

6. On Mineral Charcoal. By Professor Harkness, . 71 

7. On a Simple Variation Compass. By William Swan, 

F.R.S.E., 76 

8. Notes on some Substances which exhibit the phenomena 

of Fluorescence. By Dr J. H. Gladstone, in a Let- 
ter to Dr Anderson, . , . .83 



11 CONTENTS. 



9. On Mechanical Antecedents of Motion, Heat, and Light. 

By William Thomson, Esq., Professor of Natural 
Philosophy, University of Glasgow. Communicated 
to the British Association, Section A, Monday, Sept. 
28, 1854. [Author's Abstract], . . 90 

10. Further Observations on Glacial Phenomena in Scotland 

and the North of England. By B. Chambers, 
F.B.S.E., 97 

11. On the Great Terrace of Erosion in Scotland, and its Be- 

lative Date and Connection with Glacial Phenomena. 

By B. Chambers, F.B.S.E., . . .103 

12. Geological Survey of Great Britain, . . 106 

13. On the Action of Organic Acids on Cotton and Flax 

Fibres. By F. Crace Calvert, F.C S., M.B.A. of 
Turin, Professor of Chemistry, Boyal Institution, 
Manchester, . . . . .108 

14. On a Hermaphrodite and Fissiparous Species of Tubico- 

lar Annelid. By Thomas A. Huxley, F.B.S., Lec- 
turer on General Natural History in the Government 
School of Mines, . . . .113 

15. On the Artificial Preparation of Sea Water for the Aqua- 

rium. By George Wilson, M.D., F.B.S.E., Lecturer 

on Chemistry, . . . . .129 

16. Notice of the late Professor Edward Forbes, . 133 

17. Introductory Lecture delivered at the opening of the Na- 

tural History Class in the University of Edinburgh, 
on Wednesday, 1st November 1854. By the late 
Edward Forbes, F.B.S., F.G.S., Begius Professor of 
Natural History, . . . .145 



CONTENTS. Ill 

PAGE 

REVIEWS:— 

1. Die Conchylien der Nord-Deutschen Tertiar-gebirges. 

The Fossil Shells of the Tertiary Formations of the 
North of Germany. By Prof. Beyrich, . 158 

2. Memoirs of the Life and Scientific Researches of John 

Dalton, Hon. D.C.L., Oxford, &c. By William 
Charles Henry, M.D., F.B.S., . . .163 

3. The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colours, and 

their applications to the Arts. By M. E. Chevreul, 
Membre de l'lnstitut de France &c, &c, . 166 

CORRESPONDENCE :— 

1. Letter from Mr M' Andrew to Dr Balfour, relative to a 

Communication from the late Professor E. Forbes, 169 

2. Selwyn on Australian Geology, . . 171 

3. Spratt on the Occurrence of Coal in Turkey, . 172 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES:— 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

1. Farther Experiments and Bemarks on the Measurement 

of Heights by the Boiling Point of Water. By Pro- 
fessor J. D. Forbes, .... 174 

2. On the Chemical equivalents of certain Bodies, and the 

relations between Oxygen and Azote. By Professor 
Low, ...... 175 

3. Miscellaneous Observations on the Salmonidge. By John 

Davy, M.D., F.B.S., Inspector- General of Army 
Hospitals, . . . . .176 

4. On the Structural Character of Kocks. Part III., Re- 

marks on the Stratified Traps of the neighbourhood 

of Edinburgh. By Dr Fleming, . . 176 



IV CONTENTS. 



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE :— 

ZOOLOGY. 

I. Chlorophyll in Green Infusoria. 2. Noctiluca Miliaris. 

3. Actinia Troglodites. 4. Testaceous Mollusca, 177-180 

GEOLOGY. 

5. Action of Water and Air on Basalt. 6. Pleistocene 
Classification. 7. Observations on some Mines of 
the United States, . . . 180-181 

CHEMISTRY. 

8. Researches upon the Ethers. 9. Constitutions of the 
Amides. 10. Alcohol from the Tubercules of Aspho- 
delus ramosus, .... 181—183 

BOTANY. 

II. On Datura Stramonium. 12. New Himalayan Genera. 

13. Plants in the Crimea, . . 183-187 

MINERALOGY. 

14. Artificial Production of Silicates and Aluminates. 15. 
Meteoric Iron from Greenland. 16. Analysis of some 
Minerals, . . . . 185-187 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

1 . Notice of Ancient Moraines in the Parishes of Strachur 

and Kilmun, Argyleshire. By Charles Maclaren, 
F.E.S.E, . . . .189 

2. Physical Features of Saturn and Mars, as noted at the 

Madras Observatory. By Captain W. S. Jacob, 
H.E.I.C. Astronomer. (With Two Plates), . 203 

3. A recent Revision of a portion of the Catalogue of Stars 

published by the British Association in 1845. By 
Captain W. S. Jacob, H.E.I.C. Astronomer at Ma- 
dras. Communicated by Professor C. Pjazzi Smyth, 206 

4. Some Additional Experiments on the Ethers and Amides 

of Meconic and Comenic Acids. By Henry How, 
Professor of Chemistry and Natural History, King's 
College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, . . 212 

5. A Draft Arrangement of the Genus Thamnophilus, 

Vieillot. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F.Z.S., 226 

6. On the Production of Boracic Acid and Ammonia by 

Volcanic Action. By Bobert Warington, F.C.S., 250 

7. On the Principal Depressions on the Surface of the 

Globe. By Dr George Buist, Bombay, . 253 

8. On the Action of Gallic and Tannic Acids in Dyeing. 

By F. Grace Calvert, F.C.S., M.B.A. of Turin, 
Professor of Chemistry at the Boyal Institution, Man- 
chester, ..... 265 

9. On the Geological Range of the Pterygotus problemati- 

cus. By the Rev. W. S. Symonds, F.G.S., . 269 



11 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

10. Notice of Shoals of Dead Fish observed on the passage 

between Mirimachi, New Brunswick, and the port of 
Gloucester. Communicated by the Kev. W. S. Sr- 
monds. With some llemarks by Sir W. Jardine, 
Bart., ..... 271 

11. On a Simple Method of distributing naturally Diverging 

Bays of Light over any azimuthal angle, with de- 
scription of proposed Spherico-Cylindric and Double- 
Cylindric Lenses, for use in Lighthouse Illumination. 
By Thomas Stevenson, F.B.S.E., Civil Engineer, 
(With a Plate), . . . .273 

12. On Annelid Tracks in the Equivalents of the Millstone 

Grits in the South-west of the County of Clare. By 
Bobert Harkness, Esq., F.B.S.E., F.G.S., Professor 
of Geology, Queen's College, Cork. (With a Plate), 278 

13. Description of New Coniferous Trees from California. 

By Andrew Murray, W.S. (With Six Plates), 284 

14. On the Colouring Matter of the Bottlera tinctoria. By 

Thomas Anderson, M.D., F.R.S.E., Regius Professor 

of Chemistry in the University of Glasgow, . 296 

15. The late Lieutenant-Colonel John G. Champion, of the 

95th Regiment, .... 302 

16. The late Professor Edward Forbes, . . 307 

17. A description of certain Mechanical Illustrations of the 

Planetary Motions, accompanied byTheoretical Inves- 
tigations relating to them, and, in particular, a new 
Explanation of the Stability of Equilibrium of Sa- 
turn's Rings. By James Elliot, Teacher of Ma- 
thematics, Edinburgh, . . . 310 

REVIEWS:— 

1. Die Kreidebildungen, Westphalens. Von Dr Ferd. Roe- 

mer. 1854, ..... 336 

2. Coupe Geologique des Environs des Bains de Rennes. 

Par A. d'Archiac, 1854, . . . 336 

3. The Entomologist's Annual for 1855, comprising No- 

tices of the new British Insects detected in 1854. 



CONTENTS. ill 

PAG1Z 

Edited by H. T. Statnton, Author of the " Entomo- 
logist's Companion." .... 342 

4. Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, 1854, 345 

5. Proceedings of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Club, 1853, 345 

6. Malvern Naturalists' Field Club, 1855, . . 345 

7- Introductory Text-Book of Geology. By David Page, 

F.G.S., ..... 348 

8. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Honour- 
able East India Company, . . . 349 

CORRESPONDENCE :— 

1. Letter from Mr W. Mills, Missionary in Navigator Isl- 

ands, . . . . .349 

2. Natal Geology. Extract of Letter from Dr. P . C. 

Sutherland to the late Professor E. Forbes, . 350 

3. Himalayan Geology. Extract of a Letter from T. Old- 

ham, Esq., to the late Professor E. Forbes, . 351 

4. Gutta Percha in India. Extract of a Letter from Dr 

Hugh Cleghorn, Madras, to i rofessor Balfour, 352 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES:— 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, .... 352 

Royal Physical Society, . . . .363 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. . . .371 

Californian Academy of Natural Sciences, . 374 

Publications Received, . 375 

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE :— 

ZOOLOGY. 

1. Melanerpes formicivorus. 2. Societe Zoologique d' Accli- 
matation. 3. Introduction of Foreign Species of Sal- 
mon. 4. Eschara cervicornis, . 376-377 

GEOLOGY. 

5. Cause of the Gray Colour in Dolomite and other Nep- 
tunian Rocks, .... 377 



JV CONTENTS. 



CHEMISTRY. 

6. Preparation and Properties of Aluminium. 7. Solubility 
of Carbonate of Soda. 8. On a Compound of Methyle 
and Tellurium. 9. Examination of the Rind of the 
Mangosteen, .... 378-380 

BOTANY. 

10. Gutta Percha of Singapore. 11. Mora excel sa. 12. Ve- 
getable Oils in the Amazon and Rio Negro Districts. 
13. Cyperus polystachyus. 14. Palma Jagua of the 
Orinoco. 15. Fungus in a Cavity of the Lung. 
16. Aloe- Wood, or Aloes of Scripture. 17. Origin 
of the Cultivated Wheat. 18. Balanophoraceae. 
19. Wellingtonia gigantea. 20. Medicinal and 
Economical Plants of Victoria, . 380-386 

MINERALOGY. 

21. Mineralogy of the Dolomite of the Alps. 22. Remark- 
able Brazilian Diamond, . . 386-388 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

23. Relative Levels of the Red Sea and Mediterranean. 

24. Uprise in the South Sea Islands, . . 388 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

25. Uncertainty of Preserving Records in Walls or Founda- 
tions of Buildings, .... 388 



ERRATA IN LAST NUMBER, 



Page 146, line 37, for geology, read zoology, 
,, 149, line 3, for lay worm, read lugworra, 
„ 153, line 32, read " the services that we find the scientific. Amidst 

arduous duties a naval officer," &c. 
„ 154, line 16, for Now, read That 
,, 155, line 10, read " It is true that natural history, unlike its sister sciences, 

physics and chemistry," &c. 
,, 168, line 33, after the word birds, insert are regarded, 



THE 



EDINBURGH NEW 

PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL. 



On the Means of realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 
By William John Macquorn Eankine, Civil Engineer, 
F.R.SS. Lond. and Edin., &c* 

Section I. Summary of the Laws of the Mutual Relations 
of Heat and Mechanical Power, and of the Theoretical 
Efficiency of Thermo-Dynamic Engines. 

1. The principal object of this paper is to explain the ad- 
vantages of certain improvements in air-engines, and the 
reasons for believing that, with these improvements, such 
engines will be found to be the most economical means of 
developing motive power by the agency of heat. For this 
purpose, it is necessary, in the first place, to state briefly the 
general principles which have been established by the joint 
agency of reasoning and experiment respecting the mutual 
relations of heat and motive power, and which are applicable 
to steam, air, and all substances whatsoever. 

It is a matter of ordinary observation, that heat, by ex- 
panding bodies, is a source of mechanical power ; and con- 
versely, that mechanical power, being expended either in 
compressing bodies, or in producing friction, is a source of 
heat. 

* Read to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Section G, 
at Liverpool, September 1854. 

VOL. I. NO. I. — JAN. 1855. A 



2 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

The general rules according to which these phenomena take 
place, have for some time been determined empirically, with 
more or less precision, for certain particular substances — for 
example, for steam ; but all systematic knowledge respecting 
them, as they affect all substances whatsoever, is deducible 
from two laws — that of the mutual convertibility of heat and 
mechanical power, and that of the efficiency of thermo- 
dynamic engines; the term ther mo -dynamic engine being 
used to denote any body, or assemblage of bodies, which pro- 
duces mechanical power from heat. 

2. The Law of the Mutual Convertibility of Heat 
and Mechanical Power is this : That when mechanical 
power is produced by the expenditure of heat, a quantity of 
heat disappears bearing a fixed proportion to the power 
produced ; and conversely, that when heat is produced by 
the expenditure of mechanical power, the quantity of heat 
produced bears a fixed proportion to the power expended. 

This law was believed, and reasoned from, by some inquirers 
before it was proved by experiment ; but being inconsistent 
with the formerly prevalent hypothesis of the existence of a 
peculiar substance as the cause of the phenomena of heat, it 
was recognised by few, until Mr Joule, by experiments on the 
production of heat by the friction of the particles of various 
substances, solid, liquid, and gaseous, not only demonstrated 
the mutual convertibility of heat and mechanical power, but 
ascertained the fixed proportion which they bear to each 
other in cases of mutual conversion, which is this : The unit 
of heat generally employed in Britain — that is to say, so 
much heat as is sufficient to raise the temperature of one 
pound of water, at ordinary temperatures, by one degree of 
Fahrenheit's thermometer — requires for its production, and 
produces by its disappearance, in other words, is equivalent to, 
772 foot-pounds of mechanical power ; that is to say, so much 
mechanical power as is sufficient to lift a weight of one pound 
to a height of 772 feet.* 

* The value of Joule's equivalent for a degree of the centigrade scale is 
772x2 = 1389-6 foot-pounds. For French measures, viz., centigrade degrees, 
kilogrammes, and metres, it is 423*54 kilogrammetres. See Philosophical 
Transactions, 1850. 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 3 

This quantity is known by the name of Joule's equivalent, 
and may be otherwise termed the dynamical specific heat of 
liquid water at ordinary atmospheric temperatures. 

3. Illustrations of this law. — The dynamical specific 
heats of other substances may be determined either by direct 
experiment, or by ascertaining their ratios to that of water. 
For example, to heat one pound of atmospheric air, maintained 
at a constant volume, by one degree of Fahrenheit, requires 
the expenditure of 

130*5 foot-pounds of mechanical power.* 

This is the real dynamical specific heat of air. The appa- 
rent dynamical specific heat of one pound of air, under con- 
stant pressure, is (for a degree of Fahrenheit) 

183-7 foot-pounds;* 
the difference, or 532 foot-pounds, being the mechanical 
power exerted by the air in expanding, so as to preserve the 
same pressure, notwithstanding the increase of its temperature 
by one degree. The apparent specific heat of air at constant 
pressure exceeds the real specific heat in the ratio of 1-41 : 1. 
All quantities of heat may be thus expressed by equivalent 
quantities of mechanical power. The heat required to raise 
one pound of liquid water from the freezing to the boiling 
point, and to evaporate it at the latter temperature, is 

1147°' 5 x 772 = 885,870 foot-pounds, 
of which 180°-0 x 772 = 138,960 foot-pounds is what is termed 
sensible heat, or the heat employed in raising the tempera- 
ture of the water, while the remainder 

967°-5 x 772 = 746,910 foot-pounds 

is the latent heat of evaporation of one pound of water at 
212° Fahr., being the heat which disappears in overcoming 
the mutual attraction of the particles of water, and the exter- 
nal pressure under which it evaporates. 

The mechanical equivalent of the available heat produced 

* It is worthy of remark, that the values of the specific heats of air were 
predicted, to a close approximation, by means of the Mechanical Theory of Heat, 
three years before they were ascertained by M. Regnault's experiments. (Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. ; Comptes Rendus, 1853.) 

A 2 



4 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

by one pound of such kinds of coal as are commonly used for 
engines in Britain may be taken on an average as equal to 
that of the heat required to raise seven pounds of water from 
the temperature of 50° to 212° Fahr., and to evaporate it at 
the latter temperature ; that is to say, in round numbers, 
6,000,000 foot-pounds. 

The total heat produced by the combustion of the coal is 
considerably greater ; but a portion necessarily escapes with 
the gases which ascend the chimney, and the above may be 
considered as a fair average estimate of the mechanical equi- 
valent of that which is practically available. 

4. Mechanical Hypothesis respecting Heat. — Heat, being 
convertible with mechanical power, is convertible also with 
the vis-viva of a body in motion. The British unit of heat, 
one degree of Fahrenheit in a pound of liquid water, is equi- 
valent to the vis-viva of a mass weighing one pound, moving 
with the velocity of 223 feet per second, being the velocity 
acquired in falling through a height of 772 feet. A mass of 
water, of which each particle is in motion with this velocity, 
has its temperature elevated by one degree of Fahrenheit, 
upon the extinction of the motion, by the mutual friction of 
the particles. 

It is natural to suppose that the motion, during this phe- 
nomenon, has not been really destroyed, but has been con- 
verted into revolutions of the particles in vortices or eddies 
too small to be perceptible by any of our modes of observation ; 
and that the centrifugal force of such eddies is the cause of 
the tendency of hot bodies to expand, melt, and evaporate. 

A hypothesis of this kind has long been entertained, and 
within the last few years it has been used so as to deduce the 
laws of the mechanical action of heat from the principles of 
ordinary mechanics, to a certain extent in anticipation of the 
results of experiment.* As those laws, however, have now 
been exactly ascertained by experiment, it must be borne in 
mind, that their certainty is in no way dependent on the truth 
of the hypothesis in question ; the probability of the hypo- 
thesis being, on the contrary, dependent on the truth of the 
laws. 

* See Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. xx. 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 5 

5. Threefold Effect of Heat. — The communication of heat 
to a substance produces, in general, three kinds of effects (set- 
ting aside chemical, electrical, and magnetic phenomena, as 
being foreign to the subject of the present paper) : — 

1st, An increase of temperature and expansive pressure ; 
that is to say, an increased tendency to the communication of 
heat to other bodies, and to the development of mechanical 
power by expansion. 

2dly, A change of volume ; which, under a constant pres- 
sure, is an increase for every substance, except some liquids 
near their freezing points. 

Sdly, A change of molecular condition ; as from the solid 
to the liquid state, or from the liquid or solid to the gaseous 
state, or any imperceptible change of molecular arrangement ; 
the change to the gaseous state being always accompanied by 
an increase of volume. 

The heat which produces the first of those effects is known 
by the name of sensible heat, as retaining the form of heat, 
and, in short, making the body hotter. 

The heat which produces the second and third of those ef- 
fects is called latent heat, as having disappeared in developing 
a mechanical effect, and being capable of reproduction by re- 
versing the change which caused it to disappear. 

Changes of volume are in general accompanied by changes 
of molecular arrangement or condition, perceptible or imper- 
ceptible. The latent heat of expansion, or of evaporation^ 
therefore, as the case may be, consists partly of heat which 
disappears in overcoming external pressure, and partly of that 
which disappears in overcoming the mutual attraction of the 
particles of the body. 

The latter forms by far the greater part of the latent heat 
of evaporation. For example, as already stated, there dis- 
appears, in evaporating one pound of water at 212°, a quantity 
of heat equivalent to 

746,910 foot-pounds. 

The pressure of the steam produced is 2116*4 lb. on the 
square foot. Its volume is not known exactly by experiment, 
but is probably about 26^ cubic feet more than that of the 
liquid water. Multiplying these two quantities together, it 



6 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

appears that the heat expended in overcoming external pres- 
sure is equivalent to only 

56,085 foot-pounds, 
leaving 

690,825 foot-pounds 

for the mechanical equivalent of the heat which disappears in 
overcoming the mutual attraction of the particles of the water. 

On the contrary, the latent heat of expansion of a permanent 
gas consists almost entirely of heat which disappears in over- 
coming the external pressure, that which disappears in over- 
coming the mutual attraction of the particles of the gas being 
comparatively very small ; in fact, in all practical calculations 
respecting air-engines, the latter quantity may be altogether 
neglected without sensible error, and the latent heat of expan- 
sion of the air treated as the exact equivalent of the mecha- 
nical work performed by it in the act of expanding. 

For example, — the product of the volume, in cubic feet, of 
one pound of air, at the temperature of 650° Fahrenheit, by its 
pressure in pounds per square foot, is 59,074 foot-pounds. If 
that pound of air be expanded under pressure, to 1J times its 
original volume, and be still maintained at the constant tem- 
perature of 650°, by being supplied with heat from an ex- 
ternal source, the work performed by it in expanding, will be 
59,074 x hyperbolic-logarithm of 1J = 23,953 foot-pounds ; 
and this quantity will also be sensibly equal to the mecha- 
nical equivalent of the heat supplied, and which disappears 
during the expansion. 

In considering the performance of any thermo-dynamic 
engine, it is evident that the heat which disappears in pro- 
ducing increase of volume under pressure, is to be regarded 
as the real source of power ; as it is a portion of this heat 
which is actually converted into mechanical work, while the 
heat expended in producing elevation of temperature, produces 
merely a tendency to the development of power. 

6. Mode of Operation of Thermo-dynamic Engines in 
general. — The mode of operation of an elastic substance in 
performing mechanical work by the agency of heat, reduced to 
its simplest form, consists in the continued repetition, either 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 7 

upon the same portion of the substance, or upon a succession 
of equal and similar portions, of a cycle of four processes, 
which, taken together, constitute a single stroke of the engine.* 

Process A. The substance is raised to an elevated tempera- 
ture. This process may or may not involve an alteration of 
volume. 

Process B. The substance, being maintained at the elevated 
temperature, increases in volume and propels a piston, or some- 
thing equivalent to a piston. During this process heat dis- 
appears, and a supply of heat from without is provided equal 
in amount to the heat which disappears ; so that the tempera- 
ture does not fall. 

Process C. The substance is cooled down to its original low 
temperature. This process, like the process A, may or may 
not be accompanied by a change of volume. 

Process D. The substance, being maintained at its depressed 
temperature, is compressed, by the return of the piston, to its 
original volume. During this process, heat is produced ; and 
in order that it may not elevate the temperature of the sub- 
stance, and give rise to an increased pressure, impeding the 
return of the piston, it must be abstracted as quickly as pro- 
duced, by some external means of refrigeration. 

The substance, being now brought back to its original volume 
and temperature, is ready to undergo the cycle of processes 
anew, and so on ad infinitum ; or otherwise, it is rejected, and 
a fresh portion of the substance employed for the next stroke. 
When the latter is the case, the operation of expelling the 
substance from the engine into the atmosphere, by the return 
of the piston, sometimes takes the place of the process D. 

Sometimes, either of the processes, B, C, or D, is the first in 
the order of time. The cycle of processes, however, preserves 
the same order of rotation. 

During the cycle of processes which has been described, the 
working substance alternately increases and diminishes in 
volume, in contact with a moving piston. During the increase 
of volume, the pressure of the substance against the piston 

% This cycle of processes was first described by Carnot (Reflexions sur la 
puissance motrice du feu) ; but his conclusions were vitiated by the assumptioD 
of the substantiality of heat. 



8 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

communicates to the latter mechanical power. During the 
diminution of volume, on the contrary, the piston expends me- 
chanical power in compressing the working substance. The 
increase of volume takes place at a higher temperature, and 
therefore at a higher pressure, than the diminution of volume ; 
consequently, the mechanical power communicated to the piston, 
exceeds that taken away from it. The surplus is the power of 
the engine, available for performing mechanical work. 

7. Efficiency of Therm o-dynamic Engines. — The efficiency 
of a thermo-dynamic engine is the ratio which the available 
power bears to the mechanical equivalent of the whole heat 
expended. 

If it were possible to construct an engine such, that the 
heat communicated to the working substance should entirely 
disappear, the power produced by that engine would be the 
exact equivalent of the heat expended : that is to say, 772 foot- 
pounds for each British unit of heat ; and its efficiency would 
be represented by unity. According to the average esti- 
mate already stated, it would produce power to the amount of 
6,000,000 foot-pounds for each pound of coal consumed ; and, 
as a horse-power is 1,980,000 foot-pounds per hour, the con- 
sumption of coal would be 0*33 lb. per horse-power per hour. 
It is impossible, however, by any engine, to realize anything 
approaching to this degree of efficiency. This arises from 
two causes : — first, the necessary loss of heat, depending on 
the limits of temperature between which the engine works, 
according to a law which has been already referred to, and 
which will shortly be stated ; and, secondly, the waste of heat 
and power arising from the engine's not fulfilling exactly the 
conditions prescribed by theory. "When the necessary loss of 
heat alone is taken into account, the efficiency as determined 
by calculation, may be called the Theoretical Maximum 
Efficiency of the kind of engine under consideration. When 
the waste of heat and power is also allowed for, the result is 
the actual efficiency of the engine. 

8. Theoretical Conditions of Maximum Efficiency. — The 
latent heat of increase of volume at an elevated temperature, 
being the direct source of the power of a thermo-dynamic en- 
gine, it is obvious, that, cceteris paribus, the more we reduce 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 9 

the other part of the expenditure of heat, namely, the heat 
which is expended in elevating the temperature of the working 
substance, the more nearly shall we attain to the maximum 
theoretical efficiency of the engine. It is theoretically possible 
to produce the required elevation of temperature, without any 
expenditure of heat. This is to be accomplished in two ways : — 
either, by elevating the temperature of the substance by com- 
pression during the process A of the cycle : the power re- 
quired for effecting such compression being obtained, during 
the process C, by depressing the temperature of the substance 
entirely by expansion ; or otherwise, by storing up in a mass of 
some solid conducting material (called an economizer or regene- 
rator), the heat given out by the working substance, while its 
temperature is being depressed, during the process C, and em- 
ploying the heat, so stored up, to produce the required eleva- 
tion of temperature during the process A. This method of 
economizing heat was invented in 1816, by the Rev. Robert 
Stirling. 

By one or other of those methods, it is theoretically possible 
to limit the expenditure of heat in a thermo-dynamic engine to 
that amount which disappears during the process B of the 
cycle, in producing increase of volume at an elevated tempera- 
ture. The heat which reappears during the process D, by the 
compression of the working substance at a low temperature, 
and which is carried away by refrigeration, constitutes the ne- 
cessary loss of heat ; and, if this be deducted from the whole 
heat expended, the remainder will be the theoretical maximum 
value of the heat which is permanently converted into mecha- 
nical power, and its ratio to the whole heat expended will be 
the theoretical maximum efficiency of the engine. 

9. Absolute Temperatures. — The theoretical maximum 
efficiency of a thermo-dynamic engine, depends upon what are 
called the absolute temperatures of the working substance, 
during the second and fourth processes of the cycle ; that is to 
say, the absolute temperatures at which heat in a theoretically 
perfect engine is received and abstracted respectively. Abso- 
lute temperatures are measured by the product of the pressure 
and volume of a given weight of a given perfect gas. A per- 
fect gas is one in which the mutual attraction of the particles 
is insensible. 



10 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

The Absolute Zero of Heat on a perfect-gas thermometer, 
is that point on its scale which corresponds to total absence of 
heat ; and from this point absolute temperatures are under- 
stood to be reckoned, in the law stated in the next article. 

According to the latest determination, from the experiments 
of Messrs Joule and Thomson, the Absolute Zero of Heat does 
not differ by any amount appreciable in practice from the A b- 
solute Zero of Pressure, being the temperature at which (if it 
were possible for a perfect gas to preserve its properties at so 
intense a degree of cold) the product of its pressure and volume 
would be reduced to nothing ; and this point is 493° of Fahren- 
heit below the temperature of melting ice ; that is to say, 
493°-32° = 461 below Fahrenheit's ordinary zero.* 

10. The Law of the Maximum Efficiency of Thermo- 
dynamic Engines is expressed by the following proportion : — 
As the absolute temperature of receiving heat 
is to the difference between the absolute temperatures 

of receiving and discharging heat, 
so is the whole heat received 

to the portion of heat permanently converted into me- 
chanical power ; 
that is to say, 

so is unity to the efficiency of the engine. 
This proportion may be otherwise expressed, as follows : — 
As the absolute temperature of receiving heat 
is to the absolute temperature of discharging heat, 
so is the whole heat received 
to the necessary loss ofheat.\ 

* The product of the volume in cubic feet of one pound of atmospheric 
air, by its pressure in pounds on the square foot, at the temperature of melting 
ice, is 26,214 foot-pounds. The corresponding product, at any other tempe- 
rature, is found with a degree of accuracy sufficient for practical purposes, by 

26,214 
multiplying the absolute temperature by =: 53*172 foot-pounds per 

degree of Fahrenheit. In the detailed investigations already referred to, the 
absolute zeros of heat and of pressure have had various positions assigned to 
them as the most probable, within a range of about 4° Fahrenheit, according 
to the degree of precision of the experimental data, existing at the periods 
when the several papers were written. This range of variation, however, is 
not sufficient to cause any error of practical importance in calculations re- 
specting engines. 

t There are other forms in which .this law might be expressed ; but those 



realizing the Advantages of the Air -Engine. 11 

To illustrate the above law, the following table is added, 
showing four examples of the efficiencies of theoretically perfect 
engines working between limits of temperature to which there 
will be occasion to refer in the sequel : the 7th column shows, 
in each case, the maximum theoretical duty of a pound of coal, 
supposing, as before, that the whole available heat of its 
combustion is equivalent to 6,000,000 foot-pounds : the 8th 
column shows, for each example, the corresponding minimum 
theoretical consumption of coal per horse-power per hour : the 
limits of temperature chosen in the five examples are respec- 
tively as follows : — 

(1.) The limits of temperature for a condensing steam-engine, 
with a pressure of 42 lb. per square inch in the boiler, and 
2*9 lb. per square inch in the condenser : (in every instance in 
this paper in which a pressure is mentioned, it is to be under- 
stood to mean the total pressure and not the excess above the 
pressure of the atmosphere). 

(2.) The limits of temperature for a non-condensing steam- 
engine with a pressure of 153 lb. per square inch in the boiler. 

(3.) A probable estimate of the limits of temperature of 
Ericsson's air-engine of 1852. 

(4.) The same for Stirling's air-engine, and also for that of 
Napier and Rankine. 

The actual efficiency of these engines will be considered in 
another part of this paper. 

Examples of Maximum Theoretical Efficiency. 



I 

M 

© 


Temperatures in degrees of 
Fahrenheit. 


Maximum theo- 
retical Efficiencies. 


Maximum theo- 
retical Duties of 
one pound of 
Coal,ft.-lb. 


Minimum 

theoretical 

Consumption 

of Coal per 

horse-power 

per hour, lb. 


Ordinary. 


Absolute. 


Higher. 


Lower. 


Highei-. 


Lower. 


1 

2 
3 

4 


270 
360 
480 
650 


140 
212 
100 
150 


731 

821 

941 

1111 


601 
673 
561 
611 


iff — 0-178 

||f = 0-180 

f f-2 = 0-404 

yVVi = 0-450 


1,067,000 
1,080,000 
2,424,000 
2,700,000 


1-86 
1-83 
0-82 
0-73 



stated above are the most readily applicable to the performance of engines 
worked by heat, and are therefore to be preferred in a paper such as the present. 
See Trans. Royal Soc, Edin., vol. xx. (1850 to 1853), and Phil. Trans., 1854. 

Carnot was the first to perceive, that the maximum effect of the expendi- 
ture of a given quantity of heat in a thermo-dynamic engine must be a func- 



12 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

In order to show the manner in which the pressure and 
volume of elastic substances vary, in producing the maximum 
theoretical efficiency of a thermo-dynamic-engine, so as to 
verify in every case the general law, a supplement is added 
to this section, containing detailed computations for three ex- 
amples of theoretically perfect engines : viz., a steam-engine 
working between 270° and 140°, an air-engine working be- 
tween the same temperatures, and an air-engine working 
between 650° and 150°. 

11. As the law above stated is true for all substances what- 
soever in all conditions, it is obvious that, in a purely theo- 
retical point of view, the only reason for preferring any one 
substance to another, as the agent in converting heat into 
mechanical power, is the greater ease and safety of causing it 
to expand by heat at a high temperature. In this point of 
view, permanent gases are preferable to vapours rising from 
liquids ; for the density of a permanent gas can be regulated at 
pleasure so as to limit its pressure at any temperature, how 
elevated soever, to a safe and manageable amount ; whereas a 
given vapour, while in contact with its liquid, has but one pos- 
sible density for each given temperature, and consequently 
but one possible pressure ; and as the pressures of the vapours 
of all easily obtainable fluids increase very rapidly with the 
temperature, it would be unsafe to use vapours at temperatures 
at which it is safe and easy to use permanent gases. For ex- 
ample, at the temperature of 650° Fahr. (measured from the 
ordinary zero), a temperature up to which air-engines have 
actually been worked with ease and safety, the pressure of 
steam is 2100 pounds upon the square inch ; a pressure which 
plainly renders it impracticable to work steam-engines with 
safety at that temperature. 

Supplement to Section I. — A. Example of the Computation of 
the power produced by the combustion of one pound of Coal in a 
theoretically perfect Steam-Engine, working between the tempera- 
tures of 270° and 140° of Fahrenheit. 

Data. 
Mechanical equivalent of the whole available heat obtained 

by the combustion of 1 lb. of coal, 6,000,000 ft.-lb. 

tion of the temperatures of receiving and discharging heat; but the hypothesis 
of the substantiality of heat misled him as to the nature of the function. 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 13 

In Boiler. In Condenser. 

Temperatures (ordinary scale), 270° Fahr. 140° 

Absolute temperatures, . 731° 601° 

Pressures, lb. lb. 

Per square inch, , . . 41-93 2*89 

Per square foot, . . . 6038- 415'7 

Cubic feet. 

Volume of one pound of steam in the boiler, 9*852 

Latent heat of evaporation of one pound of 

ft.-lb. 
steam (mechanical equivalent), . . 715,800 

Computation of the Maximum Theoretical Duty of one pound of 
Coal by the General Law. 

mu" V i • ffi • 270°- 140° 130° ni# __ 
Theoretical maximum efficiency, WoTo — = ^ — 0'178 

130 
Duty of one pound of Coal, 1 =— r x 6,000,000 = 1,067,000 as in 

7 ol 

Example I. of the table in article 10. 

■Computation of the Maximum Theoretical Duty of one pound of 
Coal, introducing the changes of pressure and volume undergone 
by the Steam. 



Water evaporated by one lb. of coal, 
available heat of combustion 6,000,000 



8-382 lb. 



latent heat of one lb. of steam 715,800 
Ratio of expansion required to enable the steam to produce its 
maximum effect, 10*774. 

The detailed computation of this ratio is too tedious to be 
inserted here. The method pursued is fully explained in the 
Philosophical Transactions for 1854, Part I. 

per lb. of water. 



per lb. of coal, 
cubic feet. 

82*579 
888-82 



cubic feet. 

Space filled by steam at full pressure, 9*852 
at the end of the expansion, . 106*04 

as space traversed by the piston. 

ft.-lb. 13Q ft.-lb. 

Effect of one pound of steam, 715,800 x ^ = 127,297.* 

* This quantity consists of the total action of the entering and expanding 
steam, on one side of the piston, diminished by the action of the steam which 



14 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

ft.-lb. 

Effect of one pound of coal, 127,297x8-382 = 1,067,000 as 

before. 

Mean effective pressure during the whole action of the steam, 

effect 127,297 1,067,000 19nndftl , f , 

= =- 1non , = — tt oo on = 1200*46 lb. per square toot = 

space 106-04 888'82 r ^ 

8*34 lb. per square inch. 

Coal per horse-power per hour, 

iVifi7 > nnn =: ^ ^ ^*' as * n ^ ie ^ exam P^ e °f the table in 
article 10. 

B. Example of the Computation of the power produced by the 
combustion of one pound of Coal in a theoretically perfect Air- 
Engine, working between the temperatures of 270° and 140° of 
Fahrenheit. 

(The object of the following computation is not to exemplify 
the mode of working of any existing or proposed air-engine, 
but simply to illustrate the fact, that the maximum theoretical 
efficiency of thermo-dynamic engines is the same when the 
limits of temperature are the same, of what nature soever the 
working substance may be. 

It is also to be observed, that the maximum theoretical duty 
of one pound of coal in an air-engine is independent of the 
rate of expansion of the air, and of its density and pressure. 
The rate of expansion affects the weight of air which must be 
employed to perform a given duty, and the densities and pres- 
sures affect the size of the receivers and cylinders required to 
contain that weight of air. 

If definite values, therefore, are assumed for those quan- 
tities in the following calculations, it is only for the sake of 
fixing the ideas, and giving numbers instead of algebraical 
symbols.) 

Data. 

Mechanical equivalent of the whole available heat obtained 

is being condensed on the other side, and also by the power consumed in pro- 
ducing, by the forcible compression of part of the steam into the liquid state, 
a quantity of heat sufficient to raise the temperature of the water from 140° to 
270° Fahrenheit. 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 15 

by the combustion of one pound of coal (as before) 6,000,000 
foot-pounds. 

Ratio of expansion of air, . . 1 : 1J 

The air is alternately expanded and compressed in this 
ratio. 

During During 

Expansion. Compression. 

Temperatures (ordinary scale), 270° Fahr. 140° 

Absolute temperatures, . 731 ... 601 

Product of the volume of one pound of air in cubic feet by 

its pressure in pounds on the square foot at 32° Fahr., 

26,214 ft.-lb. 

Computation of the Maximum Theoretical Duty of one Pound of 
Coal by the general law. 

270° - 140° 130 n -„„ 
Theoretical maximum efficiency, =— = ^-^r =U"17o 

Duty of one pound of coal, *|° x 6,000,000 ft.-lb. = 

1,067,000 ft.-lb., as in Example I. of the table in article 
10. 

Computation of the Maximum Theoretical Duty of one Pound of 
Coal, introducing the changes of Pressure and Volume of the 
Air. 

Product of the pressure and volume of one pound of air at the 

temperature of 270°, 26,214 x ~ * 461 = 26 > 214 x ^3 = 
38,869 ft. -lbs. 

Power developed by one pound of air during its expansion 
at 270° Fahr. to one and a half times its original volume, 
being also the mechanical equivalent of the heat expended to 
produce that expansion. 

38,869 x (hyp. log. 1| = 0-4054652) = 15,760 ft.-lb. 

Weight of air which is expanded to one and a half times its 

volume at 270° Fahr. by the combustion of one pound of coal, 

6,000,000 



15,760 



= 380-705 lb. 



Pressures and volumes of the air at different periods, sup- 
posing the greatest pressure to be 120 lb. per square inch. 



16 



W. J . M. Rankine on the Means of 

Pressures. Volumes. 



lb. per lb. per cubic feet cubic feet 
sq. inch. sq. foot. per lb. air. per lb. coal. 



At the beginning of the 
expansion, 

At the end of the ex- 
pansion, 



120 17,280 
80 11,520 



2-2494 856-358 
3-3741 1284-537 



Space through which the air expands, 
= space traversed by the piston. 



Mean Pressures. 



1-1247 428-179 



Power = Mean Pressure 



lb. per 
sq. inch. 



lb. per 

sq. feet. 



in ft.-pounds. 
per lb. air. per lb. coal. 



Mean pressure and \ 

power during the \ 97*3 

expansion, . J 
Deduct mean pres- "i 

sure and power 

during the com- 

601 
pression, = — 

of the above, . 

Effective mean pres-' 
sure and power, 
130 
731 



14012-88 15,760 6,000,000 



80-0 11520-85 12,957 4,933,000 



17*3 2492-03 2,803 1,067,000 



The calculations A and B illustrate the fact, that the maxi- 
mum theoretical effect of one pound of coal between a given 
pair of temperatures is the same, whether the working sub- 
stance be air or steam. 

C. Example of the Computation of the Power produced by the 
Combustion of One Pound of Coal in a theoretically perfect 
Air-Engine, working between the temperatures of 650° and 150° 
of Fahrenheit. 

Data. 
Mechanical equivalent of the whole available heat obtained 
by the combustion of one pound of coal (as before), 6,000,000 
foot-pounds. 

Ratio of expansion of air, 1 : 1 J. 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 17 

During Ex- During Com- 

pansion. pression. 

Temperatures (ordinary scale), 650° Fahr. 150° 

Absolute temperatures, . 1111° ... 611° 

Product of the volume of one pound of air in cubic feet by its 
pressure in pounds per square foot at 32° Fahr., 26,214 
foot-pounds. 

Computation of the Maximum Theoretical Duty of One Pound of 
Coal by the general law. 

Tir .i. i m ■ 65 ° - 150 500 n .- 

Maximum theoretical efficiency, — — — = U-4& 

J 1111 1111 

Duty of one pound of coal, J^. x 6,000,000 = 2,700,000 
ft. -lb., as in Example IV. of the table in Article 10. 



Computation of the Maximum Theoretical Duty of One Pound of 
Coal, introducing the Changes of Pressure and Volume of the 
Air. 

Product of tbe pressure and volume of one pound of air at the 
temperature of 650°. 

Power developed by one pound of air during its expansion 
at 650° Fahr. to 1J times its original volume, being also the 
mechanical equivalent of the heat expended to produce the 
expansion. 

59,074 x (hyp. log. 1| = 0-4054652) = 23,953 ft.-lb. 

Weight of air which is expanded to 1 J times its volume at 
650° Fahr. by the combustion of one pound of coal. 

6,000,000 



23,953 



250-5 lb. 



Pressures and volumes of the air at different periods, sup- 
posing the greatest pressure to be 120 lb. per square inch. 

VOL. I. NO. I. — JAN. 1855. B 



18 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

Pressures. Volumes. 



lb. per lb. per 

sq. inch. sq. foot. 

At the beginning of the 1 12() ^ 28Q 

expansion, .J 

At the end of the ex- 1 ork - ., ertr , 

> oU 11,520 



pansion, 



cubic feet, cubic feet, 
per lb. air. per lb. coal. 

3-4186 856-358 
5-1279 1284-537 



Space through which the air expands, 
= space traversed by the piston. 
Mean Pressures. 



53-5 7707-09 13,173 3,300,000 



1-7093 428-179 

Power = Mean Pressure 
X Space. 

lb. per lb. per in ft.-lb. 

sq. inch. sq. foot. per lb. air. per lb. coal. 

Mean pressure and ] 

power during the I 97-3 14012-88 23,953 6,000,000 
expansion, . J 

Deduct mean pres- 
sure and power 
during the com- 

611 

pression = 

F 1111 

of the above, 

Effective mean pres- 
sure and power, 
500 
1111 
Theoretical minimum consumption of coal per horse-power 

per hour. 

l^ooo _ . 731bj 

2,700,000 ~ 
as in Example IV. of the table in article 10. 

Synoptical Table of the preceding Examples. 



43-8 6305-79 10,780 2,700,000 



Reference. 


Working substance. 


Temperatures. 


Effective 

mean 
pressure, 

lb. per 
square ft. 


Spaces 


Effects 


Ordinary 
Fahr. 


Absolute 
Fahr. 


Per lb. of coal. 


A 

B 
C 


Steam (maximum 
pressure 41*93 
lb. per square 
inch = 6038 per 
square foot). 

Air (maximum 
pressure 120 lb. 
perinch=l7,280 
per square foot). 

Air (maximum 
pressure same as 
above). 


\ o 

270 
► & 
140 

) 270 
f 140 

•) 650 

& 
J 150 




731 ) 
& 
601 J 

731 ) 
601 J 

1111 1 
611 J 


1200-46 

2492-03 
6305-79 


Cubic feet. 
888-82 

428-179 
428-179 


Foot- 
pounds. 

1067000 

1067000 
2700000 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 19 

A detailed mathematical investigation of the theory of air- 
engines, with and without regenerators, is contained in the 
third and fourth sections of a paper on Thermo-dynamics in 
the Philosophical Transactions for 1854, Part L, together with 
some numerical illustrations. 

Theoretical investigations of the duty of air-engines of dif- 
ferent forms are contained in a paper by Mr Joule (Phil. 
Trans., 1851), and in a series of papers in the American Jour- 
nal of Science for 1853 and 1854, by Professor F. A. P. Bar- 
nard, the first American author, so far as I know, who has 
aided in the development of the consequences of the dynami- 
cal theory of heat. 

Section II. — On the Actual Efficiency of Thermodynamic 
Engines : of Steam-Engines in particular. 

12. Causes of Waste of Heat and Power. — In considering 
the waste of heat and power which constitutes the difference 
between the actual performance and the maximum theoretical 
performance of engines worked by heat, — as the object now in 
view is to compare different kinds of engines together, it is not 
necessary to take into account those causes of loss of power 
which either are or might be made nearly alike in all kinds of 
engines, such as the friction of the machinery ; those causes 
alone will h$ considered which affect the relation between the 
expenditure of heat and the action of the working elastic sub- 
stance upon the piston, — in other words, the indicated power 
of the engine ; and from these causes will be further excepted 
the waste of power in forcing the working substance through 
narrow valve-ports and passages, as this kind of waste arises 
only from an error in mechanism. As thus restricted, the 
causes of waste of heat and power may be divided into five 
classes— first, Imperfect communication of heat from the 
burning fuel to the working substance ; second, Imperfect 
abstraction of the heat, which constitutes the necessary loss 
explained in the preceding section ; third, The communication 
of heat to or from the working substance at improper periods 
of the stroke ; fourth, Any expenditure of heat in elevating 
the temperature of the working substance ; fifth, Imperfect 

b2 



20 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

arrangement of the series of changes of volume and pressure 
undergone by the working substance during the stroke. The 
fourth and fifth causes of waste are often connected with each 
other. 

13. Application to the Steam-Engine . — In the steam- 
engine the first cause of waste of heat exists when the boiler 
presents an insufficient surface to the products of combustion, 
and may be considered to be almost completely removed in 
tubular boilers of the best construction when properly worked. 
It is well known that, with such boilers, the consumption of 
fuel per horse-power per hour is about one-fifth of what it has 
in some instances been ascertained to be where boilers of in- 
sufficient surface have been employed. The second cause of 
waste exists where the condensation is imperfect. The third 
cause of waste, where the cylinder, steam-passages, and boiler 
are exposed to the loss of heat by conduction and radiation. 

As the means of indefinitely diminishing the waste of heat 
in steam-engines from those three causes are already to a great 
extent practised, it is unnecessary here to refer to them 
farther. 

14. Action of the Steam in a perfect Steam-Engine. — To 
understand the mode of operation of the fourth and fifth 
causes of waste in the steam-engine, let us consider what the 
action of the steam in a theoretically perfect engine ought to 
be. We shall commence with the process B of the cycle con- 
stituting the stroke, described in article 6. An assigned por- 
tion of water being at the required temperature of evaporation, 
is converted into steam at that temperature, and at a pressure 
depending on that temperature, by the expenditure of a cer- 
tain amount of heat, called the latent heat of evaporation, 
which also depends on the temperature. The steam being ad- 
mitted to the cylinder, propels the piston before it; and when 
the assigned portion of water has been thus admitted in the 
form of steam, the communication with the boiler is shut. 
This completes the process B. 

The steam now, without receiving or discharging any heat, 
expands : during this expansion its temperature falls by the 
conversion of heat into mechanical power ; the pressure, of 
course, diminishes at the same time : this expansion ceases 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 21 

when the pressure and temperature of the steam have fallen 
to the degree fixed for its condensation. This completes the 
process C. During the process D the piston returns, and a 
portion of the steam is liquefied by contact with some cold 
conducting substance, which abstracts the heat generated by 
its liquefaction, so as to maintain it at the fixed temperature 
and pressure. The process D ought to stop in time to leave a 
portion of uncondensed steam sufficient for the process A, now 
about to be described. The water and steam being now pre- 
vented from receiving or discharging heat by conduction, the 
piston continues its return stroke, and forcibly compresses the 
remaining portion of steam into the liquid state. This con- 
stitutes the process A ; and the portion of steam so condensed 
ought to be just sufficient, by the heat generated by its lique- 
faction, to elevate its own temperature, as well as that of the 
water previously liquefied, to the original temperature of eva- 
poration, so that the entire portion of the water employed may 
be in every respect in the same condition as it was at the be- 
ginning of the cycle of processes B, C, D, A, which may be 
repeated ad infinitum. Such an engine would fulfil the con- 
ditions of maximum theoretical efficiency ; for the elevation of 
the temperature of the water would be effected without expen- 
diture of heat, and the only heat expended would be the latent 
heat of evaporation: those results being produced by the proper 
' arrangement of the changes of volume and pressure undergone 
by the working substance during each stroke. 

15. Impracticability of such a perfect Steam-Engine. — It 
is impossible to fulfil wholly in practice the conditions pre- 
scribed in the preceding article. To show the nature of the 
obstacles, let us begin with the process A. The forcible com- 
pression of a certain proportion of the steam into the liquid 
state would not only cause a very inconvenient degree of in- 
equality in the action upon the piston at different periods of 
the stroke, but it is difficult to conceive any mechanism by 
which it could be effected in practice. The steam must there- 
fore be wholly liquefied during the process D, and the tempe- 
rature of the feed-water must be raised from the point of con- 
densation to that of evaporation by expenditure of heat. A 
certain amount of heat is thus wasted ; at the same time the 



22 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

power which would have been expended in compressing the 
steam is partly saved ; but the saving of power bears a 
small proportion to the mechanical equivalent of the heat 
wasted. 

The amount of waste thus occasioned is comparatively un- 
important in practice, provided it be not increased by unskil- 
ful methods of heating the feed-water ; for, under ordinary 
circumstances, the heat required for that purpose seldom ex- 
ceeds one-seventh part of the latent heat of evaporation, and 
it may be considered to reduce the efficiency of the engine 
below the theoretical maximum by about one-sixteenth. 

Another and a more important point in which the conditions 
prescribed by theory cannot be exactly fulfilled, is the extent 
of the expansion during the process C : if this expansion were 
carried in practice down to the pressure of condensation, the 
cylinder and every part of the engine would be bulky, heavy, 
and costly, and the action of the steam upon the piston, dur- 
ing the latter portion of the stroke, would be so feeble as to 
cause an unsteadiness of motion unsuitable for the driving of 
machinery. The expansion, therefore, cannot be fully carried 
out. The diminution of efficiency from" this cause depends 
upon the extent to which the expansive working is carried. 
Should the expansive working be wholly omitted, the efficiency 
may be reduced to one-third or one-fourth of its theoretical 
value, or even less, according to circumstances. 

16. Actual Efficiency of well-constructed Steam-Engines. 
— In single-acting engines for pumping water, in which the 
difficulties of employing a great extent of expansive working 
are the least, the actual efficiency has already, in some cases, 
attained a value nearly approximating to its maximum theo- 
retical value. In double-acting engines, however, so long a 
range of expansive working cannot be employed ; and their 
ordinary average consumption of coal, when skilfully made 
and worked, is four pounds per horse-power per hour, the coal 
being of the evaporating power already specified. This cor- 
responds to an efficiency represented by 0-0825, being about 
0-46 of the theoretical maximum. 

Considering that the causes of waste of heat and power in 
the steam-engine are, as has been already explained, incapable 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 23 

of being wholly removed in practice, it may be estimated that 
the greatest amount of actual efficiency to be expected in 
double-acting steam-engines by any probable improvement, 
is about three-fourths of the theoretical maximum, or 0-133, — 
corresponding to a consumption of coal, calculated as before, 
of 2J lb. per horse-power per hour. 

Supplement to Section II. — On the Steam-and-Ether Engine of 
M. du Trembley. 

(16 A.) This engine exemplifies one means of diminishing 
that difficulty attending the fulfilment of the conditions of 
theoretical perfection in the steam-engine, which arises from 
the impracticability of expanding the steam until its pressure 
has fallen to that corresponding to a low temperature of con- 
densation. 

Instead of carrying the expansion of the steam to the great 
extent required by theory, it is carried to such an extent only 
as is convenient in practice. The steam is then liquefied at 
the pressure attained at the end of its expansion, and the 
heat given out during its liquefaction is employed to evaporate 
ether, which works an auxiliary engine. By this process, 
after the expansion of the steam has been carried to a certain 
extent, vapour of ether is in fact substituted for the steam 
and jnade to perform the remainder of its work in its stead ; 
and as the vapour of ether, at a given temperature, exerts a 
higher pressure and occupies a less volume than steam does, 
the cylinder of the auxiliary ether-engine occupies much less 
space, and gives a more steady action than would be required 
for the performance of the same work by continuing the ex- 
pansion of the steam. 

The maximum theoretical efficiency of the steam-and-ether 
engine is the same with that of any other thermo-dynamic en- 
gine working between the temperature of evaporation of the 
water, and that of liquefaction of the ether. 

Its advantage consists in obtaining a nearer approximation 
to that theoretical efficiency within given limits as to the bulk 
and cost of the engine, than is practicable with an engine 
worked by steam alone. 



24 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 



Section III. — On the Actual Efficiency of Air-Engines. 

17. As the object of this paper, in referring to the actual 
performance of previous air-engines, is to illustrate the waste 
by which that performance falls short of the theoretical maxi- 
mum, I shall refer to those engines only which have actually 
been at work, and the details of whose performance have been 
made public with tolerable precision, namely, the engine of 
the Messrs Stirling, and that of Captain Ericsson, which latter 
was used for marine propulsion about the year 1852. 

18. Stirling's Air-Engine. — In describing generally the 
air-engine which was invented by the Rev. Robert Stirling 
in the year 1816, and improved by him and Mr James Stir- 
ling at subsequent periods, it will be sufficient to speak as of 
a single-acting engine only ; a double-acting engine having 
simply a similar apparatus for each side of the piston. 

Suppose a cylindrical cast-iron air-receiver, of sufficient 
strength to be safe with a working pressure of sixteen atmo- 
spheres, with a convex hemispherical bottom, and a concave 
hemispherical top, to be placed in a vertical position over a 
flue connected with a furnace, but screened from the radiant 
heat ; the hemispherical bottom of this receiver constitutes the 
surface for the reception of heat ; I believe it was 3 inches 
thick in the engine last erected. Within this vertical receiver 
there is a hollow metal plunger, filled with some non-conduct- 
ing substance, and capable of being moved up and down by 
means of a rod. This plunger is of precisely the same form 
with the receiver, but considerably less in height, and some- 
what less in diameter. The effect of raising this plunger is to 
displace the air from the upper part of the receiver, and to 
send it down to the bottom, where it is exposed to heat ; the 
air passing through the space between the plunger and the 
sides of the receiver : the effect of lowering the plunger is to 
cause the air to return to the top of the receiver. In the in- 
terior of the uppermost part of the receiver is a coil of 
small tubes, in which cold water is made to circulate, and 
amongst which the air must pass whenever it is displaced. 
Lower down, and occupying the annular space between the 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 25 

plunger and the receiver, are a number of parallel vertical 
plates of metal or glass, with narrow interstices between them, 
through which the air must pass on its way up or down. This 
system of plates is called the Economizer or Regenerator ; 
its object being one which has already been explained in ar- 
ticle 8, namely to store up the heat given out by the air dur- 
ing the process C, when its temperature is being lowered, and 
to give back the same heat to the air during the process A, so 
as to raise its temperature. Lower still, the receiver has an 
internal false bottom, pierced with many small holes, through 
which also the air must pass, and whose effect is to bring 
every part of the air into close contact with the heated iron 
bottom of the receiver. Suppose, further, that this receiver 
communicates at its top, through a sufficiently wide passage or 
nozzle, with the lower end of a working cylinder containing 
the piston ; the receiver and cylinder are, in the first place, 
filled with compressed air, of any required density, by means 
of a small forcing-pump. As the same mass of air is used 
over and over again, this pump has to be subsequently worked 
to no further extent than is necessary to supply the loss of air 
by leakage, which has always been found to be extremely 
small. A pump is also required to keep up a stream of cold 
water through the coil of tubes before mentioned. 

19. Mode of operation of Stirling' s Air-Engine. — Suppose 
the piston to be at the bottom of the cylinder, and the plunger 
at the bottom of the receiver, the mass of air in the receiver is 
now at the top amongst and near the cold-water tubes, and its 
temperature is low. Let the plunger now be partially raised, 
part of the air is forced down through the economizer into the 
space between the outer and inner bottoms of the receiver, and 
through the holes of the inner bottom, into the space below 
the plunger. In passing over the heated bottom of the receiver, 
it has, in the first place, its temperature raised by the reception 
of heat from the furnace. At this point the cycle of processes 
formerly described may be held to begin. 

Process B. — The air below the plunger receives an addi- 
tional supply of heat from the furnace, which disappears in 
expanding it. The air below the plunger, in the act of ex- 
panding, lifts up the plunger and the mass of air above it, 



26 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

which latter mass of air, passing through the nozzle, lifts the 
piston. 

Process C. — The plunger descends and forces the air below 
it through the holes of the inner bottom, and through the 
metal or glass plates of the economizer, which absorb, more or 
less completely, the sensible heat of the ' air. This air, by 
passing amongst the cold-water tubes, enters the space above 
the plunger. Should it leave the economizer at a temperature 
higher than that of the cold-water tubes, the latter abstract 
an additional portion of its sensible heat. 

Process D. — The piston descends, compressing the whole 
mass of air ; the heat so generated is abstracted by the cold- 
water tubes. 

Process A. — The plunger partially rises, as before ; a por- 
tion of air descends through the economizer, and recovers the 
heat remaining stored up there. Should its temperature, on 
leaving the economizer, not have attained its original elevation, 
the additional sensible heat required is supplied from the fur- 
nace through the bottom of the receiver. 

The cycle of processes is now finished, and may be repeated 
ad infinitum. 

Thus it appears that the air confined in the receiver and cy- 
linder of Stirling's air-engine consists of two portions : one por- 
tion, which always remains above the plunger, and which serves 
merely as a perfectly elastic cushion, to transmit pressure and 
motion between the piston and the other portion of the air, and 
not as a means of developing power ; and another portion of air, 
which, being driven by the plunger to the bottom and top of 
the receiver alternately, is successively heated, expanded, 
cooled, and compressed ; and, as the expansion takes place at a 
high temperature, and the compression at a low one, more power 
is produced by the former than is consumed by the latter, and 
thus there remains a surplus of available power for the en- 
gine.* The existence of the cushion of air before-mentioned, 

* In calculating the space to be traversed by the piston of an air-engine, in 
which part of the air acts as a cushion, allowance must be made for the space 
through which this cushion-air expands and contracts, with the variation of 
pressure, as well as for the space required for the changes of volume of the 
workiny-air. The total space traversed is thus increased in a certain propor- 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 21 

leads to an important practical advantage ; for it is this air 
alone which comes into contact with the cylinder, the piston, 
the packings of the piston and those of the plunger-rod, which 
are consequently never exposed to a high temperature. 

It was, perhaps, mainly in consequence of this, that Stir- 
ling's engine, with its final improvements, required less oil and 
fewer repairs, worked with less friction, and was less liable to 
get out of order, when properly managed, than any steam- 
engine. 

Stirling's air-engine employed to drive the machinery of the 
Dundee Foundry, was double-acting, having two receivers, one 
connected with the top and the other with the bottom of the 
cylinder. The plungers of those receivers were suspended by 
their rods from the opposite ends of a small beam. A reci- 
procating motion was given to that beam by means of a piece 
of mechanism which possessed a power of regulating the 
length of stroke of the plungers ; and in its effect, though not 
in its construction, was analogous to the link motion. 

The testimony of Mr James Stirling to the advantages of 
this engine was corroborated by that of the late Mr Smith of 
Deanston and by that of Mr James Leslie. 

20. Efficiency of Stirling's Air-Engine. — According to Mr 
Stirling, the air in his engine received heat at the temperature 
of 650° Fahr., and discharged the lost heat at that of 150° 
Fahr. The fourth example of the table in Article 10 shows 
that the efficiency of a theoretically perfect engine, with those 
limits of temperature, would be 0*45, and its consumption of 
coal 0*73 of a lb. per horse-power per hour. 

It appears that the actual consumption of coal per horse- 
power per hour was about 2-2 lb., being three times the con- 
sumption of a theoretically perfect engine, and corresponding 
to an actual efficiency of 0-15, or one-third of the maximum 
theoretical efficiency. 

Stirling's air-engine, therefore, was more economical than 
any existing double-acting steam-engine, — probably indeed 
more economical than any possible double-acting steam-engine. 

tion, and the mean effective pressure diminished in the same proportion : so 
that the mechanical effect remains unaltered. 



28 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

As compared, however, with a theoretically perfect engine, 
working between the same temperatures, it appears that two- 
thirds of its expenditure of heat was wasted. 

21. Causes of waste in Stirling 'a Air-Engine. — We shall 
now investigate the causes of waste in Stirling's air-engine 
according to the classification explained in article 12. 

(1.) Imperfect communication of heat from the burning 
fuel to the working substance. — As the heating surface in 
Stirling's air-engine consisted simply of the hemispherical 
bottoms of the receivers, it was of the worst form possible for 
exposing a large surface within a given space. A steam-boiler 
of that form would occasion an enormous waste of fuel ; it is 
probable, therefore, that this first cause of waste operated 
powerfully in Stirling's engine. 

(2.) Imperfect abstraction of the lost heat. — It is probable 
that Stirling's engine was comparatively free from this cause 
of waste, for the cold-water tubes exposed a large surface, and 
were abundantly supplied with water. 

(3.) The communication of heat to or from the working 
substance at improper periods of the stroke. — This cause 
must have operated powerfully to occasion waste of heat in 
Stirling's engine, for the following reason : — It is obvious, 
from the construction of the engine, that the air, whether 
being expanded or compressed, must have been continually 
circulating over the heated bottom of the receiver, and re- 
ceiving heat through it from the furnace, at all periods of the 
stroke. Now it is only while the air is being expanded that 
the heat received by it is effective in producing power ; while 
the air is being compressed, the heat received by it is de- 
trimental. The heat received, therefore, by the air in Stir- 
ling's engine during at least one-half of each stroke — that is 
to say, probably one-half of the heat received — must have been 
absolutely wasted : it would be simply carried to the cold 
water tubes, and there abstracted, without producing any 
work. It is probable that, in an air-engine free from such 
cause of waste of heat, a much smaller. extent of cooling sur- 
face would be found sufficient to abstract the lost heat. 

(4.) Expenditure of heat in elevating the temperature of the 
working substance. — In the air-engine, the sensible heat of 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 29 

temperature is not, as it is in the steam-engine, of secon- 
dary importance. If the temperature of the air in an air- 
engine were elevated altogether by means of heat supplied 
from the furnace, the waste from this cause would be from 
three to four times greater than the latent heat of expansion 
which performs the work, and the economy of the engine 
would be entirely destroyed. Some persons, founding their 
calculations upon this supposition, have pronounced the air- 
engine to be necessarily wasteful and inefficient. 

The sensible heat in question might be entirely produced 
by an additional compression of the air performed during the 
process A, the power employed to effect such compression 
being developed by an additional expansion performed during 
the process C, in which the temperature of the air falls. To 
afford room, however, for the additional expansion, the bulk 
of the engine would have to be increased about five-fold, which 
would render it inconvenient in practice, especially for propel- 
ling ships. 

The process actually pursued in Stirling's engine, of storing 
up the sensible heat by means of the economizer or regene- 
rator, and using it over and over again, has already been 
generally described. In the original engine of the Rev. Robert 
Stirling, the regenerator consisted simply of the sides of the 
receiver and plunger, the latter being covered with a network 
of wires, in order to increase the surface ; in the engine, as 
improved by Mr James Stirling, it is composed of thin parallel 
plates of metal or glass. In Captain Ericsson's engine it con- 
sists of several sheets of wire gauze. 

The efficacy of a regenerator to prevent expenditure of heat 
in raising the temperature of the air increases with its mass 
and surface ; but no amount of mass and surface, how large 
soever, is sufficient to make it act with theoretical perfection. 
There is reason to believe, however, that both in Stirling's and 
in Ericsson's engines the masses and surfaces of the regenera- 
tors were sufficient to reduce the waste of heat, in raising the 
temperature of the air, to a very small quantity. 

Some persons, overlooking the latent heat of expansion — 
the real source of power — appear at one time to have imagined 
that a theoretically perfect regenerator would prevent all ex- 



30 W. J. M. Rankine on the Means of 

penditure of heat whatsoever, except losses by conduction 
and radiation. This amounted to representing Stirling's air- 
engine as a machine for creating power out of nothing, popu- 
larly called a "perpetual motion" It is very probable that 
the promulgation of that erroneous theory may have led scien- 
tific and practical men to regard the real performances of this 
engine as delusive, and may have been the cause which, not- 
withstanding its economy as compared with steam-engines, 
prevented the extension of its use beyond the Dundee 
Foundry. 

(5.) Imperfect arrangement of the series of changes of vo- 
lume and pressure. — It is not likely that in Stirling's engine 
any material amount of waste arose from this cause, for the 
series of changes in question would be regulated by the rela- 
tive motions of the piston and plungers ; and those motions 
being susceptible of adjustment, as in the case of the piston 
and slide-valve of a steam-engine, would be fixed, by trial, so 
as to act in the manner found to be most advantageous. 

From all that has been stated, it appears, — that the principal 
causes of waste of heat in Stirling's engine were — first, defi- 
ciency of heating surface, and, secondly, communication of heat 
to the air during that part of the stroke when it was not being 
expanded ; — that the latter cause was sufficient of itself to 
double, or nearly to double, the theoretical consumption of 
fuel ; that the actual consumption of fuel was triple the theo- 
retical consumption ; but that, notwithstanding such defects, 
the engine was economical as compared with steam-engines. 

22. Ericsson's Engine of 1852. — In this engine the com- 
pression and expansion of the air were performed in two dif- 
ferent cylinders, and at each stroke the air which had been 
used was expelled into the atmosphere, a fresh supply of air 
being at the same time taken in to perform the next stroke. 
This process of expelling the used air, and taking in fresh air 
corresponded to the process C of the cycle ; for the air ex- 
pelled being, while in the cylinder, at a high temperature, 
was driven through a regenerator of wire gauze, and there 
left its sensible heat. This mode of working involved a great 
practical disadvantage, especially for marine purposes ; for the 
cylinders had to be made large enough to contain the requi- 



realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine. 31 

site supply of air at the ordinary atmospheric pressure, and 
the engine was consequently of enormous bulk and weight as 
compared with its power. 

To proceed to the process D : It consisted in compressing 
the air with which the compressing cylinder had been filled to 
about two-thirds of its original volume, and forcing it into a 
receiver or magazine for compressed air. There was no pro- 
vision in the compressing cylinder for abstracting the heat 
produced by the compression, and a certain waste of power 
must have arisen from this cause, which will be again referred 
to in its order. 

The process A consisted in opening the induction-valve of the 
expanding cylinder, and filling that cylinder about two-thirds 
full of the compressed air. In the act of entering the ex- 
panding cylinder, the air passed through the regenerator 
which was fixed in the nozzle, and, receiving the heat stored 
up there, had its temperature elevated. On the admission of 
the proper quantity of air, the induction-valve was closed. 

The process B consisted in the expansion of the air in the 
expanding cylinder, the latent heat being supplied from a 
furnace placed directly beneath the bottom of that cylinder. 

The process C was then recommenced by opening the educ- 
tion-valve, to allow the hot air to escape through the regene- 
rator, and so on, as before. 

23. Efficiency of Ericsson's Engine of 1852. — In calcu- 
lating the efficiency of this engine, I have been guided chiefly 
by data contained in the report of Professor Norton (regarding 
him as a neutral inquirer). As nearly as I can judge, the ef- 
ficiency of a theoretically perfect engine, working between the 
same temperatures, would be 0-404, corresponding to a con- 
sumption of 0*82 lb. of coal per horse-power per hour. Ac- 
cording to Professor Norton, the actual consumption was 1*87 
lb. of anthracite, being equivalent to 2-8 of bituminous coal, if 
3 lb. of bituminous coal of the quality specified in this paper 
be taken as equivalent to 2 lb. of anthracite. This is about 
3-4 times the consumption of a theoretically perfect engine, 
and corresponds to an actual efficiency of 0*118, being less 
than the maximum theoretical efficiency in the ratio of 0*295 
to 1. The waste of heat and power, therefore, in Ericsson's 



32 W. J. M, Rankine on the Air-Engine, 

engine must have been very great, though it was economical 
of fuel as compared with steam-engines. 

24. Causes of waste of heat in Ericsson's Engine of 1852. 
— (1.) Imperfect communication of heat from the furnace to 
the air. — This cause of waste of heat must have operated to a 
great extent in the engine in question ; for the heating surface 
was simply the bottom of the expanding cylinder ; at the same 
time an extensive heating surface was rendered doubly neces- 
sary by the low pressure of the air ; for, as was long since 
shown by Dulong and Petit, the power of gases to receive 
and communicate heat increases with their pressure. 

(2.) Imperfect abstraction of the lost heat. — It has already 
been stated that there was no provision for abstracting the 
heat produced in the compressing cylinder ; the direct effect 
of this would be to cause an additional and unnecessary ex- 
penditure of power in compressing the air. 

(3.) Communication of heat to the air at improper periods 
of the stroke. — This cause of waste must have operated to a 
considerable extent; for the air, after having performed its 
work, and while in the act of being discharged into the at- 
mosphere, continued to circulate over the heated bottom of the 
cylinder, and must have carried away a considerable amount 
of heat. This heat would not be stored in the regenerator, 
which must have received no more heat from the escaping 
air than had been previously abstracted from it by the air 
when entering, or otherwise the temperature of the regenerator 
would have gone on continually rising. 

(4.) Expenditure of heat in raising the temperature of the 
air. — There is reason to believe that in Ericsson's engine, as 
in Stirling's, the regenerator was adequate to prevent any 
considerable waste from this cause. 

(5.) Improper arrangement of the changes of volume and 
pressure. — There is no reason to believe that any material 
waste arose from this cause. 

It may be observed that Ericsson's engine, as well as Stir- 
ling's, was absurdly represented by some parties as a "per- 
petual motion." 

(To be continued?) 



On the Intrusion of the Germanic Races into Europe. 33 

On the Intrusion of the Germanic Races into Europe.* By 
Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Professor of History and English 
Literature, University College, Toronto. Communicated 
by the Author. 

Dr Arnold, in that beautiful but imperfect narrative of Ro- 
man History which his lamented death arrested in its progress 
towards completion, after devoting a chapter to the descrip- 
tion of the general condition of Europe at the commencement 
of the fourth century before the Christian era, thus concludes : 
— " Such was the state of the civilized world, when the Kelts, 
or Gauls, broke through the thin screen which had hitherto 
concealed them from sight, and began, for the first time, to 
take their part in the great drama of the nations. For nearly 
two hundred years they continued to fill Europe and Asia 
with the terror of their name ; but it was a passing tempest ; 
and, if useful at all, it was useful only to destroy. The Gauls 
could communicate no essential points of human character in 
which other races might be deficient ; they could neither im- 
prove the intellectual state of mankind, nor its social and 
political relations. When, therefore, they had done their ap- 
pointed work of havoc, they were doomed to be themselves 
extirpated, or to be lost amidst nations of greater creative and 
constructive power ; nor is there any race which has left fewer 
traces of itself in the character and institutions of modern 
civilization." 

We must not, however, too hastily assume the extirpation 
of any race, or the altogether transitory and evanescent in- 
fluence of its physical or intellectual peculiarities, merely be- 
cause it ceases to play an independent part as a distinct nation. 
To those who recognise in all its fulness the influence of 
primary ethnological differences on national character and 
institutions, it cannot be doubted that the intermixture of 
races has largely affected the character of nations. The an- 
cient Pelasgic and Etruscan races have disappeared, yet pro- 
bably not by extirpation, but by absorption ; and perhaps 
contributing, in no slight degree, by their diverse ratios of 

* Read before the Canadian Institute, April 1, 1854, 
VOL. T. NO. I. — JAN. 1855. C 



84 Br Daniel Wilson on ike Intrusion of 

intermixture with Hellenic and Kelto-Italian Mood, to produce 
the permanent differences between the two great nations of 
classic antiquity. 

That the Keltic ethnological element has exercised no bene- 
ficial influence either on the intellectual or physical condition 
of medieval and modern Europe, is no less problematic. The 
blood of the Gaul still gives no partial hue to the complexion 
of Gallic France, nor can we assume that no portion of our 
peculiar Anglo-Saxon national character — so different, in some 
respects, from that of our continental Saxon congeners—is de- 
rived from the early intermixture of the Saxon and Scandi- 
navian with the native Celtic blood. The invasion of the 
Anglo-Saxons, as of the Danes and Northmen, was one of 
warriors, not of colonists with their wives and families, and 
their first settlement musi have involved some extent of al- 
liance and mingling of races, such as we see taking place in 
our own day with aborigines whose physical and moral cha- 
racteristics present a far more antagonistic diversity of aspect. 
But viewing the ancient Gauls as they first appear on the stage 
of history, unaffected as yet by those Germanic or Anglo- 
Saxon elements which temper 

« The Wind hysterics of the Celt,' ? 

the justice of one portion, at least, of Dr Arnold's remarks 
may be perceived, if we look to the transitory nature of the 
Keltic philological influence on our own English tongue, and 
consider that while, for upwards of seven centuries after the 
date here referred to, no other intrusion of foreign races had 
taken place in the British islands than the very partial mili- 
tary occupation by the Roman legions, yet the English lan- 
guage retains no grammatical or constructive elements of the 
ancient native Keltic or British tongues, and has so few ety- 
mological elements incorporated into its composite vocabulary, 
excepting such as are indirectly derived through the Latin, 
that the whole of such might be expunged without sensibly 
marring the richness and copiousness of the language. His- 
torically speaking, the English language of the British islands 
stands in precisely the same relation to its ancient geogra- 
phical area as the English of Canada and the United States 



the Germanic Races into Europe. 35 

does to this portion of its widely-diffused modern area; in nei- 
ther is it the original language of any part of the countries to 
which it now pertains, but in both cases it has spread itself 
within well ascertained, though diverse periods, at the expense 
of earlier and more aboriginal languages, which it has dis- 
placed and superseded. 

Looking, however, upon the older ethnological stock of Bri- 
tish and European population, to which the Keltic elements 
of European languages and customs are traceable, it is import- 
ant to consider whether the well-ascertained date of its first 
appearance on the stage of history above referred to, in any de- 
gree coincides with that of its earliest intrusion into Europe, 
or with the appearance of that other hardy barbarian stock, 
which, issuing at a later period from its fastnesses in the old 
unexplored north, swept before it, in its young strength, the 
decrepit vestiges of Rome's Imperial decline \ In other words, 
I would inquire if the Keltic and Germanic races are coeval 
In their origin, or in their occupation of the European areas 
which they are found in possession of at the dawn of history? 

" We can trace," says Dr Arnold, " with great distinctness 
the period at which the Kelts became familiarly known to the 
Greeks. Herodotus only knew of them from the Phoenician 
navigators ; Thucydides does not name them at all ; Xeno- 
phon only notices them as forming part of the auxiliary force 
sent by Dionysius to the aid of Lacedemon ; Isocrates makes 
no mention of them : but immediately afterwards, their incur- 
sions into Central and Southern Italy on the one hand, and 
into the countries beyond the Danube and Macedonia on the 
other, had made them objects of general interest and curiosity, 
and Aristotle notices several points in their habits and cha- 
racter in different parts of his philosophical works." Like 
the first glimpses of the Kassiterides, or Tin Countries of 
Southern Britain, we discern, only vaguely and by chance 
incidental notices, the western Kelts, described by Herodotus 
as a people who " dwell without the Pillars of Hercules, and 
bordering on the Kynesians, who live the farthest to the west 
of all the nations of Europe." * Few passages of ancient his- 

* This description Dr Latham would refer to the Kelts as Iberians, and not 
to the Kelts in the general sense in which the designation is accepted, and as it 

c2 



36 Dr Daniel Wilson on the Intrusion of 

tory convey to us a more vivid impression of the complete 
isolation of the diverse tribes then scattered over the European 
continent. The Pyrenees and the great Alpine chain, spread- 
ing eastward to the head waters of the Danube, formed, in 
the age of the Father of history, a barrier of exclusion for all 
the Transalpine races, scarcely less effectual than that which, 
for upwards of eighteen centuries thereafter, concealed this 
great antiquity, America, from the eyes of Europe. Kelts, 
Kymric or Gaelic, had doubtless crossed the Alps long prior 
to the first notice of them by Herodotus, and had established 
themselves in the fertile valley of the Po, as well as extended 
their influence far southward into the Italian peninsula. 
Whether, at that period, they had ever been present on any 
portion of the Hellenic area of Greece, may well be ques- 
tioned, notwithstanding the undoubted Keltic elements recog- 
nised in the Greek language. They had, however, already 
passed to the south of the Pyrenees, and intermingling with 
the older Iberians of Spain, constituted the ancient Keltibe- 
rian population of Arragon and Valencia : unless, indeed, we 
are prepared to recognise in the Keltse and Galatse of Aristotle 
and Diodorus something more than varied forms of the same 
name ; though even then, the distinction will not necessarily 
imply a greater one than the philologist recognises between 
the Keltic elements of the ancient Greek and Latin, or the 
ethnologist perceives to separate the modern Gael and Kymri 
of Great Britain. 

To the Greeks of the age of Herodotus the Kelts were only 
known, by the chance report of some Phoenician seamen, as 
one among the rude tribes of the barbarian West, where the 
coasts of Europe intruded furthest into the mysterious Atlan- 
tic main, which was to them the aqueous boundary of the 
world. The Greeks of that age little suspected that these 
same western Kelts reached from the shores of the Atlantic 

was understood by the Romans in the time of Caesar. But it is not at all im- 
probable that the population of Gallicia and the Biscayan provinces of Spain 
might have been puroly Gallic B.C. 400, and yet that the displaced Iberi of the 
south might have even crossed the Garonne in Caesar's time. Immense dis- 
placement had taken place during the interval in the Spanish peninsula. But 
the name Garonne, like the Scottish Garry, is essentially Celtic and descriptive: 
the rough river. 



the Germanic Races into Europe. 37 

Ocean as far as the Alps, and overflowing and sweeping round 
them, already occupied the valley of the Po, and extended 
nearly to the head of the Adriatic. " The narrow band of 
coast occupied by the Ligurian and Venetian tribes," says Dr 
Arnold, when referring to the approaching Gaulish invasion 
of Rome, " was as yet sufficient to conceal the movements of 
the Kelts from the notice of the civilized world. Thus, im- 
mediately before that famous eruption which destroyed Her- 
culaneum and Pompeii, the level ridge which was then Vesu- 
vius excited no suspicion ; and none could imagine that there 
were lurking close below that peaceful surface the materials 
of a fiery deluge, which were so soon to burst forth, and to 
continue for centuries to work havoc and desolation." 

But though that celebrated eruption which took place in the 
first century of the Christian era is the earliest on record, it is 
well known to the geologist that the pent-up fires of Vesuvius 
and Solfatara had long before overflowed the Phlegrsean fields ; 
and, in like manner, the philologist recognises, on no less in- 
disputable evidence, the traces of earlier Keltic intrusions than 
that which, in the fourth century of Rome, swept like a wast- 
ing torrent over Central Italy. The attention of the members 
of the Canadian Institute has recently been directed to the 
well known Keltic element now universally recognised as 
forming so important a constituent part of the Latin tongue. 
This Professor Newman assumes to be an essentially intrusive 
element ; but in doing so he recognises it as derived from 
Italian races, which, if not aboriginal, are known to us as the 
primitive inhabitants of well-defined areas of the Italian pen- 
insula at the very dawn of history. Among these Keltic 
Italians, the Umbrians and the Sabines are specially remark- 
able, and the essential Celtic* character of the Sabine clan- 
ship, out of which the later Roman clients, and the whole 
system of Roman patron and client, patres and plebs, were 

* For the purpose of discriminating between the undoubted modern Keltisin 
of the Gael, Kymri, &c, of the British Isles and Bretagne, and the assumed but 
disputable Keltism, in this sense, of some ancient ethnological elements — e. g. f 
the Celtiberians of Spain — the term Keltic is employed here in reference to all 
ancient and purely continental elements, that of Celtic to all modern and British 
elements. 



38 Br Daniel Wilson on the Intrusion of 

naturally developed, points to a social condition prevailing 
among the ancient tribes of Central Italy, and especially 
among the Sabines, more easily explicable by the analogies 
of modern Celtic clanship as it existed in Scotland down to 
the middle of the eighteenth century, than by any other 
source which history discloses to us. 

Assuming, with Pritchard, Newman, and other able philolo- 
gical critics, the Kelticity of the Umbrians, and the Kelto- 
Italian character of both the Umbrians and Sabines, we are 
left in no doubt as to the antiquity of the Keltic ethnological 
element in Sc cithern Europe. Among the primitive native 
Italian populations, the Umbrians were, at the earliest times, 
the cultivators of the soil and the builders of cities ; and their 
ancient capital, Ameria, was one of the oldest cities of Italy. 
Pliny assigns the date of its foundation 381 years before that 
of Rome. Specimens of the language of this people have been 
preserved to us in the celebrated Eugubine Inscriptions, dis- 
covered at Gobbio, the ancient Iguvium, and the relation of 
this language to the Latin has been satisfactorily assigned by 
Grotefend and others. But without attempting to determine 
how far the famous Sabines and Latins, or the less important 
tribes of Piceni, Vestini, Frentani, and Marsi, which clustered 
around their ancient areas on the east, approximated to the 
Umbrian type, it is sufficient for our present purpose to know 
that " the primitive Latin must have Keltized itself by im- 
bibing Umbrian," (Newman's " Regal Rome,'") and that the 
Keltic element of the Latin is derived, being isolated and 
fragmentary, and only traceable to its etymological family 
groups by a reference to the surviving Celtic dialects. We 
are hence left in no doubt that that appearance of the Kelts 
or Gauls in Central Italy, B.C. 389, which Dr Arnold has cha- 
racterized as their " beginning for the first time to take their 
part in the great drama of the nations,'" was by no mean 
their earliest intrusion into Southern Europe. Dr Latham, 
who is little disposed to extend the Keltic area further than 
the strictest evidence will sanction, and even denies the Kel- 
ticity of the element mingling with the Iberian stock to con- 
stitute the Celtiberi of Spain [Ethnology of Europe, p. 37), in 
restricting the original area of this ancient race, remarks, " I 



the Germanic Races into Europe. 39 

am Inclined to limit the Keltic area, at its maximum exten- 
sion, to Venice westwards, and to the neighbourhood of Rome 
southwards. But this is not enough," he adds, " they may 
have been aboriginal in parts which they may seem to have 
invaded as immigrants." — {Man and his Migrations, p. 169.) 

It may thus be assumed, as obvious and undoubted, that the 
Invasion of Rome and Central Italy by the Gauls was no in- 
trusion of a new race, like the first appearance in Europe of 
the Huns in the fourth century, or of the Moors in the eighth 
century of our era. May it not, however, indicate to us other 
intrusions of which it was a secondary cause ? My belief is 
that it does. It is abundantly obvious that some great cause 
of dismemberment and revolution was then affecting the great 
Keltic race. Whatever their older area may have been, we 
find the Kelts soon after intruding into Thrace and Illyricum, 
and appearing on the borders of Macedonia in the reigns of 
the great Philip and Alexander. They even overflow into 
Asia ; and, for nearly two centuries, glance, meteor-like, on 
the pages of ancient history, the dismembered relics of an old 
barbarian nationality, terrible though transient in the destruc- 
tive influences of its scattered fragments. This was the wan- 
ing struggle of the great Keltic stock. Upwards of two thou- 
sand years have elapsed, and still the fragments of that once 
predominant European branch of the human family linger on 
the western confines of Europe, preserving to us their ancient 
tongue, so invaluable for all the investigations of the ethnolo- 
gist ; but assuredly their days are numbered, the hold of 
twenty centuries is at length giving way, and it seems pro- 
bable that, ere many more generations have passed, the living 
languages of the Kymri and the Gael will exist only, like the 
Cornish, in grammars and vocabularies of the philologist, and 
in the surviving fragments of their ancient literature. 

The stock by which the ancient Keltee of Europe have been 
displaced, and the classic nations superseded, is the Germanic 
or so-called Teutonic group, of which our own Anglo-Saxon 
race is the most powerful and widely diffused of all its mem- 
bers. The intrusion of the Germanic stock into Europe lies 
beyond the assigned dates of ancient history ; but many indi- 
cations serve to show, that while the Keltic races only obtrude 



40 Dr Daniel Wilson on the Intrusion of 

upon the historic arena in their decline, like some long- 
voyaging ship seen for the first time as it dashes amid the 
breakers of a strange and rock-bound coast, the Germanic 
races dawn upon us in their young barbarian strength, with 
all their national being still awaiting its development, and 
with the geographical arena of their historical existence occu- 
pied by the precursors whom they came to displace. Assuming, 
as a general rule, the uniform north-western progression of 
European population from the Asiatic cradle-land of the 
human race, to which science, no less than revelation, points, 
we are thence led to assign a certain relative age to races from 
their geographical position. In the extreme north are still 
found the Ugrian Fins and Laps, pertaining to a stock whose 
congeners abound in Asia and find their modern European 
representatives in the intrusive Majiars of Hungary, but who, 
as an ancient European stock, appear as the probable repre- 
sentatives of those Allophylise, whose existence in the north 
of Europe, and in Britain, in periods prior to all written his- 
tory, is now generally accepted as an established truth. In 
like manner, the mountainous Basque region of the Pyrenees 
shelters the last remnant of the ancient Iberian stock, an un- 
classed, if not aboriginal Allophylian race; while, among the 
mountains of Albania — like waifs caught in the eddy of the 
great western stream of population — are still found the Skipe- 
tar, another unclassed race, who, for aught that can be said to 
the contrary, may as truly represent to us the aboriginal 
Pelasgi of Greece, as the Basques undoubtedly do the Iberi of 
Spain. Leaving those, and coming down in point of time to 
the Indo-European historic races, we find the Gaelic Kelts in 
the extreme north-west, as in North Britain and Ireland, and 
in Gaul, with the Kymric and other Kelts, as the Welsh of 
England, and the Cimbri and even the Teutones* of the 

* The science of Ethnology i3 still so much in its infancy, that it will least 
surprise the most zealous of its students to find its longest accepted terms 
called in question. Dr Latham has advanced reasons in his " Ethnology of 
Europe," for believing that, " instead of the ancient Kelts of Iberia having 
been Kelts in the modern sense of the word, the Kelts of Gallia were Iberians," 
t*. e., were a different race from the Gauls north of the Garrone. Next to the 
term Celtic, no word is better established among English, though not among 
continental ethnologists, than Teutonic, as equivalent to Germanic, and thereby 



the Germanic Races into Europe. 41 

northern shores of the European mainland, all occupying the 
geographical positions to which the foremost intruders into 
the European area must have been driven by the accession of 
successive migrations from the east. In Greece and Italy 
were the Hellenic and Kelto-Italian successors of the Pelasgi, 
with, in the Italian peninsula, the intrusive Semitic race of 
the Rasena or Etruscans. In Spain were the Iberi and Celti- 
beri, with also a small intrusive race : Phoenician or Punic ; 
and those with the Phocian and Punic colonies of Masallia 

contradistinguished from Keltic. The term, however, is at best arbitrary, at 
worst altogether false ; for it is by no means improbable that the Teutones were 
Keltic, as it is certain that the evidence of Appian tends to show that both they 
and the Kymbri were of Gallic origin. (Vide Latham's " Germania of Taci- 
tus ," pp. ex., clx., clxiv.) The names Teutones and Teutoni have been mis- 
takenly assumed as derived from the German oleutsch, teut-sch = teut-oni. But 
the word signifying people, from which deulsch is derived, is either written, 
thiud, Anglo-Saxon theod, or diut ; never thiut, or theut, still less teut. Teut, 
on the contrary, appears to be a Gallic syllable. We find, among the Gauls, 
Teutomatus (Cses. b. 7), Teutates (Lucan), Teutomalus (Liv. Epist.). One of 
the Teuton chiefs was called Teutobochus or Teutobodus (Florus and Eutro- 
pius), while Pliny (v. 32) speaks of a Galatic people : Teutobodiaci. Another 
of the captive Teuton chiefs is named by Plutarch, Boiorix ; while Livy (34, 
46,) names a Boiorix of a "Regulus" among the Galli Insubres in Upper 
Italy. There was a weapon peculiar to the Teutons, called cateja (vide Virgil, 

b. 7, Teutonico ritusoliti vibrare cateias), which Isidor calls Genus Gallici telle: 
the termination eja being strictly Gallic. Among the Belgs were the Aduatici, 
whose name is purely Keltic, and even recals that of the Atacotti in Britain; 
but these Aduatici were, according to Caesar, descendants of the Cimbri and 
Teutoni. Old Festus (de signif. verborum) says that the Ambrones who fol- 
lowed the Teutoni, were gens Gallica. The Kymbri themselves were anciently 
known as Galli. The oldest author mentioning them is Sallust (Bell. Jugurth., 

c. 114, adversorum Gallos ab ducibus nostris Q. Caepioni et M. Manlio male 
pugnatum est); also the Kimbric slave sent to kill Marius at Mintuone is called 
natione Gallus by Livy (Epist. 77). The latter notices tend to show that the 
assertion of Strabo, or rather Posidonius (Strabo 7), afterwards repeated by 
Plutarch (Marius, c. 11), that the Cimbri and Cimmerii are the same, is not one 
to be hastily rejected, though so able and cautious an authority as Dr Latham 
has expressed himself as " utterly disbelieving the Cimmerii of the Cimmerian 
Bosphorus to have been Keltic." {Man and his Migrations, p. 169.) The 
above argument is chiefly designed, however, to justify the substitution of the 
term Germanic for that of Teutonic, employed by me elsewhere, and generally 
used in England to designate the Scandinavo-German race. Even if the Teu- 
tons can be shown to be Germanic, they were always a comparatively small 
and unimportant tribe, nor is the suitableness of the denomination Germanic 
disputed by any one ; the supposed risk of confusion with it, in its modern 
political sense, has alone interfered with its adoption. 



42 Dr Daniel Wilson on the Intrusion of 

and the larger Mediterranean islands, constitute the popula- 
tion of Southern Europe, when the curtain first rises and 
reveals to us the great arena of the world's later civilization. 
To the north of this, our imperfect knowledge suffices to dis- 
close the central area of the continent, lying between the Alps 
and the German Ocean, occupied, from the Atlantic to the 
head of the Adriatic, by the different branches of the Keltic 
stock, and thence eastward to the Euxine Sea, and along the 
valley of the Danube, by the Scytho-Sarmatian stock, includ- 
ing the whole Lithuanian and the first of the Slavonian 
populations, by whom so large a portion of their ancient area 
is still retained. Of these latter the Lettes are the most 
ancient : the Lithuanic being the likest of all the Indo-Eu- 
ropean tongues to the Sanskrit, the ancient sacred language 
of India. 

As a broad ethnological sketch of the superficies of Europe 
at the dawn of authentic history, this is no baseless theory, 
but an outline of facts as well established as the nature of the 
imperfect evidence admits. But it will be seen that only a 
very slight extension of the old Ugrian area, such as is pre- 
supposed by the assumption of the Fins and Laps of Northern 
Europe constituting the remnant of a more widely diffused 
Allophylian stock, is requisite to occupy the whole of Europe, 
without the presence of a single branch of the Germanic stock 
in any of their later geographical areas. While, however, 
those various older races were gradually moving westward, 
ever pressed from behind by fresh swarms from the Asiatic 
hive, till the Gael overflowed from Gaul into Britain, north- 
ward into the Kimbric Chersonesus, and southward into Italy, 
the younger Germanic stock entering Europe by the only 
unguarded portal, between the southern spur of the Ural Moun- 
tains and the Caspian Sea, circa 500 v. 400 B.C. (?), found 
their way along the banks of the tributaries of the Vistula 
to the Baltic. 

Besides the approach to Southern Europe by the Mediterra- 
nean, by means of which the isolated Semitic populations of 
Etruria, Gadir, and Tartessus, and the Phocian and other 
colonial offshoots of south-eastern civilization, reached its 
north-western shores, there are only two passages, or at most 



the Germanic Races into Europe. 43 

tliree, open to the migratory wanderers from Asia to Europe. 
The most southern of these, which required the navigation of 
the Hellespont or the Thracian Bosphorus, may be supposed 
to have been the course pursued by the ancient Pelasgi, or 
some still older southern Allophyliae, in times lying beyond 
all history. This road, however, we know was early closed 
by the occupation of the whole of Asia Minor by Phrygians, 
Lydians, Lycians, Phoenicians, and other civilized and war- 
like people, whose presence entirely precluded the approach of 
any migratory horde to the shores of the Propontis. Beyond 
this, therefore, later migratory tribes, including, perhaps, the 
earliest pioneers of Keltic colonization, would find open for 
them the narrow passage formed by the lower valleys between 
the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea, and then reaching the 
northern shores of the Kimmerian Bosphorus, they would 
enter by the passage between the Carpathian Mountains and 
the Euxine into the fertile valley of the Danube. This road, 
also, in itself narrow and straightened, was closed against 
such nomade intruders long prior to the dawn of history, by 
the occupation of the whole country around the lower Danube 
by Scythic tribes belonging to the Thracian division. These 
warlike tribes were in undisputed possession of this important 
European area when we obtain our first glimpse of them in 
the pages of Homer, and no doubt can be entertained of their 
ability to withstand the encroachments of all later intruders. 
Thus, then, at the assumed period of the immigration of the 
Germanic nomades, after the entire occupation of Southern 
and Central Europe by older races, there remained only one 
road open for tribes immigrating westward from Asia into 
Europe, through the Ural passage to the north of the Caspian 
Sea ; and thence — the southern road through the valley of the 
Danube being now closed — they must have crossed the vast 
prairies of Russia, along the northern edge of the impenetrable 
forests of Volhynia and Poland, and the watershed of the 
Dnieper and the Vistula — the route pursued by the Huns, 
under Attila, in the fifth century — and thence along the 
tributaries of the Vistula to the Baltic. Here the ethnologist 
may be said to strike the trail of the first Germanic nomades. 
The later Cimbri or Kymri, and the younger Scytho- Sarmatians 



44 Dr Daniel Wilson on the Intrusion of 

in their wake, having been obliged to pursue a north-western 
course till they reached the shores of the older Baltic, the 
Kymri, and no doubt also the Belgae, penetrated still further 
to the westward, while their Scytho-Sarmatian followers re- 
mained at the Vistula. The Germanic nomades, beginning 
their intrusive migration long after their precursors had 
consolidated their power, and occupied their borders with the 
increased numbers of a settled population, were compelled to 
pursue the still more northern, but less encumbered course ; 
while being, in the common movement towards the west, driven 
to the shores of the Baltic near Livonia and Esthonia, they 
crossed to the Islands, to Gottland, Oland, and to Scania, and 
there settling themselves in the great northern Scandinavian 
peninsula, where archaeological research proves them to have 
displaced an older Allophylian population, they nursed their 
young strength, preparatory to their intrusion on the historic 
area of ancient Europe. 

Archaeological investigations contribute many valuable ac- 
cessories to such ethnological inquiries, and specially tend to 
confirm the conclusions here advanced relative to the late arrival 
of the Germanic nomades in Western Europe. This is strik- 
ingly shown by the abrupt transition from the aboriginal stone 
relics to the evidences of the Metallurgic arts of the last 
Pagan period disclosed in the sepulchral depositories of 
Northern Scandinavia.* 

Having established the Germanic nomades as a settled 
people in the northern peninsula still occupied by one great 
branch of the Germanic stock, the course pursued by them 
when they in turn became the aggressors is abundantly mani- 
fest, even now, on the map of Europe. Passing over into 
Denmark, and to a great extent displacing and dispossessing 
the Kymri, they entered Central Europe from that point 
d'appui, penetrating like a wedge between the Gauls and the 
Sarmatians, and gradually occupying the whole modern Ger- 
manic area between the Elbe and the Rhine. This is the 
movement which I conceive manifested itself by that over- 
flowing of the Gauls into Central Italy, by means of which 
they, and thus also, indirectly, the Germanic aggressors on 

* Vide Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, p. 358. 



the Germanic Races into Europe. 45 

their rear, began, for the first time, to take their part in the 
great drama of the nations, Then it was that the Gallic 
population, pressed on from the north-east and confined on 
the west by the Atlantic, passed over into Britain ; not, in- 
deed, occupying it for the first time with a Keltic population, 
but intruding upon the older Keltic occupants, the Gallic 
Cantii, Belgae, and others of those newer southern tribes, 
whose sympathy with their continental brethren first exposed 
their country to the aggressive arms of Rome. Few questions 
in ancient ethnology have been more keenly disputed than 
the Germanic or Keltic character of the Belgse of Picardy ; 
but nearly all ethnologists now agree in assuming that the 
Belgse of Britain came from Belgic Gaul, and in the opinion 
that the continental Belgae were Kelts. These points being- 
assumed, all that we learn of the Belgse from Caesar—their 
warlike hardihood in maintaining the passes of the Rhine, 
the diversity of their dialect from the older Gauls, and the 
union and consanguinity recognised among themselves (Cses. 
Bell. Gall., XL, 4) — confirm the idea of their recent migration 
from the eastern shores of the Rhine, and the consequent re- 
centness of the Germanic intrusion of which this was a product. 
The same great Germanic migration from the north into the 
centre of Europe, pressing southward, drove a part of the 
intercepted Keltae to seek an outlet down the valley of the 
Danube, encountering in that fertile region Illyrian and 
Thracian occupants, and mingling with or displacing them in 
that rich country, the fertility and many natural advantages 
of which have so often contributed to make it the theatre of 
contending claimants. This may account for the two names, 
Danube and Iser : the former the Keltic name, afterwards 
adopted by the Romans, while the latter was accepted by the 
Greeks. When Alexander the Great, in 335 B.C., moved 
against the Thracians, he found the Kelts already settled to 
the east of the Adriatic, and received offers of alliance from 
them, not as a recent band of strange intruders, but as the 
proud and ambitious aggressors, who, at a later period, under 
Brennus, invaded Macedonia and JEtolia, and even attacked 
the holy Delphic shrine. The Keltic tribes, thus cut off from 
the great stock, and compelled to retrace their course, not only 



46 On the Intrusion of the Germanic Races into Europe. 

penetrated eastward, as we have seen,* into Thrace, but passed 
over into Asia Minor, where they peopled Galatia ; while, if 
we hold to the true Kelticity of the Keltic element of the 
Celtiberi of Spain, we may account for a similar overflow of 
the Gallic Kelts into the Iberian peninsula. 

Thus we have the non-Indo-Germanic Phoenician, Punic, 
Etruscan, and other Semitic elements, passing by the southern- 
most route, from the shores of the Levant, into Southern 
Europe, and consequently not diffused as from a common 
centre, but occupying isolated and widely scattered positions. 
The oldest branch of the great Indo-European family of 
nations, the Gallic Kelts, follows by the southern land passagej 
preceding the classic races, and contributing to them a large 
portion of the philological elements by which they are known 
to us. How far they may also have contributed to their 
ethnological elements is uncertain. Whence, indeed, the 
Hellenic stock is derived is still a problem scarcely yet at- 
tempted to be solved. Was it derived from Italy to Greece, 
as Dr. Latham inclines, not without reason, to believe (Ethnol. 
of Europe, p. 97), or from Greece to Italy ? Was it the pro- 
duct of an intermixture of Keltic and Pelasgic blood, or of 
Pelasgo-Keltic and Semitic blood 1 Intermixture of blood, 
not purity of race, seems the law of highest development in 
the historic races ; and hence, perhaps, it is that the old Keltic 
migration moved on westward and diffused itself over the 
great central area of Transalpine Europe through long unre- 
corded centuries, only making itself known by the shock with 
which it was rent in pieces when it came into collision with 
the younger historic races. Behind these Kelts came the 
Scytho-Sarmatian stock, still occupying to a great extent its 
original European area, though taking up so small and in- 
significant a section of the historic page ; while the younger 
Germanic stock, Jacob-like, seizing the birthright and the 
portion of the elder, has overstepped it in the race, preoccu- 
pied the area of the displaced Kelts, shared in the spoils, and 
borne a prominent part in the reinvigoration of Southern 
Europe; and now entering on the possession of this vast 
continent of America, and of that other new world which lies 
sheltered in the temperate zone of the southern hemisphere, 



On the Hyposulphites of the Organic Alkaloids. 47 

the Germanic— or as we too limitedly designate it, the Anglo- 
Saxon— race is entering on fresh aggressions and claiming a 
wider theatre for the arena of its triumphs. Whether the 
stirring among the Lithuanic and Slavonic races of Eastern 
Europe, which now thrills us with the rumours of war, and 
shakes all Europe with the coming struggle, be any symptom 
of the long dormant energies of her Scytho-Sarmatian stock 
awaking at length to assert the claims of a long-proscribed 
priority of birthright, is a question which had attracted the 
notice of Panslavic students of ethnology before it forced itself 
on the attention of European diplomatists. 



On the Hyposulphites of the Organic Alkaloids. By Henry 
How, Professor of Chemistry and Natural History, King's 
College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. 

In a recent communication to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh,* I mentioned that when strychnine is exposed to the 
action of sulphide of ammonium, the hyposulphite of this base 
is formed, together with a peculiar and distinct product whose 
nature is not yet made out. The experiment affording these 
indications was made with free access of air, and I thought it 
extremely probable that the production of the hyposulphite 
was to be attributed in a great measure, if not entirely, to the 
formation in the first place of the hyposulphite of ammonia, 
from absorption of oxygen by the sulphide of ammonium, and 
the subsequent displacement of the volatile, by the fixed 
alkali, the transformation of the sulphur salt of ammonium 
being represented by the equation, 

NH 4 S, HS + 40 = NH 4 0, S 2 2 + HO. 

I reasoned that if the hyposulphite of strychnine really re- 
sulted from this succession of changes, the other alkaloids 
should present a similar deportment under the same circum- 
stances. I, therefore, made corresponding experiments with 
some of these, and found that in the majority of the cases I 
tried, their hyposulphites are readily obtained; and they form 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxi., page 33. 



48 Professor How on the Hyposulphites 

so well-defined and beautiful a class of salts, as to merit a fuller 
and more accurate description than they have yet received. 
Indeed when I commenced their study I was of opinion that 
they were quite unknown, and it was only when my examina- 
tion of this series of compounds was nearly completed, that I 
discovered that one of them, namely, the salt of quinine, had 
been already described. This description is accompanied by 
analytical numbers which, as I shall show in the sequel, must 
have related to a very equivocal specimen, as they are far 
from concordant with the real composition of the salt in ques- 
tion ; and it is probable that the materials employed in its 
formation, by double decomposition, were not pure. 

In addition to their great beauty and their mode of forma- 
tion by a novel method, which is interesting in itself, these 
salts present claims for consideration on another ground. The 
peculiar nature of hyposulphurous acid renders its combina- 
tions with the alkaloids valuable as a means of establishing 
or controlling their atomic weight. Since this acid is instable 
in the free state, it is scarcely capable of forming acid salts, 
and basic compounds of the alkaloids being unknown, their 
hyposulphites must be composed in the relation of atom to 
atom of the proximate constituents. There are few subjects 
in organic chemistry which have been more discussed by vari- 
ous experimenters than the atomic weight of the vegetable 
bases, and most especially is this the case with quinine and 
cinchonine. Platinum salts of the alkaloids generally are 
now known not to afford by any means the infallible criterion 
they were once supposed to do ; and a more certain indicator 
of the molecular equivalent, particularly of the natural alkalis, 
has been found in the amount of elements contained in their 
derived methyl, ethyl, and amyl bases. It is by this means 
that recent researches have placed it beyond doubt that qui- 
nine* and cinchonine t have respectively forty and thirty- 
eight atoms of carbon in their molecules. The hyposulphites 
of these bodies, as I shall describe them in this paper, are in 
complete accordance with these results. 

As regards the production of the hyposulphites in general, 

* Strecker, Comptes Rend us. 

t Stahl6chmidt. Annalen der Chemie und I'harmacie, vol. xc, ]>ago 218. 



of the Organic A Ikaloids. 49 

by this process, I have found that when the alkaloids are di- 
gested with fresh aqueous sulphide of ammonium, and some 
spirit of wine in an open flask, after a lapse of time, varying 
from a few hours to a day or two, hydrosulphuric acid cannot 
be detected, while hyposulphurous acid is present in abund- 
ance, in combination either with ammonia alone, or with it 
and the alkaloid employed. The comparative insolubility of 
the organic salt appears to be that which determines or favours 
its formation ; for the deportment of all the bases is not the 
same in this process, which affords an interesting instance of 
the modifying influence exerted by circumstances over the 
play of chemical affinities ; for here we see some of those al- 
kaloids which are thrown down from their salts by aqueous 
ammonia, in their turn displacing this alkali when the circum- 
stances are, as it were, reversed. It is also curious to observe 
how the presence of the fixed base determines the formation of 
hyposulphurous acid so rapidly in comparison with its produc- 
tion in aqueous sulphide of ammonium alone. 

I have also found that some of the alkaloids dissolve when 
a current of sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through water 
in which they are suspended,* and these fluids yield hypo- 
sulphites by digestion. The salts of this acid may also be 
obtained by double decomposition in cases where the alkaloids 
afford sufficiently soluble and neutral compounds with other 
acids to start from, and I have used this method in several 
instances. 

The following is the account of the salts I have examined, 
and I am again indebted to Professor Anderson, in whose 
laboratory in Glasgow this investigation was pursued, for some 
specimens of the pure alkaloids from his collection. 

Hyposulphite of Quinine. — This salt is obtained after about 
a day's digestion of pure quinine with sulphide of ammonium 
and a little spirit of wine. It separates from the fluid in 

* When strychnine is treated in this way, it yields a crystalline hydro- 
sulphuret. The salt occurs in the form of colourless prismatic needles as 
deposited from cold water ; it is very unstable, being resolved on standing 
into sulphuretted hydrogen, which escapes, and the pure base. This effect is 
brought about immediately on boiling the aqueous solution of the crystals. 
I am not aware that the hydrosulphuret of an organic base has been before 
observed. 

VOL. I. NO. I. — JAN. 1855. D 



50 Professsor How on the Hyposulphites 

opaque white tufts of needles, which are rendered pure by 
one crystallization from water. It is perfectly neutral to 
test paper, dissolves readily in boiling water, and is imme- 
diately deposited on cooling, as it requires about 300 parts 
of this menstruum at the ordinary temperature, to retain it in 
solution. 

It is readily obtained by double decomposition between hy- 
posulphite of soda and hot solution of neutral salts ; but if the 
former reagent be added to a cold solution of the crystallized 
acid sulphate of quinine, the fluid becomes instantly milky, 
from the presence of precipitated sulphur, and smells of sul- 
phurous acid ; and when it has become clear, the walls of the 
vessel are seen to be covered with the peculiar dendritic crys- 
tals of the hyposulphite of quinine. 

When dried, it afforded these results on analysis : — 

3-883 grains, dried at 212°, gave 
8'945 ... carbonic acid, and 
2-365 ... water. 

3*435 ... dried, gave by deflagration, 
2*080 ... sulphate of baryta. 





Experiment. 

. 62-82 
6-76 

8-30 


Calculation. 




Carbon, . 
Hydrogen, 
Nitrogen, 
Oxygen, 
Sulphur, 


62-99 C 40 
656 H 25 
7-34 N 2 

14-72 7 
8-39 S a 


240 
25 
28 
56 
[32 



100-00 100-00 381 

which agree perfectly with the formula for the dry salt, 

C 40 H^ N 2 O t , HO S 2 2 

The crystals contain in addition two equivalents of water, 

J 3-640 grains, air-dry, lost at 212° 
(0-170 ... water. 

leading to a percentage of 4-67, and 4-51 is required by theory 
for the formula 

C 40 H 24 N 2 O 4 ,HO,S 2 O 2 + 2aq. 

The mean results of the analyses of this substance by We- 
therill,* to which I have already alluded, were these : — 

* Liebig's Annalen, lxvi., page 150. 



of the Organic Alkaloids. 



51 



Carbon, 

Hydrogen, 

Nitrogen, 

Oxygen, 

Sulphur, 



61-35 
6-72 

8-30 
15-13 

8-50 

100-00 



and the author concludes that quinine contains either 38 of 
19 atoms of carbon, and 24 or 12 atoms of hydrogen, and the 
formula he calculated, C 38 H 24 N 2 4 Ho S 2 2 , agreed per- 
fectly with his results. That which I have given, however, for 
quinine, is borne out by the researches of Strecker, before 
mentioned, and is now allowed to be the correct expression for 
the base. 

Hyposulphite of Cinchonine is so readily obtained by 
double decomposition, owing to its sparing solubility, that I at 
once prepared by this means a sufficiency of the salt for ana- 
lysis, though it is also formed by the other method. It is a 
very fine salt, crystallizing from water left at rest, in colour- 
less, transparent, four-sided prisms, of large size. It dissolves 
in hot water with ease, but requires 205 parts of this men- 
struum when cold. It is perfectly neutral, and gave the fol- 
lowing results on analysis : — 

4-323 grains, dried at 212°, gave 
10*300 ... carbonic acid, and 
2*745 . . . water. 
4-860 ... dried at 212°, gave, by 
3158 ... sulphate of baryta, 





Carbon, 


Experiment. 
. « 64-98 


Calculation. 






6498 


0, 8 


228 




Hydrogen 


, • 7-05 


6-55 


H 


23 




Nitrogen, 


• . 


7-97 


N. 


28 




Oxygen, 


. 


11-39 


o 5 


40 




Sulphur, 


. . 8-91 


9-11 


s 2 


32 




100-00 


100-00 


351 


which 


agree with the formula 









C 33 H 22 N 2 2 HO S 2 2 



The crystals contain one atom more of water. 



4'985 grains, crystals, lost at 212 c 
0-120 ... water. 



D2 



52 Professor How on the Hyposulphites 

equal to 2-40 per cent., and 2*22 corresponds with the salt ; 
C j8 H 22 N 2 ,HOS 2 0, + aq. 
This formula for cinchonine was arrived at bj Stahlschmidt, 
as before mentioned, by acting upon the base with iodide of 
methyl. About the same time I had come to the same con- 
clusion, from working with iodide of ethyl,* but ceased pursuing 
the subject on finding that I was forestalled. Having some of 
the iodide of the ethyl base, however, I tried to form the hy- 
posulphite by double decomposition, but the former salt is so 
difficultly soluble in cold water as to crystallize out quite un- 
changed from the solutions of itself and hyposulphite of soda, 
mixed at the boiling-point. I had not a sufficient quantity of 
material to try any other process. 

Hyposulphite of Morphia. — I was unable in two trials to 
obtain this salt by digestion of the base with sulphide of am- 
monium, hyposulphurous acid was formed, but remained in com- 
bination with ammonia alone. I was more successful by operat- 
ing with concentrated hot solutions of hyposulphite of soda, and 
pure hydrochlorate of morphia. The fluid concreted to a solid 
mass, which, on being pressed when cold, and washed with a 
little cold water, was redissolved in the same liquid hot. It 
separated on cooling in white, silky, lustrous needles, very 
like the hydrochlorate. It was the pure hyposulphite. It is 
a comparatively soluble salt, requiring only 32 parts cold 
water for its solution ; it is extremely soluble in this men- 
struum when boiling, less so in hot spirit, and so insoluble in 
the same at the ordinary temperature, that 1050 parts re- 
tain but one of the salt. It was quite neutral, and gave on 
analysis, 

4*725 grains, dried at 212°, gave 
9*755 ... carbonic acid, and 
2-620 ••• water 
5*475 ... dried at 212°, gave 
3490 ... sulphate of baryta. 



* I obtained an iodine salt, quite analogous to the product described by 
Stahlschmidt, crystallizing in fine 4-sided prisms ; it gave 28*14 per cent, iodine, 
and 28 - 23 corresponds with the formula : — 

^38 H 22 N 2 °2 » C 4 H 5 ' * 

which represents iodide of ethylocinchonine. 



of the Organic Alkaloids. 58 

Expt. Calc. 



Carbon, 


56-49 


5666 


% 


204 


Hydrogen, 


6-16 


611 


H 22 


22 


Nitrogen, 


... 


3-88 


N 


14 


Oxygen, 


... 


24-47 


o„ 


88 


Sulphur, 


8-74 


8-88 


s a 


32 



10000 100-00 360 



These results show that the salt dried at this temperature re- 
tains water, and has the composition. 

C 34 H 19 N0 6 ,HO,S 2 2 + 2HO. 
The crystals contain, in addition, two atoms of water,- 

J 5"08 grains, crystallized salt, lost at 212°, 
\0-25 ... water. 

equal to 4*92 per cent., and 4*76 is required by this deduction 
of 2 aq. from the formula, 

C 34 H 19 N0 6 , HO,S 2 2 + 4HO. 
Hyposulphite of Codeine. — This salt is readily procured by 
digesting the pure base with sulphide of ammonium. The 
fluid is evaporated to dryness after twenty-four hours, and the 
residue redissolved in a small quantity of hot water. The new 
salt then separates on cooling in rhombic prisms with dihe- 
dral summits ; from dilute fluids these crystals may be ob- 
tained of large size. It is a soluble salt, requiring only 18 
parts of cold water and very little spirit to take it up ; it is 
neutral to test paper. It gave on analysis, 



f 3*748 grains, 
{8-309 ... 


dried at 212°, gave 
carbonic acid, and 


1 2-210 ... 


water 


( 3-998 grains, 
\2-662 ... 


dried at 212°, gave 
sulphate of baryta. 


Expt. 


Calc. 


Carbon, 60-46 
Hydrogen, 6' 55 
Nitrogen, 
Oxygen, 
Sulphur, 9-12 


60-67 C 36 216 
6-17 H 22 22 

393 N 14 

20-25 9 72 

8-98 S 2 32 


10000 


100-00 356 



54 Professor How on the Hyposulphites 

hence the formula of the salt, so dried, is 
^ C J6 K. n N0 6 HO S, 0, 
the crystals contain in addition five atoms of water ; 
f 421 5 grains, crystalized salt, lost at 212° 
{ 0-457 ••• water 
the percentage resulting from this experiment is 10*84 : 11-22 
is required to correspond with the formula ; 
C J6 H 21 N0 6 HOS 2 2 + 5aq. 
Hyposulphite of Strychnine. — This salt is the principal 
product when the base is digested with sulphide of ammonium 
with free access of air. It is easily obtained by evaporation 
of the fluid after heating for a day or two, to complete dryness 
at 212°, and taking up the soluble portion of the residue in 
boiling water. The imperfectly examined product, elsewhere 
alluded to*, remains behind, and the fluid deposits the hypo- 
sulphite of strychnine on cooling, in colourless scales. By one 
other crystalization these may be obtained quite pure, and 
from a dilute solution I have seen them, even on the small 
scale, in rhomboidal plates with sides of one-eighth inch in 
length. It dissolves readily in boiling water, and of this 
liquid when cold, 114 parts retain but one of the salt. It is 
quite neutral and the following is its analysis, 

4-211 grains, t dried at 212°, gave 
9*740 ... carbonic acid, 
2' 195 ... water, 
5 015 grains, - ]" dried at 212°, gave 
•615 ... carbonic acid, and 
! 2-737 ... water, 
J 4-§15 grains, dried at 212° gave 
{ 2'610 ... sulphate of baryta, 

Expt. 
"i. 11.^ Calc. 



f 5 
11' 



Carbon, 


63-08 


6305 


63-00 


C 42 252 


Hydrogen. 


, 579 


606 


6 00 


H 24 24 


Nitrogen, 




... 


7-00 


N 2 28 


Oxygen, 




... 


16-00 


3 64 


Sulphur, 


8-29 




800 


S 2 32 




10000 


100-00 


100-00 


400 



* Trans. Royal Society of Edinb., vol. xxi., p. 33. 

f I am indebted for these analyses to Mr Robert Davidson, a gentleman 
studying in Dr Anderson's laboratory. 



of the Organic Alkaloids. 55 

whence it appears that the salt is not anhydrous at this tem- 
perature, but has the composition, 

C i2 H 22 N 2 4 ,HO,S 2 2 + HO. 

and the crystals contain two atoms more of water, 

( 4-4:75 grains, air-dry, lost at 212° 
i 0-175 ... water, 

giving 3-91 per cent., and 4-30 agrees with this loss by the 

salt, 

C 42 H 22 N 2 4 ,.HQ^S 2 Q 2 +3^ 

Hyposulphite of Ethylostrychnine. — This salt cannot be 
obtained by the reciprocal action of the iodide of this base* 
and hyposulphite of soda, for, owing to the insolubility of the 
former in cold water, by far the greater part of it crystallizes 
out unchanged when the fluid cools. A small quantity of hy- 
posulphite, however, is procured by evaporation of the mother 
liquor ; it crystallizes in delicate needles, very soluble in 
water and spirit. The same compound may be obtained by 
passing a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen into the carbonate 
of thylostrychnine,t and allowing the liquid to stand exposed to 
a moderate heat. It is, however, in this case accompanied by a 
product which, to judge from appearances, is the same as that 
formed by the action of sulphide of ammonium upon strych- 
nine, already more than once alluded to. This substance, 
which has a yellow colour, and is of extreme solubility in spi- 
rit, and nearly insoluble in water, seems to prevent the hypo- 
sulphite of ethylostrychnine, which is present in abundance, 
from being easily purified or readily taking on the crystalline 
condition. For this reason I was unable, with my stock of 
substance, to obtain the salt in a state suitable for analysis. 

Hyposulphite of Brucine. — When brucine is digested with 
sulphide of ammonium and a little spirit, this salt is obtained 
in the course of a few hours. It crystallizes from the liquid, 
and requires but one other crystallization from boiling water, 
for complete purification. It then occurs in tufts of colourless 
prismatic needles, which are difficultly soluble in cold water, 

* Trans. Royal Soc, Edin., vol. xxi., page 33 
t Ibid., page 42. 



56 Professor How on the Hyposulphites 

105 parts retaining but one of the salt. It is perfectly neutral 
to test paper. In the analysis which follows, the salt was 
dried by simple exposure over oil of vitriol under a bell jar, 
as it decomposes in the water-bath, and only partially loses its 
water of crystallization in vacuo, and is, moreover, so hygro- 
scopic in this state, as to absorb moisture with great rapidity 
when exposed to the air. The results it afforded were these : — 

4*757 grains, dried over HO SO ;i , gave 

9*870 ... carbonic acid, and 

2 810 ... water. 

4670 ... dried over HO SO a , gave 

2220 ... sulphate of baryta. 





Experiment. 
. 56*58 




Calculation. 


Carbon, 


5667 


C 46 276 


Hyrogen, . 


. 658 


6*36 


H 31 31 


Nitrogen, 




5*74 


N 2 28 


Oxygen, . 




2466 


15 120 


Sulphur . 


.' 653 


6*57 


S 2 32 



100*00 100*00 487 

which accord in a perfect manner with the formula 
C 46 H 26 N 2 8 ,HO,S 2 2 + 4HO. 

The crystals contain another atom of water, which they lose 

over oil of vitriol. 

J 9*765 grains, lost 
1 0*175 ... water. 

equal to 1*79 per cent., and 1*81 is required to make up the 
salt, 

C 46 H 26 N 2 O s ,HO S 2 2 + 5HO. 

When exposed to the temperature of 212°, the salt loses 
one-tenth of its weight in the course of time, and a portion of 
its sulphur evidently passes off in some form, for a specimen 
which had been heated to this point for about three days 
afforded less than 5 per cent, of sulphur on analysis. It was 
also found to be no longer soluble in boiling water, a consider- 
able amount of a brown resinous matter remaining undissolved. 
The fluid contained some hyposulphurous and much sulphuric 
acid. 

Hyposulphite of Papaverine. — I failed to obtain this salt 



of the Organic Alkaloids. 57 

in appreciable quantity by the digestion process. I ascertained 
however that it is a soluble salt. 

Hyposulphite of Furf urine. — On addition of hyposul- 
phite of soda to a solution of crystallized hydrochlorate of this 
base, an oil separates, which passes, after some time, into co- 
lourless needles. 

Hyposulphite of Aniline may be formed by adding the soda 
salt to a strong solution of the neutral hydrochlorate of this vola- 
tile base, when it is speedily deposited in pearly scales. I could 
not obtain it pure, however, for it does not admit of re-crystal- 
lization. When taken up in warm water, in which it is readily 
soluble, the fluid becomes milky before the boiling point is 
reached; at this period aniline may be perceived to escape 
by its odour, and, immediately after, sulphurous acid is evolved 
in large quantity, and the salt is quite decomposed, the base 
not being a sufficiently powerful one to retain the hyposul- 
phurous acid. 

The following is a tabular view of the salts whose analyses 
are given in this paper : — 

Hyposulphite of Quinine, dried at 212°, C 40 H^ N 2 4 , HO S 2 2 

crystallized, C 40 H y N 2 4 , HO S 2 2 + 2 aq. 
| Cinchonine, driest J ^ ^ ^ ^ . HQ ^ Q> 

crystallized, C 38 H 22 N 2 2 HO S 2 2 + aq. 

Morphia, dried at 212°, C 34 H 19 N0 6 HO S 2 2 -f-2 aq. 

crystallized, C 34 H 19 N0 6 HO S 2 2 + 4 aq. 

Codeine, dried at 212°, C 36 H 21 N0 6 HO S 2 2 

crystallized, C 36 H 21 N0 6 HO S 2 2 + 5 aq. 

{ StryChnine ' d i d 12 1 } C i2 H 22 N 2 4 HO S 2 2 + aq. 

crystallized' C 42 H 20 N 2 4 HO S 2 2 + 3 aq. 

Brucine, dried over S0 3 , C 46 H 2 6 N 2 8 HO S 2 2 + 4 aq. 

crystallized, C 46 H 26 N 2 8 HO S 2 2 + 5 aq. 



On some of the more recent Changes in the Area of the Irish 
Sea. By the Rev. J. G. Cumming, M.A., F.G.S., Vice- 
Principal of King William's College, Castletown, Isle of 
Man. 

In a memoir read before the Geological Section of the Bri- 
tish Association, at its meeting in Cambridge in 1845, I 



58 Rev. J. G. Cumming on some of the more recent 

directed attention to certain accumulations in the Isle of 
Man of boulder clay with post-pleiocene sands, capped by ex- 
tensive terraces of drift gravel, and from an examination of 
the contents of these beds I endeavoured to trace out the gene- 
ral direction of the currents in the neighbouring seas at the 
period of their deposition. In the present paper I wish to point 
to a few facts bearing upon the subsequent removal of a large 
portion of them, and the formation of the basin now occupied 
by the Irish Sea. 

I look upon the Isle of Man as affording, from its central 
position, an admirable clue to the changes which have taken 
place in this area, and as presenting to us a gauge by which 
to measure the relative level of the sea and land in the middle 
portion of the British Isles. For there is no evidence of any 
elevation or depression in more recent geological times affect- 
ing the Isle of Man per se, and not extending in a greater or 
less degree to the surrounding countries. All the evidences 
of later movements appear to be common to it and the sur- 
rounding coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. 

I do not now enter into the question as to how the changes 
in the relative levels of sea and land were brought about, whe- 
ther by the alternate elevation and depression of continents 
affecting the general level of the ocean, the change in intensity 
of gravitation at particular localities, or the absolute depres- 
sion and elevation by volcanic or other agency of this portion 
of the globe. I have now simply to trace out certain facts 
indicative of considerable movements of an oscillatory charac- 
ter affecting the relative level of the sea and land, and to en- 
deavour to point out those of the most recent date which have 
given their present contour to the shores surrounding the Irish 
Sea. 

In various memoirs which I have read before the Geologi- 
cal Society of London during the last ten years, I have de- 
tailed the facts which lead me to the conclusion that during 
the deposit of the boulder-clay {which was a period of depres- 
sion, and in which the climate of this region was of a more 
arctic character than is at this present time experienced), 
there was a gradual submergence of the Isle of Man, and (as 
I believe), of the coasts of the countries immediately around it 



Changes in the Area of the Irish Sea. 59 

to an extent of at least 1600 feet. At one period during the 
re-elevation (which was to an extent of about 15 feet above 
the present high-water-mark), there was a stationary interval, 
the sea-bed of the time of the formation of the great drift- 
gravel being left dry, and forming an extensive plain stretch- 
ing out and uniting the present countries of England, Scot- 
land, Ireland, and Wales. 

I believe that at the same time England was similarly united 
to the Continent of Europe. 

Then succeeded the second Elephantine period in which 
took place the immigration into these regions (amongst other 
quadrupeds now herein extinct), of the Cervus Megaceros or 
Great Irish Elk, whose remains have been found in the Isle of 
Man embedded in fresh water marls occupying basin-shaped 
depressions in the great drift-gravel plain. 

The presence of these remains indicates the existence of 
large treeless districts during a considerable time in which 
the race greatly multiplied. Into the changes of climate 
and surface of the country which led to its ultimate extinc- 
tion I will not now inquire. The basins containing the marls 
in which the remains are found, and the plains themselves, have 
since been covered with vegetation, and are still in many parts 
occupied by beds of turf, in which are found the trunks of 
trees, chiefly oak and elm. 

But during the same period the ocean appears to have been 
quietly eating back its way into this terrace of the drift gravel, 
and resuming its more ancient sway, separating again Ireland 
and the Isle of Man from Great Britain, and cutting off the 
further immigration of animals and plants. Along all our 
coasts we find cliffs of this drift-gravel retiring in many 
places to a little distance inland, but where the gravel rests 
upon palaeozoic rocks forming often part of the present coast- 
line. 

It would be fruitless to speculate upon the length of 
that stationary period during which the process of the dis- 
truction of this upheaved sea-bed was going on. To excavate 
Castletown bay, in the south of the Isle of Man, alone must 
have occupied many hundred years. How many thousands 
must have been taken up in cutting out, by the same process 



60 Rev. J. G. Cumming on some of the more recent 

and removing the materials between the southern extremity of 
the Isle of Man and a line extending from St David's Head 
to Carnsore point. How vain the attempt to measure the time. 

That the destructive action was more rapid and intense from 
the south than the north, appears from the fact, that whilst in 
the north of the Isle of Man we have still remaining a tract of 
about fifty square miles of pleistocene deposits, in the south 
they are only preserved where resting upon the palaeozoic 
rocks and at the head of deep bays. Why this should be the 
case we can immediately perceive by contrasting the narrow 
North Channel with the more open St George's Channel to the 
south. 

One of the clearest proofs of the long-continued action 
of the sea, at a higher relative level than at present of about 
fifteen feet, is to be found in the Isle of Man along the south- 
eastern, southern and south-western coasts, in the presence 
of a series of water- worn caves, which are hardly reached by 
the highest tides which now occur. No one can inspect these 
coasts without observing the trace of extensive denudation 
and destruction above the present sea-line. The Eye of the 
Calf, the Burrough and Fistard Head, drilled completely 
through ; deep caves in the palaeozoic rocks at Peel, Brada, 
Perwick, Langness, Santon, Port Soderic ; deep indentations 
in the drift-gravel wherever the sea wall of palaeozoic rocks 
has been broken by a chasm, or descends below the line of 
high water. This is instanced in the horse-shoe bays and 
creeks of Port-Erin, Perwick, Port St Mary, Poolvash, Castle- 
town, Derbyhaven, Coshnahawin, Saltric, Greenock, Douglas, 
Growdale, Laxey, and Cornah — all embraced by hard por- 
pheries, basalts, schists, and carboniferous limestone, which 
are capped by the drift-gravel. 

In most instances, these bays and creeks present, at their 
head or innermost recesses, perpendicular cliffs of the boulder- 
clay and drift-gravel, not rising in every instance from the 
present high water-mark, but from a level about fifteen feet 
above it, and having a low raised beach of a more recent date 
between them. 

Of this lower raised beach I have now to speak. At the 
foot of certain slightly inland cliffs of the post-pleiocene period, 



Changes in the Area of the Irish Sea. 61 

on the coasts of the Isle of Man, England, Ireland, and Scot- 
land, we have, extending down to the present high water-mark, 
and of various breadths, a low beach containing organic re- 
mains of the fauna now inhabiting our seas ; at any rate, I 
am not aware of any extinct species being found in it as in the 
pleistocene beds. 

The slope is generally gradual from the base of the pleisto- 
cene inland cliff to the present sea-level, and on it are situated 
the older parts of many of our sea-port towns. 

Instances will probably occur to many here. The question 
is, does the present high water-mark really determine the ex- 
tent of the elevation of the land since the formation of the 
cliffs in the pleistocene beds % I believe not. The elevation 
must at one time have been greater than it is at present ; and 
it may have been to such an extent as a second time to lay dry 
a large portion of the area of the Irish sea. Why so % 

We find on various parts of the coasts submerged forests. 
The growth of these forests we have good reason for attribut- 
ing to a period posterior to the boulder-clay and drift-gravel, 
posterior to the formation of the inland cliffs in the pleisto- 
cene series. That they must have been so in some instances 
is certain ; for, in the south of the Isle of Man, at Strandhall 
in Pooloash Bay, we find a submerged forest with the roots of 
the trees running down into the boulder-clay ; the boulder- 
clay itself resting upon limestone-beds, grooved and scratched 
in direction N.E. and S.W. very nearly, and containing 
scratched boulders. As the drift-gravel was formed from the 
destruction of the boulder-clay, during the period of the re- 
elevation of the island, this at present submerged forest must 
also have grown after the formation of the drift-gravel ter- 
races, and after the formation of the cliffs in it, and in the 
boulder-clay. In other words, it must have grown upon an 
area left dry by an elevation of the Irish Sea bottom, at an 
epoch subsequent to that long stationary period during which 
the sea eat back its way into that vast plain connecting the 
present British Isles, on which the Megaceros and other ani- 
mals, which are now here extinct, lived and roamed. 

The submergence of these forests points again to another 
subsidence of this area to the extent indicated by the present 



62 Mr David Forbes on the Chemical 

high-water mark. Whether it may have occurred, or been 
going on, during the historic period, will probably be a 
" vexata questio." It has been stated to me, on good autho- 
tity that, about forty years ago, after a violent storm which 
tore up large quantities of the submerged turf in Pooloash Bay, 
some remains of buildings were observed between high and low 
water. We venture to bring forward these few facts with the 
view of affording a clue to the formation of the present con- 
tour of the coasts of the Irish Sea, and of directing the atten- 
tion of naturalists to the manner and period or periods in 
which occurred the immigration into the British isles of plants 
and animals, and also the manner in which the immigration 
may have been stopped, renewed, and stopped again. 



On the Chemical Composition of some Norwegian Minerals. 
By David Forbes, F.G.S., A.I.C.E. 

During a residence of many years in Norway I have availed 
myself of the opportunity thereby afforded of studying the mi- 
neralogy of several districts of that country, with special re- 
ference to the circumstances under which the minerals occur- 
red, and the causes which led to their appearance. 

In order to do this with effect, I found it necessary to enter 
upon their chemical investigation, and it then became evident 
that, the occurrence in these minerals of elements so rare as 
to preclude chemists in general from studying their properties 
with that precision which has been the case with most of the 
other elementary bodies, involved the subject in much obscu- 
rity, and before I could have confidence in the results obtained, 
I was compelled to acquire some knowledge of the characters of 
several bodies which had not previously come under my obser- 
vation, as, for example, thorina, yttria, tantalum,* columbium,* 

# It must here be observed with reference to the names of tantalum and 
columbium that the original nomenclature has been strictly adhered to in this 
communication, tantalum being considered as the metal discovered by Eke- 
berg in 1802, in the Kimitotantalite, whilst columbium was previously dis- 
covered in 1801, by Hatchett, in the American columbite; this has since 
been called niobium by Rose. — Vide Oonnell, London Philosophical Magazine, 
1854, p. 461. 



Composition of some Norwegian Minerals. 63 

glucina, zirconia, lanthanium, &c. It was only after I had 
familiarized myself as much as possible with these substances, 
that I proceeded to the analysis of a series of the Norwegian 
minerals which I had collected, paying especial attention to 
those containing the rare elements ; and as many of the results 
obtained appeared likely to prove of interest, and some, appa- 
rently new species, were determined, it is proposed to com- 
municate them from time to time. 

I. — EUXENITE. 

This mineral was first found by Keilhau at Jolster in 
Nordre Bergenstift, and was recognised as a distinct species 
by Scheerer, who analysed it. Some time after a mineral was 
found by Weibye, near Arendal, supposed to be yttrotantalite, 
but on analysis by Scheerer (who states Tvedestrand as its 
locality), was proved to be euxenite.* When Mr Dahl and 
myself examined this districtf we found two minerals pretty 
nearly agreeing with Scheerer's description in external ap- 
pearance, but on further examination they were found to differ 
greatly from each other ; one, however, found at Alve on Tro- 
moen, an island near Arendal was evidently the euxenite of 
Scheerer. 

This we found crystallized in prisms apparently belonging 
to the rhombic system, and well defined, but, from the faces 
being rough, and invariably covered by a thin greenish-gray 
scale, they could not be accurately measured. 

The following measurements taken by Mr Dahl must, there- 
fore, be considered only as approximative. 

Fig. 1. 



M 



= odP. 
Fracture conchoidal, with no trace of cleavage ; colour, black ; 

* Poggendorf Annalen, vol. 50, p. 149. 

t JVorsJce Magazin for Naturviclenskab, viii., p. 3. 



s : M = 117° and s : s = 126° 






r ~a, 


m : M = 90° 




v 7" 


r : m = 154° 30' 




V 


T] 


a : r = 159° 30', or 140° 15' 




S 


$ s 


a : M = 107° 








^lso a = P, r = m P co, 








Where mis^l; M — co Poo,moo 


Pco 


J 


s = 



64 Mr David Forbes on the Chemical 

streak, reddish-brown. Lustre, brilliant and metallo-vitreous ; 
translucent with a reddish-brown colour when in very thin 
splinters. Hardness, 6*5. Specific gravity taken at 60° F, of 
a small crystal = 4-99, and of a pure fragment of a large 
crystal = 4-89. 

Heated in a glass-tube it does not change colour or lose 
lustre. 

Before the blowpipe, infusible and unchanged. With borax 
in the oxidating flame it gives a brownish-yellow glass some- 
what lighter in colour when cold. In the reducing flame it is 
unchanged, even on flaming. With phosphate of soda and 
ammonia it gives a glass which is greenish-yellow whilst hot, 
but nearly colourless on cooling. Gives no reaction either of 
titanium or manganese, although it contains both these metals. 

The analysis was conducted as follows : — 

20-81 grains of the pure mineral impalpably powdered were 
ignited in a gold crucible and lost 0*60 grains, becoming some- 
what lighter in colour. 1 60 grains bisulphate of potash were 
then added, gradually fused, and kept melted for several hours 
until the mineral appeared completely decomposed. As much 
as possible was removed from the crucible whilst in a pasty 
state, softened with cold water in an agate mortar, and reduced 
carefully to fine powder ; the crucible was likewise washed 
with cold water, and the whole being made up to 16 oz., was 
allowed to digest for 18 hours at the ordinary temperature in 
a beaker. 

The clear supernatant fluid was carefully decanted off; 16 
oz. more cold water added and allowed again to digest for 24 
hours ; this was repeated a third time and the insoluble mat- 
ter then thrown on to a filter, well washed with cold water, 
dried, and incinerated. It weighed 8*03 grains. This residue 
on heating became of a brilliant yellow colour, but was quite 
white when cold, and possessed all the characters of columbic 
acid.* 

The solution was now boiled for some time, when a precipi- 
tate fell, which was washed, dried, and incinerated, and 

* As to whether the columhic acid might contain also tantalic acid I am not 
prepared to say, as I believe there is not at present any accurate means of se- 
parating these two substances. 



Composition of some Norwegian Minerals. 



65 



weighed 2*99 grains. It gave the reaction of titanic acid be- 
fore blowpipe, but evidently contained columbic acid, as it be- 
came bright yellow on ignition, while it was of the usual colour 
when cold. I am not acquainted with any means of separat- 
ing these acids completely. 

The solution was now precipitated by ammonia, and the 
precipitate filtered off and carefully washed. In the filtrate a 
small amount of lime and magnesia were respectively deter- 
mined by oxalate of ammonia and phosphate of ammonia. 

The precipitate itself was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, 
rendered as nearly neutral as possible by ammonia, and pre- 
cipitated by oxalate of ammonia — a white precipitate fell which 
was collected and washed. The washings at first went milky 
through the filter, but it was found that it could be prevented 
by adding a few drops of oxalate of ammonia to the wash 
water. 

This precipitate was ignited, dissolved in hydrochloric acid, 
and the cerium separated by sulphate of potash, filtered off 
and determined as usual. The yttria was precipitated by 
ammonia from the solution and dried. It then weighed 9-24 
grains, but as it did not look well I re-dissolved it and again 
precipitated, when it was found to weigh only 6-11 grains, so 
that the first precipitate was evidently a basic salt. 

The filtrate from the precipitation of the oxalates was now 
precipitated by hydrosulphate of ammonia, — and this precipi- 
tate after solution in nitrohydrochloric acid was treated with 
potash to separate alumina, and the uranium afterwards sepa- 
rated from the iron by carbonate of ammonia. 

The following results were thus obtained : — 





Grains. 


Employed in analysis, 


. 20-81 


Loss on ignition — reckoned as water, 


0-60 


Columbic acid, 


803 


Titanic acid (with some do.), 


2-99 


Carbonate of lime, 


•51 


Phosphate of magnesia, 


•11 


Alumina, 


•65 


Sesquioxide of iron, 


•46 


Oxide of uranium, 


1-13 


Yttria, . 


6-11 


Sesquioxide of cerium, 


• -73 


. I. NO. I. — JAN. 1855. 


E 



66 Mr David Forbes on the Chemical 

Which, when tabulated will stand as follow : — 





In 20-81. 


In 100. 


Oxygen 


Columbic acid, 


8-03 


38-58^ 


? 


Titanic acid, with some \ 9 .qq 
columbic acid, 


14-36 f 52 ' 94 5-79 


Alumina, 


•65 


3-12 


1-45 


Lime, 


•28 


1-37. 


0-38 


Magnesia, 


•04 


0-19 


0-07 


Yttria, 


6-11 


29-36 


•12 


Protoxide of cerium, 


•68 


3-31 


0-47 


Protoxide of iron, . 


•41 


1-98 


0-43 


Protoxide of uranium, 


1-08 


5-22 


61 


Water, 


•60 


2-88 


2-56 



20-87 100-37 

As we have no fixed atomic equivalent for either columbium 
or yttrium, we cannot calculate the amount of oxygen, but 
taking them at the old numbers of 180 and 32, the oxy- 
gen will be 4-53 in the columbic acid, and 5*87, in the yttria, 
which will make the relation of the amounts of oxygen as 
10-32 in the acids to 10'73 in the bases ; but it is useless at- 
tempting to deduce a formula from this analysis until we 
have more information as to the composition and atomic equi- 
valent of columbic acid and yttria. 

For the sake of comparison Scheerer's result is annexed : — 





From 


From 




Jolster. 


Arendal. 




Sp. Gr. 4-60. 


Sp. Gr. 4-73 to 4-76. 


Metallic acids, 


57-60 


53-64 


Yttria, 


25-09 


28-97 


Protox. of uranium, 


6-34 


7-58 


Protox. of cerium, 


3-14 


2-91 


Protox. of iron, . 


— 


2-60 


Lime, 


2-47 


— 


Magnesia, 


0-29 


— 


Water, . 


3-97 


4-04 



98-90 99-74 

When comparing the mineral here analysed with that from 
Arendal by Scheerer we find that the sum of the metallic 
acids, and the yttria, agree, but that Scheerer has no alumina, 
lime, or magnesia, and considerably more water and protoxide 
of uranium than I have found. 



Composition of some Norwegian Minerals. 67 

II. — Tyrite. 

The other mineral which in external appearances might be 
confounded with Euxenite, was found on the same island by- 
Mr Dahl, at a place called Hampemyr, and was crystallized 
in prisms, having a quadratic section, but too irregular and 
unreflecting to admit of measurement, and one apparently 
belonging to the tetragonal system. Fracture conchoidal ; and 
no trace of cleavage apparent; exceedingly brittle; hardness 
6*5. The specific gravity of a crystal was 5-30, and of a 
massive piece was 5*56 at 60° Fahrenheit. It scolour and 
lustre were perfectly the same as those of Euxenite, and it is 
translucent in thin splinters. 

When heated in a glass tube it decrepitates strongly, evolves 
water, and the powder resulting from its decrepitation is of a 
brilliant yellow colour. 

Before the blow-pipe it is soluble in borax to a glass of a 
reddish yellow colour when warm, but colourless on cooling. 
In phosphate of soda and ammonia it is soluble with difficulty, 
and appears to leave portions undissolved. The glass is 
greenish yellow whilst hot, and green when cold. 

The analysis was conducted as follows : — 

A portion, in fine powder, weighing 29-42 grains, was 
cautiously heated to redness, when it became of a greyish 
yellow colour, and the loss was estimated as water. 

Another portion of mineral finely pulverized was digested 
with pure concentrated sulphuric acid in a platinum vessel for 
a considerable time ; it appeared to decompose easily and 
completely, leaving a white powder, which was several times 
successively digested with sulphuric acid well worked with 
water, and weighed. 

This substance reacted as columbic acid, was of a pure white 
colour when cold, but became intensely yellow when heated, 
recovering, however, its original colour completely on cooling. 
It was readily soluble in hydrofluoric acid, and this solution 
deposited stellar groups of crystals on concentration. 

The solution was then precipitated by ammonia, filtered, and 
lime determined in the filtrate by means of oxalate of 
ammonia ; no magnesia was found to be present. 

e 2 



68 



Mr David Forbes on the Chemical 



The precipitate on filter was dissolved in a little dilute 
sulphuric acid, then greatly diluted with water, and boiled for 
some time, when a small quantity (0*26 gr.) of a white pre- 
cipitate fell, which was weighed and tested for titanic acid, 
but found only to consist of columbic acid, (that is, if no 
tantalum is present, as no means of separating them is known,) 
it was therefore added to the former. 

The solution after this precipitation was supersaturated with 
ammonia in excess, and then oxalic acid added until a very 
faint acid reaction was perceptible. The oxalates thus preci- 
pitated were filtered off, washed, ignited, and dissolved in 
hydrochloric acid ; the solution treated with sulphate of 
potash to separate the cerium and yttria, which were both 
determined in the usual manner. 

The filtrate from the precipitated oxalates was now preci- 
pitated by hydrosulphuret of ammonia, and the alumina, 
iron, and uranium determined as in the previous analysis. 

The results obtained were as follows : — 

Mineral employed for water determination, 29*42 grs. 

Loss on ignition, . . 1*33 ,, 

Mineral employed in analysis 

Columbic acid obtained, 

Do. on boiling, 

Carbonate of lime, 

Ignited oxalates, 

Yttria, 

Sesquioxide of cerium, 

■ of iron, 

Oxide of uranium, 
Alumina, 

From which the per centage calculated will be : — 

Oxygen, 

Columbic acid, . 44-90 % 

Alumina, . 5-66 

Lime, . 0-81 

Yttria, . 29.72 

Protoxide of cerium, 5*35 

of uranium, 3*03 

of iron, 6*26 

Water, . 4-52 

100-25 
If we calculate the yttria and columbic acid as before, the 



2-35 


55 


5-29 


55 


0-26 


55 


0-18 


55 


4-37 


55 


3-67 


55 


0-71 


55 


0-86 


55 


0-39 


55 


0-71 


■)■> 



2-64 


0-23 


2 


0-77 


0-35 


1-38 


4-02 



Composition of some Norwegian Minerals. 



69 



ratio between the acids and bases are as 5-28 to 11-31, which 
is most likely as 2 to 1, although it is impossible, as in the 
case of Euxenite, to deduce any satisfactory formula before we 
are better acquainted with the compounds in question. 

From this analysis the mineral appears to be a new species, 
and it has accordingly been called Tyrite.* It can be most 
readily distinguished from the Euxenite by the following cha- 
racters : — 

By its specific gravity much higher than that of Euxenite, and 
by being brittle. By its behaviour when heated. By its re- 
actions with phosphate of soda and ammonia. 

And, lastly, by its chemical composition, and the absence of 
titanic acid. In short, though it is impossible at present to fix a 
formula for it, it must be regarded as mainly consisting of a 
hydrous columbate of yttria. 

III. — Yttrotitanite or Keilhauite. 

This mineral was first found by Weibye, at Buoen, an 
island, near Arendal, and was analysed simultaneously by 
Scheerer and Erdmann, who respectively named it yttrotitanite 
and keilhauite — it was not crystalized although it possessed 
two cleavages. Mr Dahl has however found it crystallized at 
Arkeroen, in regular and distinct crystals, belonging to the 
monoklinohedric system. Some of these weighed as much as 
2% lbs., and from their size and rough surfaces could only be 
measured by the hand goniometer. 

The following figures give the crystalline forms : — 

Fig. 3. 






* From Tyr, the Norwegian god of war, this mineral being discovered at 
about the same time as the commencement of the present war. 



70 Mr David Forbes on the Chemical 

From which form approximative measurements were obtained 
by the common goniometer. 



M : T 


=z 


147° 


+ o : s 


— 


149° 


M : n 


=z 


125° 


a: M 


= 


122° 


- o :T 


— 


153°30' 


— o : a 


= 


143°30' 



The angle M : T is the average of measurement from four 
different crystals. As the junction of T : T is always cut off 
by the plane M, and all the crystals hitherto obtained are 
hemitropes, so that the planes T : T, which form an acute 
angle, belong each to its own half of the crystal, the direct 
determination of the angle T : T is too uncertain, but reckoned 
from M : T = 147°, it will be 114°. The angle a = 58°. 

From these data Mr Hansteen has had the kindness to cal- 
culate the following values : — 



Axes 


a : b : c = 0.835 


: 1 : 0-766, and 


a: S 


— 


140°, 42' 




M : n = 123°, 27' 


S: +o 


=z 


149°, 14' 




a: T = 114°, 25', 43 


+ o : T 


— 


135°, 11', 17" 






T : o 


— 


151°, 18', 43" 






- o : oP 


= 


143°, 34' 










720° 




The observed forms are — 










a = 





P 






+ o = 


+ 


P 






~T" ° ~ 


_i_ 


P 






r = 


2 P 






s = 


+ 


4? 






n = 




P CO 






M = 


CO 


Pco 



The positive terminal planes have on most of the crystals a 
strong vitreous lustre, as if polished by friction, and have a 
great number of small furrows arranged in rows parallel to 
the edges between T and + o. The vertical prismatic planes 
are smooth, but possess much less lustre. The negative ter- 
minal planes are rough, and irregular by reason of an oscil- 
lating combination between the planes — o and T, by which 



Composition of some Norwegian Minerals. 71 

the crystals sometimes are lengthened in this direction, as 
shown by Fig. 4. The cleavage planes are very distinct, and 
are parallel to the plane r ; and it was easy to cleave out pieces 
of a rhombic section, the angle being about 138°, no third 
cleavage was observed. 

The specific gravity at 60° Fahr. was found to be 5*53. In 
analysing it I determined to follow the method employed by 
Scheerer, and in consequence 22*78 grains were digested in 
hydrochloric acid, by which it was readily decomposed. Much 
water was then added, and the whole filtered from the silica ; 
but I found that on attempting to precipitate the titanic acid 
from this solution by boiling, as stated by Scheerer, no pre- 
cipitation occurred ; the solution was therefore thrown down 
by ammonia, washed, and re-dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, 
when a small quantity of silica remained undissolved, which 
was filtered off, and much water then added to this solution, 
and boiled when the titanic acid was readily thrown down and 
weighed. On ignition it was found to be slightly tinged with 
iron. 

In the filtrate from the ammoniacal precipitate, lime was 
precipitated by oxalic acid ; the oxalate collected, ignited, and 
dissolved in acetic acid, to separate some manganese which 
was precipitated with it, and determined as sulphate. The 
solution from this gave a precipitate of oxalate of lime. 
And on evaporation of the filtrate a small quantity of inso- 
luble matter remained which reacted for titanic acid before 
blow-pipe, and was considered as such. 

The silica was treated with hydrofluoric acid, which left a 
very small quantity of titanic acid undissolved. 

The solution from which the titanic acid had been separated 
by boiling was now neutralized by ammonia, and precipitated 
by oxalate of ammonia, and the yttria determined in this as 
usual. 

The filtrate from this last precipitate was found to contain 
iron, alumina, and glucina, which, after precipitation by hy- 
drosulphuret of ammonia, were all determined in the usual 
way ; the glucina being separated by carbonate of ammonia, 
and the sesquioxide of iron freed from alumina by caustic 
potash. The results obtained were : — 



72 On the Chemical Composition of Norwegian Minerals. 



Mineral employed, 

Impure Silica obtained, 

Titanic acid, from do., . 

Titanic acid, from solution, 

Titanic acid, with trace of iron, 

Silica, from ammoniacal precipitate. 

Yttria, 

Sulphate of lime, 

Sesquioxide of iron, 

Alumina, 

Glucina, 

Oxide of manganese, 

From which the following percentage 
tained : — 

In 22-78. In 100. 



22-78 grs. 

7*66 . 

•59 . 

•32 . 

6-39 . 

0-07 . 

1-09 . 

10-80 . 

1-63 . 

1-83 . 

0-12 . 

0-07 . 

results will 



be ob- 



Silica, . • • . . 7*14 

Titanic acid, . . . 6-39 

Alumina, .... 1-83 

Glucina, . . . . *12 

ime, 4-45 

Yttria, 1-09 

Protoxide of iron, . 1*56 
manganese, *06 



31-33 

28-84 

8-03 

•52 

19-56 

4-78 

6-87 

•28 



Oxygen. 

15-06) 

11-18/ 

3-75\ 

•32] 
5-56^ 

•95 
1-52 

•06 



26-24 



4-07 



8-09 



12-16 



22-64 99-41 
This analysis agrees pretty well with those of Erdmann 
and Scheerer, with the exception that the yttria is not more 
than half the amount found by them, and the lime and alu- 
mina are both somewhat higher. Erdmann gives the for- 
mula, as 

3Ca 3 si 2 +&Si + Yf 3 

which, however, does not seem to be correct, as he supposes 
the titanic acid to be entirely combined with the yttria, which 
here is evidently not the case. It seems probable to me 
that the yttria only replaces a part of the lime, and although 
it may be an essential ingredient, in so far as^it may never be 
absent, still it most probably does not play so important 
part as to show itself in the formula. Supposing the titanic 
acid to play the part of a base, we shall find that the^oxygen 
of the base to that of the silica will not be far from the 
ratio of 3 : 2, not farther indeed than the several analyses 



Professor Harkness on Mineral Charcoal. 73 

differ amongst themselves. This will, therefore, be the same 
as Sphene, so that the formula might be considered as 

fi Si § or (R 3 ft) Si S 

as the percentage of silica is the same as in Sphene. It ap- 
pears to me doubtful whether we can consider any mineral 
as true silico-titanates or silico-tantalates ; and it is probably 
preferable not to do so, on account of the great differences in 
properties between silicic and titanic acids. 

On Mineral Charcoal. By Robert Harkness, F.R.S.E., 
F.G.S., Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Queen's Col- 
lege, Cork. 

Mineral Charcoal, or, as it is termed in some parts of Eng- 
land, " Mother Coal," occurs in greater or less abundance in 
almost every description of coal.* It usually presents itself 
in the form of a black, pulverulent, fibrous, silky-looking sub- 
stance, coating or embedded in the ordinary mass of the coal. 
Sometimes, however, instead of having a fibrous structure, it 
is somewhat granular, and both these forms may, in some 
cases, be seen in the same coal. 

This substance, when fibrous, makes its appearance in a 
shred-like state, but when it has a granular aspect it is fre- 
quently manifest as a thin layer covering a face of the coal, 
and these layers often form laminae among the seams of coal. 
The occurrence of mineral charcoal in fossil fuel is not a cir- 
cumstance which always prevails, and there are certain con- 
ditions connected with coal-seams which lead to the preva- 
lence, in some beds of coal, of this matter, while in others it 
makes its appearance only to a very slight extent. 

On seeing a portion of mineral charcoal embedded in a mass 
of ordinary coal, it will be at once perceived that it must have 
owed its occurrence, in such a situation, to the influence of 
causes which have not operated uniformly on coal-seams ; and 
when we see a considerable mass of this substance associated 

* The substance here termed mineral charcoal is not, in its chemical compo- 
sition, in all cases allied to anthracite, but is that matter which, in its external 
aspect, somewhat resembles wood charcoal, and to which the name mineral 
charcoal has been applied by mineralogists. 



74 Professor Harkness on Mineral Charcoal. 

together, it will easily be perceived that this association is the 
result of partial drifting, since we have mineral charcoal so 
combined that, although each separate piece has its fibres 
parallel, the whole of the pieces are confusedly heaped to- 
gether. 

This partial drifting of the matter which now occurs in the 
form of mineral charcoal is borne out by other circumstances, 
which at once show that this substance must, to a certain ex- 
tent, be regarded as an accidental feature in coal. Among 
these circumstances, we find the evidence afforded by the in- 
terculated strata is such as to justify the conclusion that 
when this mineral charcoal makes its appearance in consi- 
derable masses in a fibrous state, it owes its position to partial 
drifting. 

In the sections given by Mr Dawson of the coal-measures 
of South Joggins, Nova Scotia {Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 
Vol. X., p. 3), we have two instances given of the occurrence 
of mineral charcoal, and in both of these the nature of the 
accompanying deposits is such as to indicate the operation of 
drifting causes. 

In the first instance, we have a " coal, with much mineral 
charcoal," 8 inches thick, lying upon " under-clay, hard and 
arenaceous," 3 feet in thickness, a description of floor which 
shows considerable motion in the water from whence it ema- 
nated. The second instance furnishes us with " coal and 
bituminous shale, prostrate trunks of trees, and mineral char- 
coal,''' half-an-inch in thickness, resting on " sandstone with 
clay partings," also indicating the prevalence of motion 
during the deposition of this bed containing mineral charcoal. 

The coal-fields of Great Britain, likewise, provide us with 
proofs that this matter also occurs among the coal in conse- 
quence of partial drifting. As an instance of this, in two 
coal-seams which are wrought near Sanquhar, in Dumfries- 
shire, where the great coal-field of Scotland has its most 
southerly limit, we meet with the same causes influencing the 
appearance of mineral charcoal. 

Here we have a coal called the Calmstone-seam, from the 
circumstance that its roof is formed of fine indurated light- 
grey clay, a deposit which must have sprung from a compara- 
tively tranquil medium, and in this coal we have few traces of 



Professor Harkness on Mineral Charcoal. 75 

the mineral charcoal, the coal having a bright aspect. In the 
other coal, which is known under the name of the Creepy, we 
have abundance of this substance, more particularly in the 
higher part of the seam, which in some spots is absolutely 
composed of mineral charcoal. The nature of the deposits 
overlying this bed of coal points out from what circumstances 
it derived its peculiar composition. The roof of the Creepy- 
coal consists of a flaggy sandstone, such as would arise from 
the operation of water in motion, in the form of currents ; and 
previous to the deposition of this sandstone roof these currents 
carried portions of plants, which became water-logged and fell 
to the bottom, forming the mineral charcoal which enters so 
largely into the composition of the Creepy coal. 

The occurrence of mineral charcoal is not confined to the 
coal of the carboniferous formations alone. The oolitic coal of 
Virginia also affords this matter, and the tertiary coals of Great 
Britain, as these are developed at Bovey Tracy, also furnish 
us with mineral charcoal. 

These, however, differ in their nature, and likewise in their 
aspect, from those which are obtained from the true coal-fields 
of Great Britain, yet there is every reason to conclude that 
they originated from the same conditions. 

As regards the nature and origin of mineral charcoal, the 
appearance which this substance presents at once furnishes 
sufficient proof of its being vegetable matter. However, as it 
has both a granular and a fibrous aspect, so it seems to differ 
in its vegetable nature. When submitted to the microscope, 
the granular variety does not afford the same regular struc- 
ture as does the fibrous kind. The former appears to consist 
of a mass of cells which are comparatively only slightly elon- 
gated, and these have, so far as can be seen, the structure of 
simple cellular tissue, which has probably been derived from 
the ordinary plants usually entering into the composition of 
coal. When this tissue is sufficiently hardened to admit of 
its being sliced transversely, an arrangement of cells in a 
hexagonal form is manifest, a description of tissue which 
occurs in the woody cylinder of sigillaria as well as in the 
gymnospermous vegetation which makes its appearance in the 
carboniferous formation. 

Concerning the more fibrous variety of mineral charcoal, 



76 Professor Harkness on Mineral Charcoal. 

this exhibits, not only when viewed under ordinary circum- 
stances, but likewise when submitted to microscopical exami- 
nation, a more highly organized structure than that which 
exists in the granular kind. A longitudinal section of the 
fibrous variety shows that the walls of the cells, instead of 
being simple, are marked by numerous hollow spaces which 
have commonly an elliptical form, the major axis of the 
ellipsis being across the cells. The spaces are closely ap- 
proximated one to another, and they present a form of tissue 
which is allied to the discigerous tissue of conifera, and the 
fibrous mineral charcoal appears to have been derived from 
the woody portion of plants which had some affinity to this 
tribe of gymnosperms. 

On comparing this fibrous tissue with that of a fossil ob- 
tained from the coal mines at Ince Hall, near Wigan, which 
I procured last summer when visiting this neighbourhood along 
with Mr Binney, I find that the structure of both these is 
such as to support the conclusion that the fibrous mineral 
charcoal has been derived from plants of a similar character 
with the fossil referred to. This fossil, which seems to belong 
to the Calamodendron of Brongniart is, in part, converted into 
iron-pyrites, and in part into mineral charcoal. It possesses 
the markings of nodi, such as prevail in calamites, and these 
are about half an inch separate from each other. But as the 
specimen is devoid of the external portion, its affinity to the 
ordinary plants of the carboniferous formation cannot be 
distinctly made out. There is sufficient evidence to show that 
this plant has, however, been the fertile source of the fibrous 
mineral charcoal. From the structure of this variety of mi- 
neral charcoal, and from the nature of the vegetation from 
which it appears to have been principally derived, it would 
seem that forms someAvhat allied to conifera were the tribe 
of plants supplying this substance. 

As mineral charcoal occurs abundantly in some varieties of 
coal, it must have been derived from plants which prevailed 
to a considerable extent during the coal epoch ; and since 
neither Sigillaria, the most prevalent form, nor Lepedodendron 
afford the discigerous structure which manifests itself in mi- 
neral charcoal, this woody matter may have formed portions 



Professor Harkness on Mineral Charcoal. 77 

of another prevailing genus, viz., calamites, the nature of 
the tissue of which we are still in ignorance. Lindley and 
Hutton, in the Fossil Flora, observe, when describing calamites 
nodosus (plate 15, 16), " This belongs to a large and well- 
known class of fossils of which the stems are more abundant 
in the beds of the carboniferous formation of the North of 
England than any others. They are often found in close 
alliance with the coal itself, especially when thin layers of 
mineral charcoal are discovered upon it:" a circumstance 
supporting the conclusion of the relation of mineral charcoal 
to calamites, and when it is considered that the specimen of 
calamodendron from Wigan, containing the same form of 
structure, is marked by nodi, one of the characteristic features 
of the calamites, the conclusion that this substance has been 
derived from such plants, is, to some extent, borne out, leading 
to the inference that calamites were gymnospermous plants 
having some affinity to the modern conifera in their internal 
structure ; which probably may have consisted of a narrow 
woody cylinder, marked with discs, enveloped in a great mass 
of simple cellular matter. 

With respect to the mineral charcoal which is found in 
coaly deposits of an age posterior to the carboniferous forma- 
tion, this also partakes of a gymnospermous character. Among 
the oolitic coal of Virginia, North America, mineral charcoal 
of this nature occurs ; but, according to Mr Darker, this be- 
longs rather to cycadia than conifera. That which is met 
with in the lignite of Bovey Tracy is decidedly coniferous, 
and the mode in which the circular areoloe arrange them- 
selves, as seen in longitudinal section, shows an intimate rela- 
tion to some of the modern conifera. In these three varieties 
of coal we have three forms of fibrous mineral charcoal, which 
are, to a considerable extent, related to each other, and which 
have been derived from representatives of the same tribe of 
plants, viz., gymnosperms, and the mode in which these are 
met with at once points out that the partial drifting of vege- 
table matter was the cause of the occurrence of mineral char- 
coal. 



78 Mr William Swan on a 

On a Simple Variation Compass. By William Swan, 
F.R.S.E., F.R.S.S.A.* 

About two years ago, my friend Mr John Adie communi- 
cated to the Royal Scottish Society of Arts the description of 
a new variation compass. His instrument, which is intended 
to be used along with an ordinary theodolite, was devised for 
the purpose of ascertaining the magnetic meridian with greater 
accuracy than is attainable, either by the use of the compass 
usually attached to theodolites, or by employing the more ordi- 
nary forms of the azimuth compass. 

Mr Adie's very elegant invention is described in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, vol. iv., p. 138. 
It consists of a delicately-suspended compass-needle, inclosed 
in a tube furnished with collars, which are placed in the Ys 
of the theodolite, the telescope having been previously re- 
moved. The ends of the needle, which are brought to fine 
points, are nearly in contact with finely divided glass dia- 
phragms ; and the needle being viewed through the dia- 
phragms by powerful eye-pieces, has its ends accurately re- 
ferred to those divisions. It is easy to see how, in this man- 
ner, the axis of the tube with its collars, — which, when placed 
in the Ys, is coincident with the axis of the theodolite tele- 
scope occupying that situation, — can be placed parallel to the 
axis of the needle ; and the reading on the horizontal limb of 
the theodolite corresponding to magnetic north may be ob- 
tained. 

From actual trial, I was so much satisfied of the excellence 
and utility of Mr Adie's instrument, that I felt desirous of 
having something of the same kind applied to a Kater's alti- 
tude and azimuth circle in my possession ; but as the telescope 
of that instrument, unlike that of the ordinary theodolite, 
does not admit of being removed, I was obliged to adopt an 
arrangement totally different from Mr Adie's. 

The instrument I devised was constructed for me by Mr 
Adie in the autumn of 1852 ; and I now describe it, in the 
hope that it may be useful to persons who, possessing instru- 

* Read before the Royal Scottish Society of Arts. 



Simple Variation Compass. 79 

merits analogous to Kater's circle, or indeed any form of theo- 
dolite, may wish to make observations of magnetic declination. 




It consists of a collar A, fitted so as to slide without much 
friction upon the object-end of the telescope of the theodolite 
with which it is to be used; an arm B, projecting in front of 
the telescope, furnished with a fine steel point C ; and a small 
collimating magnet LF, supported on an agate cap, which 
turns on the point C. The best form for the collimating mag- 
net, would, I conceive, be that of a hollow steel cylinder, car- 
rying at one end a lens L, and at the other a cross of spider- 
lines F, as represented in the figure, — a construction which 
has been adopted in various magnetic declinometers. In the 
instrument made for me by Mr Adie, instead of the cylinder 
shown in the figure, there are two steel plates, each 5 inches 
long, 0-3 broad, and 0-02 thick, placed parallel to each other, 
and connected at the ends by light frames of brass ; an ar- 
rangement which answers exceedingly well. One of these 
frames carries the lens L, and immediately behind the other, 
and between the plates, so as to be out of risk of injury, is 
placed a diaphragm carrying the cross fibres F. The lens is 
not achromatic, but as its aperture is only 0*2 inch, while its 
focal length is 4*7 inches, the image of the cross fibres formed 
by it is tolerably well defined. I should recommend, however, 
the adoption of an achromatic lens of greater aperture, and 
shorter focal length than that which I have described, and the 
hollow cylindrical magnet instead of the parallel steel plates ; 
for the cylindrical magnet will admit of the lens and cross 
lines of the collimator being more firmly fixed in their places, 
while at the same time they will be less liable to derangement 
from handling the magnet. It is scarcely necessary to ex- 
plain, that the rays of light proceeding from the cross fibres, 
which are placed in the principal focus of the lens, are ren- 



80 Mr William Swan on a 

dered parallel by the lens, and thus enter the telescope of the 
theodolite in a fit state to be brought to focus at the dia- 
phragm wires, where they form a distinct image of the cross 
fibres. A light tube represented in the figure by dotted lines, 
slides over the whole, so as to protect the magnet from currents 
of air ; and is furnished with an aperture at its end, covered with 
glass, through which light is thrown by a small reflector to illu- 
minate the cross fibres. 

The method of observation consists in first making the 
image of the intersection of the collimator cross fibres coincide 
with the middle diaphragm wire of the theodolite telescope, 
which is easily effected by means of the tangent screws of that 
instrument, and then reading off the verniers on its horizontal 
limb. If the magnetic axis of the magnet were parallel to the 
optical axis of the collimator, the reading on the limb for mag- 
netic north or south would thus be at once obtained ; but as 
such a condition can never be strictly fulfilled in practice, it 
is necessary, where an accurate result is wanted, to repeat 
the observation with the needle in an inverted position. For 
that purpose the agate cap is made to screw into opposite sides 
of the magnet, which thus admits of being suspended with 
either side uppermost. By taking the mean of the readings 
in the two positions of the magnet, any error caused by want 
of parallelism in the line of collimation and the magnetic axis 
will be either wholly or nearly eliminated. Half the differ- 
ence of the readings in the two positions of the needle, care- 
fully determined from a number of observations, may be regis- 
tered and applied as an index error, when the needle has been 
observed without having been inverted ; and such a mode of 
observation will probably be sufficiently accurate for the ordi- 
nary purposes of the surveyor. 

It is desirable that the instrument be adjusted so that the 
difference of the readings in the two positions of the magnet 
may not be great. For as the correction, for want of perfect 
adjustment, obtained by taking the mean of those readings, 
will generally be only approximate, it is well that any residual 
error should be confined within as narrow limits as possible. 

In order to ascertain the variation of the compass, or to 
apply the observations of the magnet to the ordinary purposes 



Simple Variation Compass. 81 

of surveying, it is necessary to direct the theodolite telescope 
to a meridian mark, or other proper object, and to read off its 
horizontal limb ; and it is desirable that this should be done 
both before and after observing the magnet. The collar A 
should be adjusted to the telescope before taking the observa- 
tions of the meridian mark ; and the magnet and its cover 
should be put in their places, and removed again, with as de- 
licate manipulation as possible, in order to avoid disturbing 
the theodolite, — the cover for that purpose being made to slide 
off and on with very little friction. Practically, I have found 
no sensible discrepancy in the readings for the meridian mark 
arising from disturbances caused by handling the magnet and 
its cover ; but if it be deemed desirable to avoid altogether 
the chance of such errors, it may be done by furnishing the 
aperture in the cover, which illuminates the collimator cross, 
with a piece of parallel plate-glass. The meridian mark may 
then be seen through this glass, and observed without remov- 
ing the cover, immediately after observing the magnet. Any 
error due to refraction will be eliminated by reversing the 
cover, when it is replaced after reversing the magnet, and 
again observing the meridian mark ; but a good piece of glass, 
such as that which is used for making the mirrors of sextants, 
will cause no error from refraction appreciable with the mag- 
nifying power of an ordinary theodolite telescope. 

It is always proper, however, to reverse the cover, in order to 
eliminate the effects of any attraction it may exert on the mag- 
net ; and for the same purpose, I have always observed with the 
vertical limb of my Kater's circle facing alternately east and 
west. I may add, with reference to the observations of mag- 
netic declination given in the sequel, that I have since ascer- 
tained that when that instrument was brought as near as was 
possible to a collimating magnet, suspended by a very delicate 
silk thread, and observed through a telescope, it caused no per- 
ceptible deflection. 

The practical limit to the accuracy of observations made by 
such an instrument as that which I have described, is the fric- 
tion of the point of suspension. When the needle shows any 
symptom of not swinging freely, the point should be carefully 
sharpened on a hone, — a process which any one may learn to 
perform for himself. 

VOL. I. to. i. — JAN. 1855. f 



82 Mr W. Swan on a Simple Variation Compass. 

I find that the most consistent readings are obtained, not 
by waiting until the magnet comes to rest, but by causing the 
theodolite wire to bisect the arc of vibration of the magnet, 
by estimation, as soon as that arc is reduced to about 8' or 10'. 
If the magnet has come to rest, it is easy to make it vibrate 
again in a small arc, by cautiously approaching to it a magnet 
or a piece of iron, which is again removed to a sufficient dis- 
tance before making the observation. 

As an example of the performance of the instrument, I 
select the last observation of magnetic declination I have 
made.* 



Greenwich Mean Time. 


Observed Azimuth of line of 

Collimation of Magnet : mean of 

two Verniers. 


1854, April. 
10 d It 30™ 
34 
38 


Before reversal of magnet. 

77° 46' 10" 
46 10 
46 5 


l h 45 m 
48 
51 


After reversal of magnet. 

77° 43' 37" 
43 45 
42 25 


s,:l ih 4im 


77° 44' 42" 



Azimuth of the magnetic axis of the magnet = 77° 44' 42" 
Azimuth of true north . • . =102 48 44 



Variation of needle 



= 25° 4' 



The Kater's circle, by means of which these observations 
were made, has both its vertical and horizontal limbs 6-5 inches 
in diameter, each furnished with two verniers, reading 10". 
The azimuth of the true north was deduced from transits of 
the sun, taken near the meridian, in the following manner : — 
The vertical circle being placed approximately in the meridian, 
the sun's transit over the five diaphragm wires was observed ; 
and the error and rate of the chronometer used were ascer- 
tained by comparison with the Edinburgh time-ball within 

* This paper was read on 19th June 1854. 



Dr J. H. Gladstone on Fluorescence. 83 

an hour after observing the sun. The Greenwich mean time 
of the sun's transit across the theodolite wires was thus oh- 
tained, — the correction for the rate of the chronometer in the 
short interval between the observations of the sun and the 
time-ball never exceeding S *1. The sun's hour-angle, at 
the instant of his transit across the middle wire of the theodo- 
lite, was then easily found from the known longitude of the 
station ; and the deviation of the plane of the instrument from 
the meridian was calculated with sufficient accuracy by the 
formula 

Sun's hour angle x cos. sun's declination x cosec. sun's zen. dist. 

In this manner, on various days, I obtained seven observa- 
tions for the azimuth of the true north, the greatest difference 
between any single observation and the mean of the whole 
being 30". 

I have ventured to give this brief description of the process 
by which the variation of the needle given above was ascer- 
tained, not on account of any novelty it possesses, but merely 
to enable the reader to judge what degree of reliance is to be 
placed in the result. 



Notes on some Substances which exhibit the phenomena of 
Fluorescence. By Dr J. H. Gladstone, in a Letter to 
Dr Anderson. 

To Professor Anderson, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

My dear Sir,— When I read my short communication 
" On the Fluorescence exhibited by certain Iron and Platinum 
Salts," at the Liverpool meeting of the British Association, 
you kindly offered to publish the results of my observations 
in the Philosophical Journal. I felt then that my experi- 
ments were very incomplete ; but since that time I have re- 
peated most of them, examining the blue appearance more 
critically ; and I now transmit to you a fuller description of 
the phenomena. Will you allow me also to add an account 
of a few other substances that exhibit fluorescence, but which 
have come under my notice more recently. 

f2 



84 Dr J. H. Gladstone on some Substances 

It was while investigating the laws of chemical affinity, 
that I had occasion to make many mixtures of iron salts, and 
I observed that several of these exhibited, at the edges of the 
solution, a peculiar blue dispersion of light, similar to that 
which occurs in bisulphate of quinine and some other sub- 
stances, and which, since the admirable research of Professor 
Stokes, has received the appellation " fluorescence." 

Ferrocyanide of Iron in Oxalic Acid. — If ferrocyanide of 
potassium be added to a salt of the sesquioxide of iron, we all 
know that a blue precipitate will form ; but if this addition be 
made in the presence of oxalic acid, it is not a precipitate, 
but a blue solution that results. On the surface, and about 
the edges of this, appears a blue, which is easily distinguish- 
able from the colour of the solution. It can be shown to best 
advantage when the citrate of iron is used in its production, 
since a portion of that salt always remains undecomposed. and, 
by its green colour, renders the superficial blue more evident, 
especially if it be in considerable excess. If there be not 
sufficient oxalic acid, an extremely fine precipitate diffuses 
itself throughout the liquid, and the blue refraction is more 
apparent ; if the oxalic acid be in very large excess, the so- 
lution is perfectly clear and transparent to transmitted light, 
and it is difficult to observe the blue refraction by reflected 
light, unless a ray from the sun passing through a slit in the 
shutter be allowed to fall upon it. A solution of prussian 
blue in aqueous oxalic acid exhibits the same phenomenon. 

It was important, of course, to ascertain whether this blue 
appearance was due to actual fluorescence, or was merely a 
case of opalescence produced by minutely divided solid matter. 
Upon the slightest inspection of a solution in not very strong 
oxalic acid, it was evident that there was a large amount of 
opalescence ; therefore, a perfectly clear solution was pre- 
pared by the addition of a very large quantity of the vege- 
table acid, and the following experiments were made. 

1st, A strong solution of bisulphate of quinine was prepared, 
and placed in a glass vessel behind a slit in the window 
shutter, in such a manner as to cause the sun's ray to pass 
through it. It was found to cut off the fluorescent rays so 
completely, that a solution of bisulphate of quinine in a test- 



which exhibit the phenomena of Fluorescence. 85 

tube, held in the ray behind it, appeared perfectly free from 
colour. Another test-tube, containing the solution of ferro- 
cyanide of iron in oxalic acid, was placed in the same posi- 
tion ; the internal dispersion was much diminished, though 
not altogether destroyed, and it was of a greener hue than 
when the sulphate of quinine was not interposed. This effect 
did not take place on the interposition of a similar thickness 
of distilled water. From this it was concluded that there was 
true, as well as false, internal dispersion. 

2d, Thinking that if the solution under examination were 
itself fluorescent, it ought to cut off the rays capable of pro- 
ducing fluorescence, just as the quinine salt does, I filled two 
glass vessels of similar form and size, the one with a solution 
of ammoniacal sulphate of copper, the other with a solution 
of prussian blue in oxalic acid. They were almost identical 
in colour and appearance when viewed by transmitted light ; 
when examined by reflected light, the iron solution appeared 
dull and slightly green, and the result proved that the light 
which passed through them was really very different in its 
properties. When a tube containing bisulphate of quinine 
was placed in a ray of light which had passed through the 
copper solution, its course was marked by a beautiful fluores- 
cent blue ; but when placed in a ray that had traversed the 
blue iron solution, it remained colourless. When a solution 
of the prussian blue was itself substituted for the quinine salt 
in the tube, a like result was obtained ; the ray that had 
passed through the ammoniacal copper solution produced a 
fine fluorescence, while that through the iron solution exhi- 
bited little or no internal dispersion ; and so it was with other 
fluorescent substances. This difference of action of the two 
blue solutions equally took place when the ferrocyanide was 
diluted so as to be far lighter in colour than the copper solu- 
tion. 

On casting the prismatic spectrum into a vessel containing 
prussian blue dissolved in oxalic acid, it was found that the 
solution transmitted green light in those parts of the spec- 
trum which are ordinarily yellow, and blue in those portions 
which are usually green or blue ; while nothing was trans- 
mitted in the violet portion of the spectrum, nor did any lu- 



86 Dr J. H. Gladstone on some Substances 

minous appearance present itself (as in the case of bisulphate 
of quinine) beyond. The peculiar phenomenon of the blue 
coloration of the liquid itself to a certain depth was exhibited 
about the least refrangible portion of the ordinary blue ray. 
I should have defined these positions by a reference to Fraun- 
hofer's fixed lines ; but the atmosphere was too hazy at this 
season of the year to admit of my obtaining a sufficiently good 
and bright spectrum by means that exhibited the lines plainly 
enough in the summer. 

Meconate of Iron. — The red solution that results when a 
salt of the scsquioxide of iron is added to meconic acid, ex- 
hibits on its surface a faint fluorescence. It showed itself 
when the red was produced by double decomposition from the 
ferric, nitrate, sulphate, or chloride ; but I failed to detect it 
in the red solution that ensues when sesquioxide of iron itself 
is dissolved in meconic acid. I believe this arises from the 
meconate thus produced being a more acid compound ; for 
there are several meconates A sesquioxide of iron, and I found 
that the iron salt should be in excess to cause the blue, while 
the addition of a large excess of meconic acid to a fluorescent 
red solution will cause the appearance to cease. 

The blue in this case also seemed to be partially due to 
opalescence ; but it was diminished in a marked manner when 
a solution of bisulphate of quinine was interposed in the in- 
cident ray. When placed behind a screen of ammoniacal 
sulphate of copper, it displayed an intense blue ; but when 
held behind one of ferrocyanide of iron dissolved in oxalic 
aci !, scarcely any blue was perceptible. 

This meconate was found to transmit none of the rays of 
the prismatic spectrum excepting the red and orange, and the 
fluorescence in this case appeared to manifest itself about the 
region where the green passes into the blue. 

Gallate of Iron. — A very faint fluorescence is exhibited by 
the greenish-black solution that ensues when gallic acid is 
added to a salt of sesquioxide of iron perfectly free from prot- 
oxide. The blue fluorescence appears to be unaffected by an 
excess of either the metallic salt or the acid. 

Platinum Salt. — If dilute solutions of bichloride of pla- 
tinum and of iodide of potassium be mixed together in the pro- 



which exhibit the phenomena of Fluorescence. 87 

portion of two equivalents of the latter to one of the former, 
a brownish-red solution results, which exhibits a blue appear- 
ance at the edges. If to such a solution successive portions of 
either the platinum salt, or the iodide of the alkali, be added, 
the fluorescence gradually diminishes, and eventually ceases 
to be discernible. What the fluorescent compound here is I 
have not been able to ascertain with any degree of certainty. 
Pure biniodide of platinum is insoluble in water, and its solu- 
tion in iodide of potassium is of a most intense red, without 
any superficial blue. Probably chlorine in some condition 
forms a constituent of the compound ; indeed the fluorescence 
was found to be rather increased than otherwise by the addi- 
tion of chloride of potassium, though the red colour was con- 
siderably reduced. That this internal dispersion was not due 
to mere opalescence, was proved by its not being exhibited 
when the incident light had passed through quinine salt. 

Besides these experiments on iron and platinum salts, I have 
made several with the specimen of comenamic acid which you 
were kind enough to give me. I subjoin the results. 

Alkaline Comenamates. — I found that an aqueous solution 
of the acid itself is absolutely devoid of dispersive power upon 
a ray of light, but that when combined with an alkaline base 
it is very fluorescent. If excess of potash be added, a blue 
results which is almost equal to that of bisulphate of quinine ; 
and as the solution is itself perfectly transparent and colour- 
less, it may serve as a good additional means of analyzing 
light. The blue does not appear when the comenamate of 
potash is placed in a ray that has traversed a solution of qui- 
nine salt, or of prussian blue in oxalic acid ; but it is rendered 
very visible in a ray which has passed through the ammonia- 
cal copper salt. On throwing a prismatic spectrum upon a 
solution of this salt, the blue dispersion was found to take 
place in the violet portion of the beam. 

The comenamate of soda resembles the potash salt. 

The ammonia salt, the epipolic dispersion of which Mr 
How has mentioned in his paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. Ed. xx,, 
Pt. 2), was also examined. I found it required great dilution 
to bring out the effect properly ; and it did not seem to me to 



88 Dr J. H. Gladstone on some Substances 

give a blue equal in intensity to that of the compounds with 
the fixed bases. 

Baryta, or lime-water, added in excess to a solution of co- 
menamic acid, likewise gives a fluorescent solution. 

Mr How remarks that comenamic acid usually combines 
with bases in two proportions ; and I have strong reason for 
thinking that it is the more basic compounds that give the 
appearances above noted. 

Comenamate of Iron. — Sesquioxide of iron enters into two 
combinations with comenamic acid. The more acid one is of 
a wine-red colour, and exhibits no dispersion ; the basic one 
is of a bluish purple, and when sufficiently diluted becomes 
fluorescent. Thus, if nitrate of iron in excess be added to 
comenamic acid, and water be poured on to the deep purple 
liquid, it will change through claret and pink, and then there 
will appear some faint blue rays, which are not exhibited 
when a solution of bisulphate of quinine is interposed. On 
throwing a prismatic spectrum on to this compound, I did not 
detect the illumination of any extra-spectral rays. 

Comenamate of Quinine. — Considering that so many salts 
both of quinine and of comenamic acid caused the phenomenon 
of fluorescence, it seemed not improbable that a compound of 
the two might give it with increased effect. However, experi- 
ment proved it otherwise. To a solution of comenamic acid 
quinine was added, until a portion of the alkali remained un- 
dissolved, even after standing over night. The solution thus 
obtained showed no dispersive power ; on dilution a very faint 
blue appeared, when viewed in the most favourable positions ; 
but it is quite possible that this may even have arisen from 
some minute impurity. The addition of sulphate of potash 
did not revive the blue (at least not to any extent), but the 
slightest addition of either sulphuric acid, or potash, alone, 
reproduced it. 

When it is remembered that only acid salts of quinine, and 
only basic salts of comenamic acid (as I apprehend), display 
the blue, the absence of such an appearance in this compound 
is less improbable a priori than would at first be imagined. 

I have added comenamic acid to solutions of several salts 



which exhibit the phenomena of Fluorescence. 89 

of the earths and metallic oxides — including uranium — with- 
out being able to observe any other instances of fluorescence ; 
not even in the case of the lead salt, produced from the basic 
acetate of lead. This, however, cannot be considered as the 
way most suited for producing fluorescent comenamates. 

Sulphate of Uranium. — Among the many fluorescent com- 
pounds of uranium, Professor Stokes does not mention the 
sulphate. I prepared the salt, and found that the crystals 
gave a fine greenish dispersion in the more refrangible por- 
tion of the spectrum, to about the same extent as the nitrate 
does. A strong aqueous solution was likewise fluorescent, 
though only to a slight degree. 

Phosphate of Phenyl. — In the Quarterly Journal of the 
Chemical Society, which appeared last month, there is a paper 
by Mr Scrugham on " Some New Compounds of Phenyl," in 
which he describes, among other bodies, a tribasic phosphate. 
It is an oily liquid at the ordinary temperature, and is said to 
be fluorescent : " By ordinary daylight, the epipolic rays, 
which have a fine violet tint, are visible at some distance be- 
low the surface ; the flame of sulphur does not produce this 
effect more strongly than the light of the sun." Through the 
kindness of Professor Williamson, I have had an opportunity 
of examining a fine specimen of this substance. It was clear, 
but of a somewhat yellow tint ; and the dispersed colour was, 
as stated, not blue, but a very beautiful violet. It was so 
strong as to be perfectly visible by gas-light : it did not ex- 
hibit itself behind a screen of sulphate of quinine, or ferro- 
cyanide of iron solution ; and when examined by a ray which 
had passed through ammoniacal sulphate of copper, it pre- 
sented an appearance as of a self-luminous, pale violet cloud, 
entering some distance, perhaps an inch, into the liquid. 

Ottar of Poses. — It is well known that many oils, produced 
by the dry distillation of organic bodies, exhibit a great dis- 
position to internal dispersion. It is in most cases difficult 
to isolate the particular substance to which the property may 
be owing. Mr Arthur Church has, however, directed my at- 
tention to one hydrocarbon that displays a remarkable fluo- 
rescence — the ottar of roses. The blue appearance in this 
case is similar to that of sulphate of quinine, and is produced 



90 Professor W. Thomson on Mechanical 

or impeded by the same circumstances. Mr Church states 
that he has by this means determined the presence or absence 
of this essential oil in various mixtures, where it certainly 
could not have been detected by ordinary means of analysis. 

Thinking that the green exhibited in certain directions by 
the purple murexide might be due to this cause, we examined 
it hy means of a screen of yellow uranium glass, or of sulphate 
of quinine solution. Neither of these, however, prevented in 
any measure the exhibition of the green colour. A solution 
of murexide in water, also, displays no sign of fluorescence. 

I regret that I have been prevented by other scientific en- 
gagements from working out the above miscellaneous observa- 
tions so fully as I could have desired ; yet I send you the 
present notice of them, hoping it may interest some of your 
readers, and may lead to a further examination of the sub- 
stances by parties more accustomed than myself to optical 
experiments. I remain, my dear Sir, yours, &c. 

John H. Gladstone. 

London, Nov. 13, 1854. 



On Mechanical Antecedents of Motion, Heat, and Light. 
By William Thomson, Esq., Professor of Natural Philo- 
sophy, University of Glasgow. Communicated to the British 
Association, Section A, Monday, Sep. 28, 1854. [Author's 
Abstract.] 

This communication was opened with some general expla- 
nations regarding mechanical energy, and the terms which 
have been introduced to designate the various forms under 
which it is manifested. Any piece of matter, or any group of 
bodies, however connected, which either is in motion, or can 
get into motion without external assistance, has what is called 
mechanical energy. The energy of motion may be called 
either " dynamical energy,"" or " actual energy." The energy 
of a material system at rest, in virtue of which it can get into 
motion, is called " potential energy." The author showed the 
use of these terms, and explained the ideas of a store of 
energy, and conversions and transformations of energy, by 
various illustrations. A stone at a height, or an elevated re- 



Antecedents of Motion > Heat, and Light. 91 

servoir of water, has potential energy. If the stone be let 
fall, its potential energy is converted into actual energy 
during its descent, exists entirely as the actual energy of its 
own motion at the instant before it strikes, and is transformed 
into heat at the moment of coming to rest on the ground. If 
the water flow down by a gradual natural channel, its poten- 
tial energy is gradually converted into heat by fluid friction, 
according to an admirable discovery made by Mr Joule, of 
Manchester, about twelve years ago, which has led to the 
greatest reform that physical science has experienced since 
the days of Newton. From that discovery it may be con- 
cluded with certainty, that heat is not matter, but some kind 
of motion among the particles of matter ; a conclusion esta- 
blished, it is true, by Sir Humphrey Davy and Count Rum- 
ford, at the end of last century, but ignored by even the high- 
est scientific men during a period of more than forty years. 
Mr Joule, by a series of well-planned and executed experi- 
ments, ascertained that a pound of water would have its 
temperature increased by 1° (Fahrenheit), if it kept all the 
heat that would be generated by its descent in the way de- 
scribed above through 772 feet ; that is, the " actual " or 
" dynamical " energy of as much heat as raises by one de- 
gree the temperature of a pound of water, is an exact equi- 
valent for the potential energy of a pound of matter 772 
feet above the ground. Mr Joule also fully established 
the relations of equivalence among the energies of chemical 
affinity, of heat of combination or of combustion, of electrical 
currents in the galvanic battery, of electrical currents in mag- 
neto-electric machines, of engines worked by galvanism, and 
of all the varied and interchangeable manifestations of calorific 
action and mechanical force which accompany them. These 
researches, with the theory of animal heat and motion in re- 
lation to the heat of combustion of the food, and the theory 
of the phenomena presented by shooting stars, due to the same 
penetrating investigator, have afforded to the author of the pre- 
sent communication the chief groundwork for his speculations. 
The heat emitted by animals, and the mechanical effects 
which they produce, are transformations of the energy of che- 
mical affinity with which the food consumed by them com- 



92 Professor W. Thomson on Mechanical 

bines with the oxygen they inhale. The heat, sound, and 
mechanical effects, produced by the explosion of gunpowder 
are, all together, equivalent to the energy of chemical affinity 
between the different substances of which the unburned pow- 
der is composed. The potential energy of war is contained in 
the stores of gunpowder and food which are brought to the 
field. The gunpowder carried by artillery and infantry con- 
tains all the potential energy ordinarily brought into action 
by those two arms of the service. The men's food, and the 
forage for the horses, contain the stores of potential energy 
drawn upon in a charge of cavalry. Artillerymen, foot-sol- 
diers (unless employed to make a bayonet charge), sailors, 
steamers with their engines, guns, swords, are only means and 
appliances by which the potential energy contained in the 
stores of gunpowder and food is directed to strike the blows 
by which the desired effects are produced. 

The heat and mechanical actions of animals are transforma- 
tions of the potential energy of their food, mechanically equi- 
valent to the heat that would be got by burning it. The food 
of animals is either vegetable, or animal fed on vegetable, or 
ultimately vegetable after several removes. Now, — except 
mushrooms and other funguses, which can grow in the dark, 
are nourished by organic food like animals, and absorb 
oxygen and exhale carbonic acid, like animals, — all known 
vegetables get the greater part of their substance, certainly 
all their combustible matter, from the decomposition of car- 
bonic acid and water absorbed by them from the air and soil. 
The separation of carbon and of hydrogen from oxygen in 
these decompositions is an energetic effect, equivalent to the 
heat of recombination of those elements by combustion, or 
otherwise. The beautiful discovery of Priestley, and the sub- 
sequent researches of Sennebier, De Saussure, Sir Humphrey 
Davy, and. others, have made it quite certain that those de- 
compositions of water and carbonic acid only take place 
naturally in the daytime, and that light falling on the green 
leaves, either from the Sun or from an artificial source, is an 
essential condition, without which they are never effected. 
There cannot be a doubt but that it is the dynamical energy 
of the luminiferous vibrations which is here efficient in forcing 



Antecedents of Motion, Heat, and Light. 93 

the particles of carbon and hydrogen away from those of oxy- 
gen, towards which they are attracted with such powerful 
affinities ; and that luminiferous motions are reduced to rest 
to an extent exactly equivalent to the potential energy thus 
called into being. Whether or not the coolness of green 
fields and fresh foliage is, to any sensible extent, due to this 
cause, it is quite certain that sun-heat is put out of existence 
as heat, by the growth of plants in any locality ; and that 
just as much heat, neither more nor less, is emitted from fires 
in which the whole growth of any period of time is burned. 
Coal, composed as it is of the relics of ancient vegetation, de- 
rived its potential energy from the light of distant ages. 
Wood fires give us heat and light which has been got 
from the Sun a few years ago. Our coal fires and gas lamps 
bring out, for our present comfort, heat and light of a primeval 
Sun, which have lain dormant as potential energy beneath 
seas and mountains for countless ages. 

We must look, then, to the Sun as the source from which the 
mechanical energy of all the motions and heat of living crea- 
tures, and all the motion, heat, and light derived from fires and 
artificial flames, is supplied. The natural motions of air and 
water derive their energy partly no doubt from the sun's heat, 
but partly also from the earth's rotatory motion, and the rela- 
tive motions and mutual forces between the earth, moon, and 
sun. If we except the heat derivable from the combustion of 
native sulphur and of meteoric iron, every kind of motion 
(heat and light included) that takes place naturally, or that 
can be called into existence through man's directing powers on 
this earth, derives its mechanical energy either from the Sun's 
heat or from motions and forces among bodies of the solar 
system. 

In a speculation recently communicated to the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, the author had shown that the Sun's heat is pro- 
bably due to friction in his atmosphere between his surface 
and a vortex of vapours ; fed externally by the evaporation of 
small planets in a surrounding region of very high tempera- 
ture — which they reach by gradual spiral paths ; and falling 
inwards in torrents of meteoric rain from the luminous atmo- 
sphere of intense resistance, to his surface. 



94 Professor W. Thomson on Mechanical 

A continuation of the inquiry raises the question, from 
what source do the planets, large and small, derive the me- 
chanical energy of their motions % This is a question to the 
answering of which mechanical reasoning may legitimately be 
applied. For we know that from age to age the potential 
energy of the mutual gravitation of those bodies is gradually 
expended, half in augmenting their motions, and half in gene- 
rating heat ; and we may trace this kind of action either 
backwards or forwards — backwards for a million of million of 
years with as little presumption as forwards for a single day. 
If we trace them forwards we find that the end of this world 
as a habitation for man, or for any living creature or plant at 
present existing in it, is mechanically inevitable ; and if we 
trace them backwards according to the laws of matter and 
motion — certainly fulfilled in all the actions of nature which 
we have been allowed to observe — we find that a time must 
have been when the earth, with no Sun to illuminate it, the 
other bodies known to us as planets, and the countless smaller 
planetary masses at present seen as the zodiacal light, must 
have been indefinitely remote from one another, and from all 
other solids in space. All such conclusions are subject to 
limitation, as we do not know at what moment a creation of 
matter or energy may have given a beginning, beyond which 
mechanical speculations cannot lead us. If in purely mecha- 
nical science we are ever liable to forget this limitation, we 
ought to be reminded of it by considering that purely mecha- 
nical reasoning shows a time when the earth must have been 
tenantless, and teaches us that our own bodies, as well as all 
living plants and animals, and all fossil organic remains, are 
organized forms of matter to which science can point no ante- 
cedent except the will of a Creator, a truth amply illustrated 
by the evidence of geological history. But if duly impressed 
with this limitation to the certainty of all speculations regard- 
ing the future, and prehistorical periods of the past ; we may 
legitimately push them into endless futurity, and we can be 
stopped by no barrier of past time without ascertaining at some 
finite epoch a state of matter not derivable from any antece- 
dent by natural laws. Although we can conceive of such a state 
of all matter, or of the matter within any limited space, and 



Antecedents of Motion, Heat, and Light. 95 

have cases of it in the arbitrary distributions of temperature 
prescribed as " initial'' in the theory of the conduction of heat 
(see* Cambridge Mathematical Journal, Vol. IV., p. 67, 1843) 
yet we have no indications whatever of natural instances of it ; 
and in the present state of science we may look for mechanical 
antecedents to every natural state of matter which we either 
know or can conceive at any past epoch, however remote. 

It is by tracing backwards the motions which are at pre- 
sent observed, according to the known laws of motion and 
heat, with no limit as to time, that the author arrives at the 
conclusion that the bodies now constituting our solar system 
have been at infinitely greater distances from one another in 
space than they are now. He remarked, that the nebular theory, 
as ordinarily stated, assuming as it does a previously gaseous 
state of matter, is not only untrue, but the reverse of the 
truth, according to the views now brought forward ; since these 
show evaporation — as a necessary consequence of heat gene- 
rated by collisions and friction, and the general past and pre- 
sent tendency of matter is seen to be the conglomeration of 
solids and liquids, accompanied by a gradual increase of the 
density of gaseous fluid evaporated through space. 

Professor Helmholz, in a most interesting popular lecture 
on transformations of natural forces, delivered on the 7th of 
February last at Konigsberg, has estimated that, if the par- 
ticles at present constituting the Sun's mass have been drawn 
together by mutual gravitation from a state of infinite diffusion, 
as assumed in the nebular theory, (not however a gaseous state, 
as ordinarily supposed, but a state in which the particles ex- 
ercise no mutual action except that of gravitation,) the whole 
heat generated must have amounted to about 28,000,000 ther- 
mal units centigrade per pound of the sun's mass. This esti- 
mate would not, as the author of the present paper shows, 
require any change, whether we assume as the immediately 
antecedent condition of the Sun's matter a state of infinite 
diffusion or a state of aggregation in solid masses of any di- 

* " Note on some points in the Theory of Heat," a short article in which it 
was shown how to test the age of a distribution of heat, by applying a certain 
criterion of convergence to its expression in the infinite series, characteristic of 
the external circumstances of the body in which it is given. 



96 Antecedents of Motion, Heat, and Light. 

mensions small compared with, his present dimensions, and 
separated from one another at comparatively great distances, 
provided always there has been no relative motion among 
them except what is generated by mutual gravitation. If, 
then, the whole mass of the Sun has grown by the process 
which, according to the author's theory (certain as regards a 
part, whether or not it may be sufficient to account for the 
whole, of the radiation) of solar heat, we know to be augment- 
ing it at present, there must have been generated in the whole 
process of conglomeration the quantity of heat stated above, a 
quantity which amounts to about 20,000,000 times as much 
as is at present radiated off in one year. The author gave 
reasons for believing that this heat has probably been nearly 
all radiated off immediately on being generated ; and that 
enough of it has not been retained in the conglomerated mass 
to be the store from which the heat at present radiated is 
drawn. 

That the present solar radiation is supplied chiefly from a store 
of heat contained in the mass, whether created there or generated 
mechanically by the impacts of meteors which have fallen in 
during remote periods of past time, appears very improbable. 

On the contrary, there must in all probability be some agency 
continually supplying heat to compensate the loss constantly 
experienced by radiation from the Sun ; and that agency,* as 
the author has shown elsewhere, can be no other than the me- 
chanical action of masses coming from a state of very rapid 
motion round the Sun, to rest on his surface. 

* It is quite certain that it cannot, as the nebular theory has led some to 
suppose it may, be the energy of gravitation effecting any continued condensa- 
tion of the Sun's present mass, since without increased pressure, it is only by 
cooling that any condensation can be taking place ; and the heat emitted in 
consequence of condensation by cooling, would depend merely on the specific 
heat of the whole mass in its actual circumstances of temperature and pressure, 
and might, (for all we know of the properties of matter at such high tempera- 
tures and pressures) be greater than equal to, or less than, the thermal equiva- 
lent of the work done by gravity on the contracting body. Thus the heat 
emitted by a mass of air, contracting under any constant pressure, is greater 
than the amount mechanically equivalent to the work done by the pressure. 
The heat emitted by a mass of water, or of mercury, cooling from 100° to 50° 
Cent, under any constant pressure exceeding about 90,000 atmospheres, is less 
than the amount of heat mechanically equivalent to the work done by the pres- 
sure on the contracting mass. 



Observations on Glacial Phenomena in Scotland. 97 

The author showed how a system of solid bodies, large and 
small, initially at rest, and at great distances from one an- 
other, may, by their mutual gravitations, and by the resist- 
ance their motions must experience in the gaseous atmosphere 
evaporated from them by the heat of their collisions, after a 
vast period of time come into a state of motion, heat, and 
light, analogous to the present conditions of our solar system 
and of the visible stars. 

The origin of rotatory motion is explained by showing that 
different systems starting from rest will influence one another 
so as to acquire contrary rotatory motions without any aggre- 
gate of rotatory momentum being acquired by the whole. Any 
system or group beginning to concentrate round one principal 
mass, after having thus acquired a momentum of rotatory 
motion, will acquire from it, in a certain stage of advance- 
ment, just such approximately circular motions as those of the 
planets, the particles of the zodiacal light, and the satellites 
of our solar system, and such rotatory motions as the central 
and other masses are known to have, all chiefly in one direction. 

In considering the question whether all the heat and mo- 
tion at present existing in matter have their origin in that 
action by which their amount is at present being increased, it 
is shown that unless their entire actual energy exceeds a cer- 
tain definite limit, namely, the value of the whole potential 
energy of gravitation that would be spent in drawing all the 
particles of matter from a state of infinite diffusion into their 
present positions, it is quite possible they may be so produced 
— or, that the potential energy of gravitation may be in 
reality the ultimate created antecedent of all the motion, 
heat, and light at present existing in the universe. 

Further Observations on Glacial Phenomena in Scotland 
and the North of England. By R. Chambers, F.R.S.E. 

In a former paper, read to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
and published in Jameson's Philosophical Journal for April 
1853, I endeavour to establish a distinction between an early 
general operation of ice over the surface of Scotland, leaving 
ihe compact boulder clay as its monument, and a more recent 

VOL. I. no. I. — JAN. 1855. G- 



98 R. Chambers, Esq., on Glacial Phenomena 

presence of valley glaciers in our chief mountain systems, the 
detritus of which was of a lighter, looser, and coarser texture, 
indeed identical in character with the moraines of existing 
Alpine glaciers. The latter glacial operation I considered as 
for certain taking place without the presence of the sea, and 
in circumstances which admitted of a constant drainage from 
the body of the glaciers. The former I deemed as showing, 
in its effects, that either the sea was present, or that the ice, 
covering a large surface of country, and consequently having 
no drainage comparable to that of a valley glacier, retained 
its own water within or about itself, so that the circumstances 
were not greatly different from what we might expect in large 
floods of sea-borne ice. It must remain an obscure problem 
how ice can move over large surfaces of country ; but that its 
so moving is a fact of nature, has, since the preparation of my 
paper, been remarkably confirmed by the observations of Dr H. 
Rink of Copenhagen in the west of North Greenland, where 
he has found what may be called a continental glacier of 
vast thickness, continually advancing from the interior of the 
country to the coast, and there breaking off in icebergs. 

I have been able this summer to make a few observations 
tending further to illustrate the distinction which I endea- 
voured to establish between the compact boulder clay, as a 
memorial of early, general, and watery glaciation, and the 
coarse brown drift, as a monument of subaerial valley glacia- 
tion, exactly resembling that seen in the Alps. 

True moraines had been scarcely detected in Scotland before 
Mr Maclaren described that of Glenmessan, in Argyleshire, to 
the geological section of the British Association in 1850. The 
only examples adverted to before that period were those pointed 
out by Sir Charles Lyell, as forming the dams of Lochs Brandy 
and Whorral, two mountain tarns, placed high on the eastern 
skirts of the Grampians, and one or two specimens observed 
by Professor James Forbes on the skirts of the Cuhullin hills, 
in Skye. In the paper just adverted to, I described some ex- 
amples of moraines which I had discovered in the wilds of 
Skye, of Sutherlandshire, and Ross-shire. Since then, some 
others have come under my attention, and I am able to put 
this kind of phenomena under a certain degree of classification. 

In at least two of the valleys descending from the skirts of 



in Scotland and the North of England. 99 

Ben Macdui, in Aberdeenshire, there are conspicuous mo- 
raines of the terminal order, which have been left by their 
respective glaciers at various stages of their shrinkings. In 
Glen Dearg, there are fully four unmistakeable masses of de- 
tritus of this kind, a mile or two apart from each other, and 
which would each block up the valley entirely, and form a 
lake of its waters, if these had not been able, in the course of 
time, to make a passage through them. I measured the height 
of one of these masses, and found it 130 feet. The bottom of 
this valley must be about 1700 feet above the level of the sea. 

Valley glaciers have, however, descended much below this 
level. At a much lower point in the valley of the Dee, name- 
ly, in the side vale of the Muick, and on the property of the 
Prince of Wales, there is a scarcely less remarkable series of 
moraines. In this case the glacier would be partly fed from 
the skirts of Lochnagar. 

In the valley of the Tay, masses of moraine matter first at- 
tract attention a little below Aberfeldy, not much more than 
300 feet above the sea-level. In the tributary valley descend- 
ing from the skirts of Schihallion, near Garth castle, are 
some of the higher, and consequently more recent, terminal 
moraines of what must have been a feeder of the same glacier. 

Few as are the other examples of valley moraines in Scot- 
land, which have come under my observation since the publi- 
cation of the former paper, it would be tedious to enumerate 
them. They are such, however, as to show that wherever there 
are mountains in Scotland approaching or exceeding 3000 feet 
in height, there have glaciers been, tearing away detritus, and 
leaving it in large accumulations. 

Such is one class of Scottish moraines. There is another 
class connected with bosoms or recesses of the more elevated 
class of mountains, being usually placed in front of these as a 
fender is placed before a fire. In such recesses we are to 
presume that masses of snow have gathered, till they became 
so great that a movement outward took place. With this 
movement, perhaps not a mile in extent, often only a few 
hundred yards, came detritus, which of course rested at the 
outskirts of the mass. Of this character was a moraine which 
I formerly described as existing in Benmore Coigach near 

a 2 



100 R. Chambers, Esq., on Glacial Phenomena 

Ullapool. Such too are the moraines which confine Lochs 
Whorral and Brandy. On lately visiting for the first time 
the well-known Loch Skene in Dumfriesshire, which resembles 
the above two lakes in situation, I found it to be formed by a 
moraine of this order. The hills are here about 2600 feet 
high, being the loftiest in Scotland south of the Forth. In a 
south looking recess, backed by a lofty wall of bare rock, and 
on a platform which cannot be less than 1200 feet above the 
sea lies this celebrated lake, hemmed in towards the south by 
a bewildering number of hillocks and ridges of gray coarse 
drift, the manifest spoils of the ice which once filled the 
recess. In front of a similar sinus to the westward, we have 
the same lines and humps of detritus ; but the water has there 
made a passage for itself and escaped. This passage is as 
clearly defined as a gate in a wall or a drain in a field. 

In the Island of Arran, near the mouth of the valley of Loch 
Ranza, and not more than fifty feet above the sea, there is a 
line of detritus of, perhaps, a furlong in length, and cut down 
by an opening in the centre. It faces to a north-looking 
recess in the hills, and is doubtless the moraine of the glacier 
(if it can be so called) which once filled that recess. The 
intervening space, which is of no great extent, is now occu- 
pied by a morass. 

To this class of objects, which are also very common in 
Scotland, the name of Recess Moraines might perhaps be 
considered appropriate. 

For the satisfaction of English geologists., few of whom may 
have opportunities of going over my ground in Scotland, it is 
well that I can point to an object in England bearing all the 
characteristics of a moraine. It is not of the terminal kind, 
like those in the Ben Macdui valley of Glen Dearg, but a very 
perfect example of a lateral moraine, or moraine left on the 
side of a glacier. I must transport my readers to the centre 
of the Lake District, where occurs the well-known col or pass 
named Dunmailraise, 720 feet above the level of the sea. 
Valleys descending from the adjacent mountain range, in- 
cluding the Langdale Pikes, and Borrowdale Fells, — go, one 
to the east by Grassmere, and another to the west by Thirl- 
mere, leaving the cross valley or valley of passage, of which 
Dunmailraise is the summit, extending about four miles be- 



in Scotland and the North of England. 101 

tween. Now, where the Thirlmere valley enters this valley 
of passage, near the Wythburn Inn, we see a remarkable- 
looking double ridge descending the hillside. It is prominent 
above the general outline of ground, to the height of about 
thirty feet, and its surface is bristled with blocks. This double 
ridge precisely answers in form and relative situation to the 
character of such a moraine as that of Les Tines, connected 
with the Glacier des Bois of Chamouni. It is the train of 
detritus which a glacier three or four hundred feet deep, 
coming down the Thirlmere valley, would throw over and 
leave, at two stages, on the face of the valley of passage in 
which we find it. The constituent rocks are the same as those 
of the valley. Further down the vale of Thirlmere, there are 
many other heaps of the like detritus (along with rounded, 
grooved, and scratched rocks), but none that take so signifi- 
cant a form as this. It is also to be observed that glacialised 
rock faces abound in the valley above the point where it joins 
the valley of passage. 

Some late observations tend to confirm my former propo- 
sition, that there are two sets of glacial phenomena, widely 
different in extent, and separated in time. 

The well-known mountain of Schihallion in Perthshire, 
rises from a plateau about 1100 feet above the sea, to the 
height of 3600 and upwards. It is composed of quartz 
rock, and . to the comparative hardness is due the preemi- 
nence, which (with one exception), it has over all the neigh- 
bouring mountains. This great mountain is abrupt to the 
westward, and tails away to the east, precisely like the 
many hills in the valley of the Forth, which are regarded 
as taking their form from glacial action. The top of the 
ridge being thickly strewn with loose slabs, shows such a 
tendency to peeling under a denuding agent, that it seems a 
very unlikely place for the discovery of glacial smoothings 
and scratchings. Nevertheless, I found surfaces at several 
places, bearing that peculiar streaking which I had remarked 
some years ago as a glacial phenomenon peculiar to quartz 
rock on the mountain of Queenaig in Assynt. About half 
way up from the plateau, and certainly not less than 2200 
feet above the sea, — a point where we are above the summit 
of Ferragon, the most conspicuous mountain to the eastward, 



102 Ii. Chambers, Esq., on Glacial Phenomena in Scotland. 

and likewise many of the sky-lines, "both to the north and 
south, — there was one fine group of examples. There is an- 
other similarly striated or streaked surface only a few hun- 
dred feet below the summit of the hill. The direction of 
the striation in both instances is W. 30 N., being the general 
direction of the ridge of which the mountain consists. About 
800 feet below the summit, I found a block of granite, and 
in several other places there were blocks of other rocks like- 
wise different from those of which the hill consists. From 
all I have seen, I can entertain no doubt that Schihallion owes 
its form to a glacial agent which has engulfed its whole mass. 

It has been related that humps of brown moraine detritus 
are found in the vale of the Tay, and in the tributary valley 
which ascends to the skirts of Schihallion. Such is a general 
condition of valleys in relation to similar mountain groups 
in Scotland. On coming, however, to a col or summit-level 
on the eastern skirts of the mountain (a place called "White 
Bridge, fully 1000 feet above the sea), we find a total change 
in the character of the detritus. Here we have the unmis- 
takeable blue boulder clay, a deep bed, enclosing blocks of 
various sizes, but none very large, all worn smooth and many 
of them striated. This spot is a pass between valleys — 
consequently lies out of the way of any common valley 
glaciers, such as those which I believe to have deposited the 
brown moraine matter just adverted to. It has been spared 
by these glaciers, and allowed to retain its share of that other 
covering elsewhere found so universal in Scotland. Such, at 
least, is the only reading which I can give to the facts. 

In my former paper, I adverted to a peculiar mass of de- 
tritus resting in the valley of passage at Dunmailraise. That 
place, I said, had been out of the scope of the glaciers which 
I showed must have once filled the valleys of the lake dis- 
trict, and it had been allowed to retain a detritus probably 
resulting from some earlier operations. By a second and 
more careful observation, I have now satisfied myself that 
this mass of detritus is greatly different from that composing 
the remains of moraines at Grasmere, a point within the scope 
of the valley glacier, descending to the east from the bosoms 
of the Langdale Pikes. While both are fundamentally red 
clays, and both of a compact character, the latter is less com- 



On the Great Terrace of Erosion in Scotland. 103 

pact than the former, contains a greater number of blocks, 
and these reaching a much greater size, and many of them 
smoothed and striated— a peculiarity I could not detect in 
any of those which rest in the deep mass of detritus nearer the 
summit of the pass. It is possible that that mass, then, may 
be composed of washings from the adjacent hill sides, effected 
at a time when this valley was a sound ; but I incline rather 
to class it with such phenomena as Professor Ramsay has 
found in Wales, and myself in Scotland, and which I regard 
as relics of an old clay, due to a general glacial action over 
the surface of the country, and which has been removed and 
replaced by a looser material in all parts possessed of the re- 
quisites for ordinary local glaciation, namely a certain eleva- 
tion, and the existence of high valleys or bosoms of the hills 
sufficiently wide to serve as the oerceaux of glaciers. 



On the Great Terrace of Erosion in Scotland, and its Rela- 
tive Date and Connection with Glacial Phenomena. By 
R. Chambers, F.R.S.E. 

A terrace of erosion is very conspicuous along the coasts of 
Scotland, at between twenty and thirty feet above the present 
level of the sea. It is well marked along the Firth of Clyde, 
including the islands of Bute and Arran, and generally on 
the coasts of Argyleshire. On the east coasts of Scotland, 
which are well known to be of so much less bold a character 
than those of the west, it is less remarkable ; yet it has been 
traced on the Firths of Dornoch and Cromarty, while it may 
be said to have an equivalent in the Firth of Forth, in the 
well-known bench of land, of about the same elevation, which 
stretches along both sides of that estuary. Everywhere, as is 
well known, shells of the present epoch are found on this terrace, 

On the western coasts of Scotland, the breach which it 
makes in the outline of the land is very striking. Generally 
the hills slope in a smooth line to the sea, and very often we 
find this slope but little broken even where the sea is now in 
contact with the land. But between the slope above and the 
only somewhat more broken slope of the existing beach below 3 
this line of erosion forms generally a well-defined rectangular 



104 R. Chambers, Esq., on the 

cut ; that is to say, a space composed of a vertical cliff rising 
from a level platform. This cliff is in many places forty feet 
high ; but in some, is not less than a hundred ; while the plat- 
form is seldom less than a hundred feet broad, thus affording 
sheltered situations for hundreds of villas to the wealthy in- 
habitants of Glasgow. Where composed of sandstone, the 
cliff is apt to be perforated in pretty deep caves, many of 
which are memorable in the history of the smuggling trade. 
In some places in Arran, where the cliff is of this rock, huge 
slabs are left prominent above, hanging over like a pent-house. 
On other parts of the coast, where mica slate prevails, a harder 
mass of that formation, or a mass of upthrown trap, will be 
found starting up in some fantastic form from the platform ; 
and occasionally there is a crowd of such objects. 

The very great amount of attrition borne witness to by this 
terrace, in comparison with that which can be traced on the 
present coast line, shows that it must have been the meeting- 
point of sea and land during a much longer space of time than 
the present beach. We know on tolerably good grounds that 
the existing relative level of sea and land has been unchanged 
during the historical era, or for not much less than two 
thousand years. It follows that the space of time during 
which this terrace was the sea beach, must be some large 
multiple of two thousand years, if not of something consider- 
ably more. It seems as likely to have been the beach for ten 
thousand years as the present is for the fifth of that period. 

The immediate object of this paper is to exhibit proof that 
the formation of this terrace is not an event immediately prior 
to the assumption of the present line of relative level between 
sea and land, but one of some antiquity in the post-tertiary epoch. 

In passing along the north-west coast of Arran, from Loch 
Ranza southwards, we have the ancient sea- cliff rising like a 
wall of from fifty to a hundred feet high all the way, some- 
times bare as when it was left by the dash of the sea, in other 
places feathered with fern, and birch, and the mountain ash ; 
in all places striking and picturesque. In his progress, the 
eye of the observer is suddenly arrested by the appearance of 
something like the boulder clay resting on the face of the cliff. 
The mystery begins to clear when he finds that he is close to the 
opening of a Highland valley called Glen Iorsa, the mouth of 



Great Terrace of Erosion in Scotland. 105 

which is filled to a considerable height with terraces of detri- 
tus, and which stretches back to the lofty mountains forming 
the centre of the island. On an examination of these detrital 
masses, he finds the lower part composed of a bed of blue 
clayey drift, with small half-worn boulders scattered equally 
through it ; over this, a bed of coarse gravel, and above this 
again, a deep bed of fine sand. The stuff which he had seen 
on the face of the ancient sea-cliff, is the same with the first 
of these deposits. It consequently becomes evident that the 
three sets of conditions which gave rise in succession to the 
bed of blue clayey drift with boulders, the coarse gravel, and 
the deep bed of fine sand, are all posterior to that incising 
action of the sea which formed the terrace and sea-cliff. I 
presume it will be readily admitted that the two higher beds 
argue a period of submergence ; and as the surface of the whole 
is not less than 140 feet above the present sea-level, the sub- 
mergence must have been to that depth at least. If I am 
right in considering the blue clayey drift as the product of a 
glacier which once filled Glen Iorsa, then we had previously 
had a period of low temperature in Arran. Thus, we may 
speculate on a glacial period, and a period of deep re-immer- 
sion, as following in succession upon the period of this terrace 
of erosion. Nor is this the whole series of events ; for the two 
superficial deposits argue each a separate set of conditions, 
the coarse gravel marking a time when the embouchure of the 
river was little way of the valley, and the bed of fine sand a 
time when it was much farther up, and when the sea at this 
place was of course considerably deeper. It is scarcely neces- 
sary to remark that the time required for this succession of 
events must have been very great. 

The arrangement of events here speculated upon has sup- 
port in certain observations of a similar kind which have been 
indicated by other geologists in Scotland. Mr Milne Home 
found the deep ravine of the Water of Leith, at the Dean near 
Edinburgh, overlaid by what he considered as a third drift 
bed connected with erratic boulders, and argued of course that 
the cutting of that ravine by the river had been followed by a 
period of deep reimmersion. Mr Charles Maclaren made a 
similar remark regarding the ravine of the river Allan between 
Dumblane and Stirling ; but for this I have unfortunately 



106 Geological Survey of Great Britain. 

mislaid niy reference, so that I can only vaguely indicate 
the fact. 



Geological Survey of Great Britain. 

The extension of the Geological Survey of Great Britain to 
Scotland has for some time been anxiously looked forward 
to by many persons interested in the subject, whether in a 
scientific or purely practical point of view. We have now the 
satisfaction of stating that arrangements have been made for 
commencing the execution of this work, which has long been 
in contemplation. 

In the year 1845, the geological survey of the United 
Kingdom was remodelled under Sir Henry De la Beche as 
Director-General, and, since that date, the Irish branch of the 
survey has been carried on, first by Captain James, as local 
director, then by Professor Oldham, and, since the appoint- 
ment of the latter to the geological survey of India, by Mr 
Jukes. During the same period, the local directorship of the 
Geological Survey of Great Britain has been entrusted to Pro- 
fessor Ramsay. 

Before that time, a large area had been completed by Sir 
Henry de la Beche and his staff as then constituted. The 
survey originally commenced in Devon and Cornwall, and it 
is worthy of record that the greater proportion of the work in 
these counties was executed almost by the unassisted efforts 
of that distinguished geologist. Since then, nearly a half of 
England and Wales has been geologically mapped, principally 
in the southern, western, and midland counties, and the sur- 
vey is now rapidly progressing to the east and north. 

The extension of the work to Scotland has never been lost 
sight of, but it was not till the ordnance survey had made 
considerable progress, that it was practicable to commence 
the geological survey there. Several counties have lately 
been topographically surveyed and published on a scale of six 
inches to a mile. This great work is rapidly advancing, and 
on its steady prosecution over contiguous areas, the progress 
of the geological survey will in a great measure depend ; for 
practical geologists well know that it is generally impossible 
to carry on large geological investigations with effect with 



Geological Survey of Great Britain. 107 

reference merely to the conventional outlines of counties. 
The workman must follow his lines wherever they lead him ; 
and if brought to a stand for want of maps, till the want is 
supplied, it may he that he cannot properly apprehend and 
express their import. 

The unavoidable delay that has occurred in commencing 
this part of the survey, is in a measure an advantage to Scot- 
land, for the topographical maps now finished are not only 
wonderful specimens of accuracy and beauty, but being on a 
scale of 6 inches to a mile, they will afford the geologist every 
facility for laying down all needful details, a matter of no 
small value in a country, the coal fields of which are so im- 
portant. Valuable as are the results that have been obtained 
in England, those interested in its coal fields constantly feel 
the want of a map larger than the 1-inch scale that alone 
exists for the central and western counties. Indeed in all 
matters requiring great detail, such, for instance, as the delinea- 
tion of numerous faults and coal crops, it is manifestly too 
small, and in this respect, Scotland will have a great advantage, 
especially if those whose duty it is to decide on the scale of the 
Ordnance Maps, for future publication, do not fall into the 
opposite extreme, and decide upon the engraving of maps too 
large for the use of geologists who, in the course of a day's work, 
often require to carry with them maps representing an area of 
perhaps 100 square miles. 

Professor Ramsay personally commenced operations in East 
Lothian towards the close of the year just terminated. It is 
impossible to prosecute geological investigations in the field 
with much effect through the inclement months of winter, but 
it is anticipated, that during the coming summer, the work will 
be carried on as vigorously as the means at the disposal of the 
survey will allow. In investigations of this sort, large results 
are not to be immediately looked for. They are the work of 
time ; but looking to what has been done and is now doing in 
England, we confidently expect that at no distant period they 
will be of a kind worthily to satisfy the expectations of the 
public. 



108 Professor Calvert on the Action of 

On the Action of Organic Acids on Cotton and Flax Fibres. 
By F. Crace Calvert, F.C.S., M.R.A. of Turin, Professor 
of Chemistry, Royal Institution, Manchester. 

I am induced to publish the facts contained in this paper, 
because they are interesting in themselves, and are likely to 
prove important in certain arts, especially that of calico-print- 
ing ; for it appears, contrary to the generally received opinion, 
that the organic acids exert a corrosive action on cotton and 
flax fibres, which, in some instances, is nearly as marked as 
that of the weaker mineral acids. 

My attention was drawn to this subject by having a cambric 
handkerchief placed in my hands for examination, the tex- 
ture of which was injured in all such parts as had been in 
contact with an isinglass jelly, sold by a confectioner as made 
from calves' feet. I soon ascertained that the jelly had been 
clarified with tartaric acid, and not with any mineral acid ; 
therefore I made a series of experiments with jellies prepared 
by myself, and compared them with others procured from 
some of the most respectable confectioners of our city, and I 
found, as a rule, that cambric linen was materially injured 
when it had been dipped in such a solution dried in the atmo- 
sphere, and then heated to 126° C. 

As this interesting fact involved a question of great prac- 
tical value to the calico printer, I deemed it my duty to examine 
carefully the action of various organic acids on fibres, and the 
following pages contain the results of my inquiry. 

The first question which presented itself was, whether the 
injury of the fibres arose from the tartaric acid contained in the 
jellies, or was to be attributed to the mechanical effect of a solid 
substance interposed between the fibres of the fabric interfering 
with their ordinary elasticity, and thus rendering them brittle. 

To appreciate the influence of tartaric, citric, and oxalic 
acids, I dipped small pieces of cambric and muslin (pre- 
viously well washed in distilled water) into a solution contain- 
ing two per cent, of tartaric or oxalic acids, carefully purified, 
and completely free from mineral acids. The pieces were then 
dried in the atmosphere, and exposed for an hour to various 
temperatures, and the results obtained are shown in Table I. 

Table I. illustrates an interesting fact, viz., that while two 



Organic Acids on Cotton and Flax Fibres. 109 

per cent of tartaric and citric acid have but a slight action 
on cotton and flax fibres at 80°, 100°, and 126° C, oxalic acid 
has a decidedly injurious action, the slightest effort being suf- 
ficient to tear the fabric. In fact, the fibres were nearly as much 
injured as if they had been acted on by a weak mineral acid. 

In order to ascertain what quantities of citric and tartaric 
acid were required to weaken materially cotton and flax fibres, 
I employed solutions of these acids containing four per cent, of 
each, and pieces of fabrics were dipped in such solutions, dried 
in the atmosphere, and submitted to the action of heat. The 
results are contained in Table II. 

These results left no doubt that two per cent, oxalic acid 
acted on the fibres with still more intensity than four per cent, 
of citric and tartaric acids ; and at the temperature of 126° C. 
all the fabrics presented a scorched appearance, and those with 
tartaric and citric acids had assumed a much browner tinge. 

To enable me to form an opinion whether the coloration of 
the linen was owing to the action of the acid on the fibres, or 
to partial decomposition of the acid itself, I took some of the 
scorched pieces of fabric, and boiled them with distilled water. 
The coloration not disappearing, I added a little caustic alkali, 
but without any better results. I therefore conclude that the 
coloration of the fabric was attributable to the action of citric 
and tartaric acids, or to some of their derivative compounds. 

The next series was made by dipping for a few minutes 
pieces of fabric in solution of isinglass, glue, gum, and starch, 
of the best quality, and having a specific gravity of 1*020, 
at 37° C. These pieces, after being well pressed and dried 
in the air, were submitted to the temperatures of 80°, 100°, 
and 126° C, by which they were found to be somewhat 
weakened, but the action was so very slight, that by exposure 
to the atmosphere for a few hours, or by washing out the 
stiffening substance, they were found to have recovered their 
primitive strength. 

As in calico-printing, oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids, are 
applied to fabrics when mixed with a stiffening substance, a 
series of experiments was made with solutions of tartaric, 
citric, and oxalic acids, thickened with gum and starch, and 
it was found that the presence of the latter substances greatly 
increased the action of the above acids, when employed in the 



110 



Professor Calvert on the Action of 



proportions of from two to four per cent, on cotton and flax 
fabrics, and added to their scorched appearance. 
The results observed are shown in Table III. 



< 



d 
Id 

rH 


Linen. Cotton. 
Uninjured. Slightly in- 
jured. 
Do. Do. 

Slightly injured. 

Very much injured. 


d 



o 

O 


Linen. Cotton. 
Uninjured. Uninjured. 

Do. Very slightly 
injured. 
Very slightly injured. 

More injured. 


d 

o 

O 
00 


Linen. Cotton. 
Uninjured. Uninjured. 

Do. Very slightly 

injured. 
Do. Do. 

Rather injured. 


Immersed in water alone, . 

Water containing 2 per cent. 
Tartaric Acid, 

Citric Acid, 

Oxalic Acid, 






d 

T-* 


Linen. Cotton. 
Much injured. 

Much injured. Very slightly 
injured. 
Quite rotten. 


d 

o 

O 
O 


Linen. Cotton. 
Very much injured. 

Much injured. 

Very much injured. 


d 

O 
*^ 

00 


Linen. Cotton. 
Slightly injured. 

Very slightly injured. 

Much injured. 


Water containing 4 per cent. 
Tartaric Acid, 

Citric Acid, 

Oxalic Acid, 



Organic Acids on Cotton and Flax Fibres. Ill 







| 
o 


■ 

05 . 

.a a 




cJ 
O 

-d «' 
§ & 


03 

ee 

P< 

.5 

nd 

05 

H 

a 
o 
'o 

05 
DO 


'd 

05 


£""d 

-U 05 

&jo a 

^< o 

03 'o 






d 

o 
r-4 




02 

-a 




05 a 
a a? 
'.Ifa 

05 
> 


05 
05 

"3 
a* 


Pi .ph 
05 r^J 

> 
r^ CO 


6 

Q 

"S 05 






s 

a 

3 


g © s 

a ^ 

> «2 


ho 

a 
o 
& 

03 


H3 
&2 


a 

05 


1-° 


a a, o 

O u 05 

'g a .2 












i5 














a 






& * 














o 

o 


• 05 

"d s- 

05 [j 




05 a 

rg 05 


*d 
o 

3 


-d* 

05 
Pi 

a 


»d 
a 


T3 
05 

U 




d 

o 

O 

O 








03 0) 

*d « 


Is 9 

.a 

o 
d 


"5* 

3 

a 


'.2 s 

05 

a 


3 




i— l 




§ a 




a. 5 

:§"a 

o 

2 cv 


a 


a 


a 


. b0 






a 


s s 




• o 


t> 


•+3 

o 


1— 1 
(— 1 






fc 




&b 


05 

> 


f^ 


02 


h- 1 










o 

3 










w 






































< 
EH 




a 
o 

o 


•*j *d 
fl £ -d 
Z a £ 

P-t.2 • |— s 




is 

05 
it 


T3 
05 

a 


nd 

05 


*6 

05 

rH 

a 
a? 


bCd 

• r-( 05 

■a g 




d 

o 

o 






-d" 

05 
S* 

a 


a 


HP 

rd 


a 


53 

-a 


05 '" 
> 




CO 




.5 a 


'a 1 


53 


.s° 


JS 


.s° 


•rt "d 






a 

1 




l-H 


-a 
m 


03 

05 

!> 


05 

a 


03 

b 

05 


^2 

^ 3 








£ 




■ 






I 
ti . 










«3 « 




c3 * 






e3 ' 










B -d 


IS 


& 


12 


1° 


&H 


■o" 2 








a -<h 


"5 


■♦a 

a . 


"3 


<1 


a . 


1 ^ 








0) 


o 


05 
05 


w 


t) 


05 
05 


O j§ 








^ 'h 

05 ."£ 

P-t O 


O 


05 
At 




O 


U 
05 

1 * - 


O O 








<M 13 




<M 'd 






i^3 








| 


& . 




, tH 






«2 w« ° 

2 ^ 










'3.2 : 




Jl* 




• 


» a .2 


: : 






ri 

O 


a^ 




II 2 






H ^ (J 
02 if +> 

r-i a 










o 




o 






o 










o : 




O 




: 


o 


" * 



112 



Professor Calvert on the Action of 



The above experiments were undertaken with the view of 
throwing some light on what is sometimes observed when fa- 
brics printed with the above acids are passed over heated cy- 
linders or plates ; and I deemed it advisable to inquire also 
into their action when applied to goods which were simply 
dried in the atmosphere and afterwards steamed, as is often 
the case in block-printing. For this purpose I prepared two 
series of experiments similar to those above described, taking 
care to separate'the specimens, by first wrapping each in paper, 
and then placing them between folds of white calico. These 
samples, so arranged, were then submitted respectively for 
half an hour to steam having 3, 12, and 45 lb. pressure ; and 
the results, which are contained in the subjoined table, were 
very surprising, as the fibres were found to be much more 
injured than when they had been submitted to dry heat. 



Water alone, 


Steam at a Pressure of 


3 1b. 


45 lb. 


Uninjured. 


Uninjured. 


2 p. ct. Tartaric 


Slightly injured. 


Much more injured. 


Acid, 






4 p. ct. Do. . 


Do. 


Do. 


2 p. ct. Oxalic, 


Very much injured. 


Rotten. 


4 p. ct. Do. . 


Rotten. 


Very rotten. 


Gum alone, 


Uninjured. 


Uninjured. 


... 2 p. ct. Tartaric 


Not more injured than 


Slightly injured. 


Acid, 


water + 2 p. ct. tar- 
taric acid. 




... 4 p. ct. Do. 


Same as 4 p. ct. tartaric 


Injured, but still rather 




acid and water. 


strong. 


... 2 p. ct. Oxalic, 


Rather more injured 
than water + 2 p. ct. 
oxalic acid. 


Rotten. 


... 4 p. ct. Do. 


Very rotten. 


Very rotten. 


Starch alone, 


Uninjured. 


Uninjured. 


2 p. ct. Tartaric 


Hardly injured at all. 


Slightly injured. 


Acid, 






... 4 p. ct. Do. 


Very slightly injured. 


Rather more injured. 


... 2 p. ct. Oxalic, 


Not more injured than 
water + 2 p. ct. oxalic 
acid. 


Rotten. 


... 4 p. ct. Do. 


Do. 4 p. ct. Do. 


Very rotten. 


Water + \ p. ct. Sulphu- 


Can hardly be handled. 


Not tried. 


ric Acid, . 






... £ p. ct. Do. 


Falls to pieces in the 
hands. 


Do. 



Organic Acids on Cotton and Flax Fibres. 113 

The facts contained in the preceding paper are interesting, 
as indicating the extent to which less powerful, though still 
sufficiently characteristic actions may be overlooked. Hitherto 
we have gone upon the supposition that the organic acids are 
entirely without action upon vegetable fibres, and constant use 
is made of them by the calico-printers in the production of 
their colours. My observations, however, sufficiently show 
that they cannot be used for this purpose without injury; and 
should serve as a warning to avoid their use, and to replace 
them as far as possible by neutral salts. 

In conclusion, I may mention, as somewhat allied to the 
subject of this paper, that I have succeeded in making use of 
the difference of the action of weak animal acids on vegetable 
and animal fibres, as a means of detecting the admixture of cot- 
ton and flax with wool. The latter resists an acid which en- 
tirely destroys the former. This fact has acquired consider- 
able practical importance from the extent to which mixed fa- 
brics have been introduced of late years. 



On a Hermaphrodite and Fissiparous Species of Tubicolar 
Annelid. By Thomas A. Huxley, F.R.S., Lecturer on 
General Natural History in the Government School of 
Mines. 

In the course of a series of dredging operations, in which I 
have lately been engaged, upon the shores of Caermarthen Bay, 
in the neighbourhood of Tenby, I took, upon one occasion and 
in one locality (in about six fathoms water, near Proud Giltar), 
the Annelid which is the subject of the present communica- 
tion. It is questionable, however, whether the animal is so 
rare as I might have been led to suppose from this solitary 
instance of its occurrence within my own knowledge — for I had 
afterwards the opportunity of seeing masses of its calcareous 
habitation considerably larger than that which I took my- 
self, in the celebrated collection of the late Mr Lyons of 
Tenby. 

The Vermidom (as one might conveniently term the habi- 
tations of tubicolar annelids in general) of this annelid is 

VOL. I. NO. i. — JAN. 1855. h 



114 Mr Thomas A. Huxley on a Hermaphrodite and 

composed of very fine, more or less undulated, white, calca- 
reous tubes, attached by one end to some solid body. Rising 
from this fixed base, they unite together side by side into 
irregular bundles, and these bundles anastomose like bundles 
of nerves in their plexuses — leaving irregular spaces here and 
there, and thus forming a kind of coarse solid network (fig. 1). 
Each tube has a circular section, but can hardly be called 
cylindrical, because it is thickened at intervals, so as to be 
obscurely annulated. 

When placed in a vessel of clear sea-water, the annelids 
issue from the tubules of their vermidom, and each spreading 
out its eight branchial filaments and displaying its bright 
red cephalic extremity — the mass assumes a very beautiful 
and striking appearance — singularly resembling a tubulipa- 
rous polyzoarium (fig. 2). 

If, however, a portion of the calcareous mass be broken 
down, and its delicate fabricators carefully extracted (fig. 3), 
their annelidan nature becomes immediately obvious ; and in 
determining the exact place of this form among the tubicola, 
the expanded membrane which fringes the sides of the body, 
the peculiar branchial plumes, and the absence of any oper- 
culum, would point at once to the genus Protula* as that to 
which this species belongs, were it not for two most remark- 
able peculiarities of its organization, which, so far as we know 
at present, are to be found in no Protula ; and one of them 
in no other tubicolar annelid. 

These peculiarities are, in the first place, that this species 
undergoes Jissiparous multiplication ; and, in the second, that 
it is hermaphrodite — the male and female reproductive ele- 
ments being, unequivocally, developed in the same individual. 

So far as I am aware, the process of fissiparous multiplica- 
tion has hitherto been observed in only one family among 
the errant annelids, the Syllidea (of Grube) ; in only one 
family among the Scoleidm(Hirudinido3m&Lumbricido3),t\i&t 
of the Naidea, — and in only one genus among the tubicolar 
annelids, Filograna. 

* On consulting the original description of Filograna — a genus to which the 
form of the Vermidom of this species would at first induce one to refer it, its 
affinities therewith appear evident; but whether jhere is any real difference 
between Filograna and Protula is a question for further consideration. 



Fissiparous Species of Tuhicolar Annelid. 115 

Hermaphrodism has hitherto been observed in no errant or 
tubicolar annelid.* Indeed the author to whom we are in- 
debted for the most beautiful researches into annelid organiza- 
tion extant, M. de Quatrefages, thus concludes his elaborate 
memoir on the nervous system of the annelida : — 

" We must then seek elsewhere (than in the nervous sys- 
tem) the characteristics on which to base the divisions which 
are necessitated by the great extent of this group, and the 
multiplicity of types which it embraces. Now, as an ana- 
tomical character, there is nothing more distinct and well 
marked than the union or separation of the sexes in the same 
individual. These differences of organization, besides, indicate 
profound physiological distinctions, which have long been justly 
appreciated by botanists. I am, therefore, more and more 
inclined to believe that the distinction of the annelids 
(Vers) into monoecious and dioecious ought to be adopted in 
science."t 

In arriving at this conclusion, M. de Quatrefages was, of 
course, only furnishing additional evidence for the justice of 
that division of the annelids into the Annelides proper, charac- 
terized by the separation of their sexes — and the Scoleides, 
characterized by their hermaphrodism — which was first esta- 
blished by M. Milne-Edwards, and which has been very 
generally received. 

However, on a careful survey of the whole class of worms, 
many facts come to light which throw considerable doubt on 
the propriety of raising unisexuality or hermaphrodism into 
distinctive characters of large groups. We have hermaphro- 
dite Rotifer a, and unisexual Rotifera. The Nemertidm and 
Microstomum are unisexual, the other Turbellaria herma- 
phrodite ; there appears to be considerable doubt as to the 
universality of hermaphrodism in the Trematoda even ; and 
Echinorhynchus , which cannot be placed very far from the 
Tceniadm and Distomata, is well known to be unisexual, and 

* See among other authorities, Frey and Leuckart, op. cit. inf., p. 87, who exa- 
mined Hermella, Vermilia, Fahricia, and Spirorbis, among the tubicolar anne- 
lids, with especial reference to this point. 

t Types inferieurs del'Embranchement des Anneles. Ann, des Sc. Nat. 1850. 

h2 



1 1 6 Mr Thomas A. Huxley on a Hermaphrodite and 

there is therefore, perhaps, nothing so very anomalous in the 
discovery of a truly hermaphrodite tubicolar annelid. It is 
another question how far it need affect the classification to 
which I have alluded. 

The fluctuation in the terminology of the classification of 
the annelids, in fact, has proceeded from the very common but 
always obstructive practice of giving notional instead of trivial 
names to incomplete groups of animals. Cuvier divided the 
annelids into errant, tubicolar, terricolar, &c, deriving his 
terminology from the habits of those with which naturalists 
were then acquainted ; but, with the advance of knowledge, it 
was found that some of the Errantia inhabit tubes, while 
one main division of the " Terricola " consists of aquatic 
worms ; and thus these notional terms, instead of aiding the 
memory as they were intended to do, served simply to origi- 
nate and propagate erroneous conceptions. There can be no 
doubt that the divisions established by Cuvier are essen- 
tially natural, and had he devised some happily unintelligible 
Grecism, instead of the names which he actually adopted, they 
would have stood, their definitions altering with the progress 
of knowledge, until this day. 

The divisions proposed by M. Milne-Edwards possess exactly 
the qualification which is here wanting. Annelides and Sco- 
Uides may mean anything, and, as names of groups, may very 
conveniently remain, even if it should be found necessary to 
remodel the whole definition which was primarily assigned to 
them. It appears to me, therefore, that if the statements which 
follow be confirmed, they will lead, not to an alteration or sub- 
division of the group of Annelides, but to a widening of its de- 
finition so as to include hermaphrodite forms; or perhaps it would 
be better to admit that owing to the imperfection of our know- 
ledge, we have not yet a definition of either Annelides or 
Scoleides at all, but that we must arrange under the former 
head all those worms which resemble the errant and tubicolar 
sea worms more than anything else, while those which resemble 
the land and fresh water worms must fall under the latter cate- 
gory. If, from the great division of the Annulosa, we take 
away those animals which are characterized by the possession 
of one or more of the following characters — 1. Articulated 



Fissiparous Species of Tubicolar Annelid. 1 17 

appendages. 2. Such appendages modified into jaws around 
the mouth. 3. A true heart in communication with the peri- 
visceral cavity : that is, the Insecta,Myriapoda,Araehnida,and 
Crustacea— we have left a large division of the animal king- 
dom, to which the old term of Vermes might well be appro- 
priated, had it not been already used in so many significations. 
For this division, whose members are united by a marked com- 
munity of structure and development, and which includes the 
Annelida of Cuvier and a large section of his Radiata, viz., 
the Entozoa, the Rotifera, and the EcJiinodermata, I have 
elsewhere proposed the name of Annuloida, a term parallel to 
that very useful one of Molluscoida (Molluscoides), invented 
by Milne -Edwards for the Polyzoa and Ascidians* 

If it be remembered that it is only within the last few years 
that the structure and development of these A nnuloida — which 
present extraordinary difficulties to the investigator — have 
been made the subjects of thorough and complete examination, 
it will not be a matter of surprise that, at present, the subordi- 
nate division of the group must be effected more by reference 
to types than by exact definition. Of course this is still 
more the case with the smaller sub-divisions ; and until much 
more light has been thrown on these most interesting but 
most perplexing creatures, I think it would be well to under- 
stand the existing classes and orders to be purely conventional 
and artificial. For my own part, I doubt greatly whether any 
well-marked natural demarcation can, at present, be drawn be- 
tween the Annelida (M. E.) and the Scoleidw, or between 
these and the Entozoa ; or, again, between the latter, the 
Turbellaria, and the Rotifera ; or, once more, between the 
Annelida and the EcJiinodermata ; though I have little doubt 
that the progress of inquiry will tend here, as elsewhere, to 
eliminate osculant forms, and to substitute definitions for 
types. 

* In writing this passage it escaped my memory that the very same division 
had been long ago proposed by Milne-Edwards himself : 

" Je crois qu il faudrait diviser cet embranchement (Les Articules) en deux 
groupes principaux, l'un les articules a pieds articules, et l'autre les annelides, 
les Helminthes, les Rotateurs, &c, serie a laquelle on pourrait donner le nom 
vulgaire des Vers." Sur la circulation dans les Annelides. Ann. des Sc. Nat.. 
1838, p. 194. 



118 Mr Thomas A. Huxley on a Hermaphrodite and 

Not only does it appear to me that, under these circum- 
stances, it is inexpedient to create new sectional terms ; but 
until a more extended and careful examination of the tubi- 
colar annelides shall have been made with reference to these 
very points, I do not think it is worth while even to found a 
new genus for the form I am about to describe, as it possesses 
all the essential characters of Protula. Specifically, however, 
it appears to be distinct from all forms of Protula hitherto 
described, and I therefore propose to call it Protula Dysteri, 
after my friend Mr Dyster of Tenby, in whose society it was 
discovered, and from whom I hope some day to see good work 
in this branch of science. 

1 have already described the vermidom of this species, and 
I now therefore pass to the details of the organization of the 
animal itself. Protula Dysteri (fig. 3) possesses a very elon- 
gated body, which may be conveniently divided into a cephalic, 
a thoracic, an abdominal, and a caudal portion. 

The cephalic portion (fig. 3, e) can hardly be said to constitute 
a distinct head, for the oral aperture, which is wide and funnel- 
shaped, is terminal. The dorsal margin of the oral aperture 
is formed by a prominent rounded lobe, beneath which are 
two richly-ciliated, short filaments, which adhere to the base 
of the branchial plumes, and might be regarded either as their 
lowest pinnules, or perhaps, more properly, as tentacles ana- 
logous to the operculigerous tentacles of the Serpulse. On the 
ventral side the margin is deeply incised, so that a rounded 
fissure, bounded by two lips, lies beneath and leads into the 
oral cavity. From each side of the head springs a distinct 
branchial plume, whose peduncle immediately divides into four 
branches. These are beset with a double series of short filiform 
pinnules, the origins of each series alternating with those of 
the other. The termination of each branch is somewhat cla- 
vate, and when expanded the eight branches are usually grace- 
fully incurved towards one another, the whole having not a 
little the aspect of a Comatula.* 

The thoracic portion of the body (fig. 3, ef) is short, but 
wide and somewhat flattened. It is produced laterally into nine 

* It i9 worthy of note, how very crinoid the branchial plumes would be if 
their skeleton were calcified instead of simply cartilaginous. 



Fissiparous Species of Tubicolar Annelid. 119 

pairs of close-set, double pedal processes. The lower portion of 
each process forms a mere transverse ridge, beset with the 
peculiar hooks to be described by and by ; the upper pro- 
cess, on the other hand, is conical, and is provided with 
elongated setae. The most striking feature of the thorax, 
however, consists in the peculiar membranous expansion, (b) 
which, arising as a ridge upon each side of what might 
be termed the nuchal surface of the animal, and attached 
to the sides of the thorax, above the bases of the feet, runs 
down to terminate on the ventral surface, behind the last pair 
of thoracic appendages. From this origin it extends as a wide 
free membrane beyond the setse, forming an elegant collar 
around the head, on whose ventral surface the expansions of each 
side unite, and form a wide refiexed lobe (fig. 4, g), while poste- 
riorly they remain separate. To the thorax succeeds what may 
be called the abdomen, which is much longer than the other 
regions of the body ; and is, besides, distinguished from them 
by the imperfect development of the feet, and the paucity of 
the setae and hooks. In this, and in the caudal portion of the 
body, the relative position of the hooks and setae is the reverse 
of what it is in the thorax, the former being superior, and the 
latter inferior. * 

The caudal portion of the body is short, and wider than 
the abdomen. Its rings are close-set, with well-developed 
hooks and setae, and it is terminated by two conical papillae 
between which the anus is situated. There are not less than 
50 rings in the whole body. Cilia could be detected in active 
motion on many parts of the external surface, on the bases of the 
feet, on the rudimental tentacles, and scattered in tufts over 
the whole surface of the thoracic expansions. 

Having thus sketched its external character, I will now 
pass to the minuter features presented by the organization of 
the animal. 

Branchial plumes. — The principal mass of these organs is 
formed by a clear, firm, supporting axis, so marked transversely 
as very closely to resemble the chorda of an Amphioxus. The 
lower end of this axis terminates by a somewhat pointed ex- 

* According to Grube, this is the case in all the Serpulacea. See his most 
excellent work — " Die Familien der Anneliden." 1851. 



120 Mr Thomas A. Huxley on a Hermaphrodite and 

treinity, which lies in immediate proximity to the oesophagus 
(fig. 4), and receives the insertion of the lateral longitudinal 
muscles of the body. Superiorly, as has already been said, the 
axis divides into four branches, one of which enters the stem of 
each branchia and forms its skeleton and support, sending 
lateral processes into each of the pinnules. These, however, 
are much more delicate, and are composed of oblong particles 
set end to end ; somewhat like the axis of the tail of an Ascidian 
larva. All this branchial skeleton, as one might term it, is 
invested by a continuation of the general parietes of the body, 
which adheres closely to the outer side of the stem and 
pinnules, but leaves a space on their inner side. In this space 
lies the so-called " blood"-vessel, with its green contents. It 
does not fill the space, but lies loosely in it ; the interval be- 
tween it and the walls of the filament being, I suppose, in 
continuity with the perivisceral cavity.* 

The whole of the internal surface of the branchiae is pro- 
vided with long, close-set, vibratile cilia, while nothing of the 
sort is visible externally. The end of the stem has a very 
peculiar structure. It is somewhat enlarged by the develop- 
ment within its walls of a number of elongated granular 
masses of about T ^o 5 i ncn i n length, entirely made up of 
very minute, strongly refracting granules, which, when 
pressed out, become rapidly diffused and dissolved in the 
surrounding water. These bodies were not confined to the 
ends of the branchial stems, but similar aggregations existed at 
the ends of many of the pinnules, and were also very regularly 
developed in little elevations seated upon the sides of the stem 
in front of the base of each pinnule.f 

A limentary Canal. — The oesophagus leads into a pyriform, 
more or less marked, dilatation or crop, provided with thicker 

* The skeleton of the branchiae of the Serpulacea has been well and care- 
fully described by De Quatrefages in his valuable memoir " Sur la circula- 
tion des Annelides," Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 1850; and that of Sabella 
unispira by Grube, so long ago as 1838. See his memoirs " Zur Anat. und 
Physiologic der Kiemenwurmer." 1838. 

t Are the peculiar rounded whitish granular patches which occupy a 
similar position on the arms of Comatula of a corresponding nature, or are 
these really testes ? I have never been able to find developed spermatozoa 
in them, nor anywhere else in Comatula. 



Fissiparous Species of Tubicolar Annelid. 121 

walls than the remainder of the alimentary canal (fig. 5). The 
crop communicates by a constricted portion with a wide stomach, 
whose walls are strongly tinged by deep brown granules. This 
passes into a narrow intestine, which widens in the caudal 
region into a sort of rectum, opening externally, between the 
terminal papillae, by a richly-ciliated anus. 

In every segment the intestine was united to the parietes 
by delicate transverse membranous dissepiments, forming par- 
titions across the perivisceral cavity, aod thus dividing it into 
a series of chambers, which, so far as I could observe, did not 
communicate with one another, though it would be unsafe ab- 
solutely to affirm this. 

"Vascular" System. — The so-called " blood"- vessels* of 
the Annelida were represented, in the present case, by 
lateral contractile vessels which ran upon each side of the 
intestine, and gave off transverse branches on to the dissepi- 
ments, from which twigs proceeded dorsally and ventrally. 

The dimensions of these lateral vessels varied considerably : 
sometimes they were comparatively narrow, but in other in- 
stances so wide as to appear to form a complete sheath around 
the intestine. They contained a deep green, clear fluid, to- 
tally without corpuscles or solid elements of any kind, while 
they themselves, when empty, were usually quite colourless ; 
but I would draw attention to the curious fact, which I have 
also observed in other annelids, that in the anterior part of their 
course they occasionally present bright green, granular par- 
ticles, imbedded in, and adhering to, their outer surface. 

The opacity of the anterior end of the animal, resulting 
from the quantity of deep red pigment, prevented any very 

* At the last meeting of the British Association (September 1854), I ven- 
tured to propound the theory that what are commonly called the blood- 
vessels of the Annelida are not " blood"-vessels at all ; that is, that these ves- 
sels, and the fluid which they contain, are not the homologues of the blood- 
vessels and blood of Vertebrata, Mollusca, and Articulata, the latter being 
represented in annelids by the perivisceral cavity and its contained fluid, 
whose anatomical and physiological importance have been so excellently and 
exhaustively developed by De Quatrefages. See his researches on the Anne- 
lids, and more particularly his memoir " Sur la cavite generale du corps des 
Invertebres." It is to be hoped that M. de Quatrefages understands that in- 
structed Englishmen do not countenance the unwarrantable attempts that have 
been made to depreciate his merits in this country. 



1 22 Mr Thomas A. Huxley on a Hermaphrodite and 

certain observation of the manner in which these vessels termi- 
nate there. I am inclined to think, however, that they open 
into a circular vessel, from which the branchial vessels arise. 

It was no less difficult, in an adult specimen, to determine 
whether a ventral vessel existed or not ; but in a young form, 
I saw such a vessel communicating with the inferior trans- 
verse branches, and distinctly contracting. It was superficial 
to the ciliated canal immediately to be described. 

Of a dorsal vessel I could find no trace. The final ramus- 
cules of the superior transverse branches of the lateral trunks 
were found, whenever they could be distinctly observed, to ter- 
minate caically. There could be no question whatever, that 
these caecal ends were the natural terminations of the ramus- 
cules, as the animal under observation had been subjected to 
no violence, and was viewed by transmitted light. I am the 
more particular in insisting upon this point, as one might 
very readily be led, in dissecting annelids, to suppose that 
caecal terminations of the vessels are much more frequent than 
they really are. Their vessels, in fact, possess, in a very 
high degree, that tendency to contract when torn, which is so 
well known in the arteries of the higher animals. And if under 
the simple microscope the vessels of an Eunice or Nereid be 
deliberately pulled asunder, it is most curious to observe how 
very little of the contained fluid pours out, and how smooth 
and round the torn ends immediately become. In our Protula, 
however, the mode of examination was such as to preclude all 
chance of error from this source ; and I have besides fully con- 
firmed the fact of this mode of termination,* in the singular and 
beautiful genus Chloramia, which has the advantage of great 
transparency. In this animal it is easy to observe that, though 
many of the ultimate branches of the vessels anastomose, and 
thus give rise to a network, yet that there are also many branches 
of no inconsiderable dimensions, which terminate in caecal ex- 
tremities. Such vessels may be frequently observed coming 
off from the transverse trunk and hanging freely into the peri- 

* This caecal termination of the vessels appears to reach its greatest develop- 
ment in the Scoleid genera, Euaxes and Lumbriculus, in which a vessel arises 
in each segment from the dorsal trunk, and shortly divides into many caecal 
ramuscules. See Siobold. Vegleichende Anatomie, p. 212. 



Fissiparous Species of Tubicolar Annelid. 123 

visceral cavity, attached only by a few delicate threads of con- 
nective tissue, to the parietes. It is most curious to watch the 
regular contractions of these pendent vessels, their momentary 
emptying, and their subsequent distention and erection by the 
returning wave of fluid. And in considering the nature of 
this remarkable system of vessels, it is most important to note 
that we have here, at any rate, no circulation, but a mere 
backward and forward undulation.* 

Ciliated Canal. — A clear, longitudinal, very narrow ( T1 Vo to 
■gshu inch) canal (fig. 6, a) may be observed extending along 
the ventral surface of the intestine in the middle line, from the 
anus, where it appeared to me to open, as far as the brown di- 
lated stomach, when it either stopped or became so obscured as 
to be no further traceable. The canal had well-marked walls 
with a double contour, which sometimes appeared curiously 
broken ; and contained, set along its dorsal wall, one to four 
longitudinal series of cilia (fig. 9). These were placed at regu- 
lar intervals, and worked together, as if they were pulled by 
a common string. In young specimens there was only one 
cilium in each row, but in the older ones I saw as many as four 
in each transverse line. Has this enigmatical canal anything 
to do with the * typhlosole' of the earthworm % 

On the dorsal surface of the head a longitudinal canal, 
which sometimes appears to be ciliated, was visible at b 
(fig. 3) ; posteriorly it divided into two branches which dilated 
into granular caeca, arranged in a kind of festoon in the first 
segment of the thorax. 

The coloration of this part of the body prevented me from 
determining whether this canal opened externally or into the 
oesophagus, and also whether it was in any way connected 
with the ventral ciliated canal, — both of them points of much 
interest. 

However this may be, these sacs are clearly homologous 
with the curious sacs which have been described in Chlorcema, 
and perhaps with the sacs opening externally, which are found 
in the anterior segment of Pectinaria. 

* The general contractility of the vessels of the annelids has already been 
pointed out by De Quatrefages. Siebold doubts the existence of a regular cir 
culation in the majority of the Annelida. Op. cit., p. 210. 



1 24 Mr Thomas A. Huxley on a Hermaphrodite and 

I may mention here that ciliated organs, possibly homologous 
with these, and with the lateral convoluted canals of the 
Lumbricidce and Hirudinidm are by no means uncommon 
among the Annelida Errantia, and may be observed in 
Phyllodoce ; it requires care however to discover them. 

Nervous system. — On this head the result of my examina- 
tions was exceedingly unsatisfactory, as I could assure myself 
of the existence of only two oval ganglia, one on each side of 
the oesophagus, each of which presented a dark pigment mass 
(eyespot ?) on its anterior extremity. 

Reproductive elements. — Protula Dysteri can hardly be said 
to possess special reproductive organs, the reproductive ele- 
ments, viz., ova and spermatozoa, being developed as it were 
accidentally from the walls of the perivisceral cavity, by the 
fluid contained in which (whose nature and importance M. de 
Quatrefages has so well pointed out) they are bathed, and 
supplied with nutritive materials. It appeared to me that the 
spermatozoa or ova took their origin in granular thickenings 
of that portion of the face of the dissepiments which is 
traversed by the transverse vessel, becoming detached thence, 
and floating freely in the perivisceral fluid, as they attained 
their full development. * 

The youngest spermatozoa were minute spherules, of not 
more than ^oV o °f an i ncn i* 1 diameter, aggregated together 
into irregular masses (fig. 11). In a more advanced state a very 
fine short and delicate filament could be observed springing from 
one side of this body. By degrees the spherule became ellip- 
tical, and narrowing pari passu with the elongation and thick- 
ening of the filament, the ultimate result was a spermatozoon, 
such as that represented in fig. 11, with a subcylindrical 
slightly pointed head of 3 £$ -$ of an inch in diameter, and a 
very long actively-undulating tail. 

The ova are, at first, very small, not more than j^o 0- of an 
inch in diameter, and possess a relatively very large, clear 
space, representing the germinal vesicles, containing a minute 

* Frey and Leuckart (Zool. Untersuchungen, p. 88) assert that the genera- 
tive elements of the annelids are developed from a free Diastema, and not from 
the septa only, as Krohn asserts to be the case in Alciope, and as I should, 
from what is stated above, be disposed to believe. 



Fisslparous Species of Tubicolar Annelid. 125 

germinal spot. By degrees they increase in size to F £ ff inch, 
with a germinal vesicle of toWj an( i a S P ^ °f ssVo-s an( i a few 
granules become visible in their yelk. From this size they 
gradually increase to the r £o i ncn m diameter, acquiring a 
well-marked vitellary membrane, and a dark orange-red, very 
coarsely granular yelk. The germinal vesicle and spot may 
still be rendered visible by pressure, the former having about 
e <yo °f an i ncn ' m diameter. 

When those segments of the body in which the genitalia 
are situated were subjected to moderate pressure, the sperma- 
tozoa made their exit at the bases of the pedal tubercles of the 
male segments, while the ova, just giving rise to bulgings in 
a corresponding position, eventually passed out in the same 
manner. I could not satisfactorily decide, however, whether 
the apertures by which the generative products passed out 
were natural or artificial.* 

Setce and Uncini of the Pedal Tubercles. — The general 
form of the pedal tubercles has already been described ; it re- 
mains only, therefore, to note more particularly the form of 
their appendages, whether Seta} or Uncini. The Setm (figs. 7, 8) 
are slender spines, about ^ of an inch in length, consisting of 
a haft and a blade ; the former is about six times the length of 
the latter, and is rounded, flattening gradually as it passes 
into the blade, with which it is completely continuous, though 
at an obtuse angle. t The blade tapers gradually to its point, 
and is smooth on one edge, but minutely denticulated upon 
the other, while delicate striae are continued from the serra- 
tions upon the flat face of the blade. 

Such is the structure of those stronger setae which are di- 
rected forwards on each side of the head-lobe. Those of the 

* It should be added that the genital products occupy about fourteen suc- 
cessive segments of the abdomen, of which the two anterior are seminiferous ; 
the rest, ovigerous. See fig. 3. 

t I am not aware of any annelid in which the setae are really articulated. 
The statements of Audouin and Milne-Edwards rest, I believe, upon errors of 
observation, very intelligible, if one considers what microscopes were twenty 
years ago. How such strange perversions of fact as the figures of annelid 
setae appended to Dr Williams's Report on the British Annelida, published in 
the Transactions of the British Association for 1851 — can have arisen, it is 
not so easy to comprehend. 



126 Mr Thomas A. Huxley on a Hermaphrodite and 

posterior segments have a similar general structure, but are 

more delicate. 

The uncini (figs. 7, 8) are very small, not more than Tt5 Vo- inch 

in length ; and it is not easy to make out their exact structure. 

Each, however, appears to be composed of a short implanted 

stem, and a blade set upon the end of this, at somewhat less 

than a right angle, like the claw of a hammer. The edges of 

this blade are minutelv denticulated. 
%> 

Fissiparous multiplication. — It was only a minority of the 
Protulm which presented the aspect hitherto described ; for 
the larger number were undergoing multiplication or prolifi- 
cation, by a process which can only be described as a com- 
bined fission and gemmation. The prolification takes place 
so as to separate all the segments of the parent behind the 
sixteenth, as a new zooid ; but it is not a mere process of 
fission, for the seventeenth segment, *. e., the first of the new 
zooid, undergoes a very considerable enlargement, and event- 
ually becomes divided into the nine segments of the head and 
thorax, of the bud. These segments do not appear all at once, 
but gradually, one behind the other. The intestinal canal of 
the stock and of the bud are at first perfectly continuous, but 
the peri-intestinal cavity of the bud is completely filled with 
a mass of red granules. These would seem in some way to 
subserve the nutrition of the young animal ; for in some free 
zooids, apparently fully formed, all but the development of ge- 
nitalia, the caudal segments were full of these orange gra- 
nules, while no trace of them was to be found anteriorly.* 

It is very interesting to note the manner in which the 
branchial plumes are developed, as it closely corresponds with 
what Milne-Edwards describes in Terebella. Each plume ap- 
pears at first as a quadrate palmate process of the dorsal side of 
the first segment ; and the divisions representing the stems of 
the future branchiae are at first mere processes, — perfectly 
simple tubes, which do not even present annulations. 

Several modes of prolification are already known to exist 
among the annelids. The one long since described by 0. ¥. 
Miiller, as one of the methods of multiplication of Nais, and 

* Sars gives an account of the prolification of Filograna implexa, similar in 
all essential points. See his Fauna littoralis, &c, pp. 88-9. 



Fissiparous Species of Tubicolar Annelid. 127 

more lately by Quatrefages as occurring in Syllis prolifera is 
very nearly simple fission, the animal dividing near its 
middle, and the under half, before separation, only putting 
forth, as buds, those appendages which are characteristic of the 
head. 

Secondly, Milne-Edwards has described in Myriadina a 
prolification by a sort of continuous budding between the anal 
and the penultimate segment. A new ring is produced be- 
hind the penultimate segment, and this enlarging gives rise to 
a new ring posteriorly, and so on until the bud attains its full 
length. 

It would seem possible that the second mode of prolifica- 
tion in Nats, described by 0. F. Mtiller, is in reality the same 
as this, though he describes the new growth as entirely result- 
ing from the excessive development of the anal segment. 

Thirdly, M. Schulze, an excellent observer, has described 
a third very singular mode of prolification in Nats, whence the 
long chains of zooids occasionally observed arise. For when, 
by the fissive process the Nais is divided into an anterior and 
posterior zooid, the last segment of the former greatly enlarges, 
becomes divided into segments, and the anterior of these be- 
coming a head, a new zooid is formed between the previously 
existing ones ; this process is repeated in what was the pen- 
ultimate, but is now the ultimate segment of the anterior zooid ; 
and, again, in the anti-penultimate, so that at least a long 
string of zooids is formed, each of which, except the last, is 
produced from a single segment. 

Fourthly, According to Frey and Leuckart, whose observa- 
tions have been confirmed by Krohn (Wieg. Archiv., 1852), 
Autolytus prolifer multiplies in a somewhat similar way, but 
instead of each new interposed zooid being formed at the 
expense of a fresh segment of the anterior zooid — it is pro- 
duced by the metamorphosis of a bud, or rather of a mass of 
blastema the equivalent of a bud, developed from the under 
extremity of the last segment of the anterior zooid. 

Supposing further observation to confirm the distinctness of 
all these modes of prolification, they might be classified accord- 
ing to the amount of the already formed parental organism 
which enters into the produced zooid. 



TJS Mr Huxley on a Species of ' Tubicolar Annelid. 

1. All the segments of the latter were segments of the 
former, the new products being merely cephalic organs. 

2. None of the segments of the produced zooid belonged 
to the parent zooid, but the former is a metamorphosis of a 
whole segment of the latter. 

3. None of the segments of the produced zooid belonged to 
the parent zooid, and the former contains hardly any of the 
primitive substance of the latter, being developed by ger- 
mination from its last segment. 

It is clear that the prolification of Protula Dysteri will come 
under none of these categories ; but is a combination of the 
first and second methods. The abdomen of the produced 
zooid is a mere fissive product of the parent, but its thorax 
is the result of the metamorphosis of a single segment of the 
parent into many segments. 

Quatrefages endeavoured to show that the relation of the 
produced zooids of Syllis to the anterior zooid was that of 
an " alternation of generation,' 1 the former alone developing 
sexual products. Krohn has however proved that no such 
relation exists in this case ; but on the other hand he brings 
forward good evidence to demonstrate that the posterior 
zooids of Autolytus prolifer really are generative zooids, and 
alone develop the reproductive elements. The male zooids 
in this case are widely different from the gemmiparous zooid ; 
so different, in fact, that they were regarded by 0. F. Muller 
as belonging to a distinct species. 

I sought carefully for evidence of any such " alternation'* in 
Protula Dysteri, but the result was to convince myself that 
nothing of the kind exists. 

The generative products may indeed almost always be 
detected, though the ova are very small and indistinct, in the 
anterior zooid of any still unseparated pair ; and it is there- 
fore clear that the gemmiparous zooid is not asexual, the in- 
variable rule where that separation of the individual into 
asexual and sexual zooids, which constitutes the so-called 
" alternation of generations," really exists. 



/;;,/. '6 



Fi</. i. 










Preparation of Sea Water for the Aquarium. 129 

Description of Figures, PI. I. 

Fig. 1. Vermidom of Protula Dysteri. 

2. Single calcareous tube with the worm protruded and ex- 

panded. 

3. An adult Protula extracted from its case, c. branchia, 

e. testes, d. ova, — (dorsal view). 

4. A Protula undergoing prolification (central view). 

5. The produced zooid just set free. 

6. Junction of parent and derivative zooids (ventral view), a. 

ciliated canal. 
7- Pedal tubercle. 

8. Setoe and Uncini. 

9. Ciliated canal, greatly magnified. 

10. Ova — young and completely developed. 

11. Spermatozoa — young and completely developed. 



On the Artificial Preparation of Sea Water for the Aqua- 
rium. By Geokge Wilson, M.D., F.R.S.E., Lecturer on 
Chemistry.* 

In an interesting communication contained in the " Annals 
of Natural History, for July 1854 (p. 65), Mr Gosse has recorded 
the results of an important experiment on the possibility of arti- 
ficially preparing sea water for Marine Vivaria, Guiding him- 
self by Schweitzer's analysis of the water off Brighton, and ex- 
cluding the less abundant ingredients, he employed chloride 
of sodium, sulphate of magnesia, chloride of magnesium, and 
chloride of potassium, t which were dissolved in a suitable 
quantity of water. In April last various species of marine 
plants and animals were introduced into this imitation sea 
water, and as during a period of six weeks they "throve and 
flourished from day to day, manifesting the highest health 
and vigour," Mr Gosse draws the very natural conclusion, 

* Read to the Chemical Section of the British Association, September 1854, 
t The following are Mr Gosse's exact directions : — Common table salt, 3 \ 
ounces ; Epsom salts, \ ounce ; chloride of magnesium, 200 grains troy ; chlo- 
ride of potassium, 40 grains troy. To these salts a little less than four quarts 
of water were added. 

VOL. I. NO. I. — JAN. 1855. I 



130 Dr George Wilson on the Artificial 



e 



" that the experiment of manufacturing sea water for the 
aquarium has been perfectly successful." 

In spite of this success, however, there are cogent reasons 
for believing that sea water made according to the recipe 
given above, would fail to maintain for any length of time 
either plants or animals in health and vigour. 

Mr Gosse's sea water differs from that of the ocean in not 
containing several ingredients which must be regarded as 
essential to the growth of sea plants, and still more of sea 
animals. It contains only such of the constituents of the 
ocean as are soluble in pure water, and only some of these. 
Thus, although it may be difficult or even impossible to de- 
tect in considerable volumes of natural sea water, carbonate of 
lime, sulphate of lime, phosphate of lime, fluoride of calcium, 
and silica, all of these as well as oxide of iron are procured 
in manifest quantity by evaporating sea water to dryness, as I 
have many times ascertained by analysing the hard crusts from 
the boilers of steam-ships, sailing in the Atlantic and German 
oceans, and in the Mediterranean and other seas. The sul- 
phate of lime and fluoride of calcium are soluble in pure water, 
and the carbonate and phosphate of lime are kept in solution 
by carbonic acid. The silica is either held simply in solution, 
or occurs as a soluble alkaline silicate. 

Now it is plain that marine animals (to restrict ourselves 
to them) must derive all their constituents, directly or in- 
directly, from the medium in which they live ; and the law 
does not appear to admit of any question, that whatever sub- 
stances are invariably found in the structures of animals, 
must be essential to their healthy development, and this 
whether the substance is present in large or small quantity, 
provided it is invariably present. Thus, to take one example, 
we find fluoride of calcium, not isolated in one minute portion 
of an animal's body, but built up along with phosphate of lime 
wherever that occurs. It seems a dangerous rule to go 
by, that because the quantity of fluoride is much smaller than 
that of phosphate, the fluoride may be ^omitted altogether. 
We might as well, I apprehend, in erecting a house, dispense 
with mortar, because the quantity used in building is very 



Preparation of Sea Water for the Aquarium. 131 

small, compared in weight or bulk, with that of the stones it 
binds together. 

Seeing, however, that the internal and external skeletons, 
habitations, or other solid appendages of many of the animals 
kept alive in aquaria, consist of carbonate of lime, along with 
some phosphate of lime, and a little fluoride of calcium, 
whilst others consist of silica — those substances besides iron 
must be contained in the water in which these creatures dwell. 

Again, to refer to sea plants, Mr Gosse excludes from his 
sea water, soluble bromides, and, as appears, also iodides, be- 
cause thej occur in the ocean in small quantities. Yet it is 
quite certain that many sea-weeds concentrate within them- 
selves much iodine as well as a little bromine, and both, but 
especially the former, must be held to be serviceable to those 
plants. It may be added, that although no minute inquiry 
into the matter has been made, both iodine and bromine oc- 
cur in the organs of sea animals, for example, in the liver of 
the cod ; and it is impossible to believe that such powerful re- 
medial agents, can be without an influence on the health of the 
animals receiving them. Iodides and bromides, therefore? 
should be present in the imitation sea-water. 

Nor would there be any difficulty in supplying the desi- 
derata indicated. As calcareous phosphates, carbonates, and 
fluorides occur together in shells, corals, and many limestones, 
and in the proportion in which sea animals require them, the 
arrangement of fragments of such calcareous bodies at the 
bottom of the aquarium would suffice ; — for the carbonic acid 
produced by the animals within it would slowly dissolve the 
lime-salts as they were needed. 

Pieces of felspar or of any of the trap rocks containing al- 
kaline silicates would in the same circumstances furnish 
silica. It would not probably be requisite to make a deli- 
berate addition of sulphate of lime, as the sulphate of mag- 
nesia and the calcareous fragments would supply its elements. 
If it were thought necessary to add it, a solution, containing 
about a grain of sulphate of lime to the ounce of water, can 
be easily prepared by shaking the latter with some burned 
stucco powder, and of this a measured quantity could be 

i 2 



132 Preparation of Sea Water for the Aquarium. 

added to the contents of the aquarium. There would be no 
difficulty in supplying bromides and iodides, as the bromide 
and iodide of potassium may be procured from any druggist. 

It is of course quite possible that in a single aquarium the 
death of a certain portion of the animals might furnish cal- 
careous salts or silica for the skeletons of their survivors,* 
and in like manner, the death of a given number of the 
plants might liberate iodides and bromides for the remainder ; 
but the object of those who maintain aquaria, I presume to 
be, the rendering as certain as possible the vigorous develop- 
ment of all its living contents, and this could only be secured 
by some such arrangement as I have proposed. 

As aquaria are now attracting much attention among natu- 
ralists, I would suggest the desirableness of some of them 
trying how long animals will live in sea water made strictly 
after Mr Gosse's recipe, and without any calcareous or sili- 
cious fragments at the bottom of the vivaria. Those observ- 
ers also who record their success with artificial sea water 
should be as careful in stating the chemical composition of the 
stony fragments laid at the bottom, as of the water employed 
in filling their aquaria. In their aquarian experiments hither- 
to, naturalists have guided themselves chiefly by the results 
of the chemist's analyses of sea-water. But these supply 
but one-half of the requisite data : the naturalist should have 
equally regarded the analyses of marine plants and animals ; 
for if any substance is invariably found in them, it must as 
invariably be furnished in the liquid or solid contents of 
the aquarium. The minuteness of quantity in which par- 
ticular ingredients occur in living organisms can only be a 
reason for furnishing them in minute quantity not for omitting 
them altogether. 

* Mr Gosse observes that carbonate of lime " might be found in sufficient 
abundance in the fragments of shell, coral, and calcareous alga? thrown in to 
make the bottom of the aquarium" but he nevertheless refers to it as one of 
those substances which he thought he "might neglect from the minuteness of 
their quantities." The practice here corrects the error of the precept, for the 
calcareous fragments would furnish not only carbonate of lime, but salts of 
magnesia, as well as phosphate of lime and fluoride of calcium. 



133 



The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

We need not now endeavour to give expression to a grief so 
deeply felt and universally diffused, as that occasioned by the 
sudden and disastrous death of this distinguished naturalist. 
Ours is the loss, and, we doubt not, his the gain. The disad- 
vantages, both of a personal nature to his private friends, and 
of a more public kind to the community at large, are inex- 
pressible and irremediable. If all hearts are still saddened 
by this heavy and unlooked-for calamity, — if even those who 
knew him not, or had but a faint idea of his surpassing powers, 
— are impressed with so deep a sense of this bereavement, — 
how much more must it weigh down the spirits, almost deaden 
the hopes, of those who were associated in his labours, but 
who felt their labours lightened by their rejoicing confidence 
in such a companion and coadjutor. Viewing the loss as 
amounting to a national misfortune, not to be measured merely 
by the sudden sorrow produced among ourselves by its unex- 
pected occurrence, amid the first upraising of so many fresh 
and sanguine hopes, we shall not dwell upon its great disad- 
vantage to this Journal, the management of which he was 
about to undertake, with all his well-known and unfailing- 
zeal, as Editor of the Natural History department, in its va- 
rious branches. 

As it might truly be said of Professor Edward Forbes " nil 
tetigit quod non ornavit," so, under his fostering care and skil- 
ful hand, whatever of barren and unfruitful might have un- 
avoidably crept in upon our management of later years would 
have been corrected or expelled, and new life and vigour in- 
terfused. But having been honoured with his confidence, we 
shall consider the increased responsibilities thrown upon us 
by his disastrous death, as so many pledges to the Public, 
that this Journal, to which he so fondly desired to devote him- 
self, shall be conducted, if not with the same talent, at least 
in the same tone and temper, as distinguished every procedure 
of him whom we deplore. 

We shall here present a brief and most inadequate record 



134 The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

of his life and labours, drawn from our own knowledge and re- 
collections, aided by reference to some friendly and affection- 
ate reminiscences which have already appeared in several of 
the literary and other Journals.* 

Professor Edward Forbes, so recently, and with such uni- 
versal satisfaction, appointed to the chair of Natural History 
in our universit}'', died atWardie, near Edinburgh, on the even- 
ing of Saturday, the 18th of November 1854, in the fortieth year 
of his age, leaving a widow, and a son and daughter still in in- 
fancy, to mourn and suffer from his loss. The certainty of his 
appointment had been long foreseen, and was looked forward 
to as an event likely to give a fresh impulse among us to the 
study of natural science in every department. He had re- 
ceived his scientific education here, — had here formed several 
of his strongest and most enduring friendships ; and his early 
celebrity, and continuing increase of fame, had been nowhere 
observed with more pride and pleasure, than among those who 
had started with him in the race of life. When he returned 
to Edinburgh, it was to the " old familiar faces," changed, no 
doubt, from youth to manhood, but rejoicing all the more to re- 
ceive again in social and scientific union one between whom and 
them not even the shadow of a passing cloud had been ever inter- 
posed. It is indeed worthy of record, that among his earliest 
and most endeared associates, he was welcomed back by such 

* The death of Professor Edward Forbes has been feelingly and faithfully- 
recorded at considerable length, and apparently from intimate personal ac- 
quaintance, in the Athenoeum, Literary Gazette, Spectator, and Gardener's 
Chronicle ; as well as in the Witness, and other Edinburgh newspapers. We 
are happy, however, to announce that a much more ample and satisfying me- 
moir of his life and writings has been undertaken, with the concurrence of 
his literary executor, Mr Austen, by a kindred spirit, and early friend, Dr 
George Wilson, F.R.S.E., already so well known as a biographer, from his 
live9 of Cavendish and Dr John Keid. We had hoped to present this memoir 
in the April number of our Journal, and have therefore restricted ourselves, 
in the meantime, to what we fear our readers may regard as by no means a 
satisfactory exhibition and estimate of the Professor's personal and scientific 
attainments. But, in deference to the wishes of those by whose feelings it is a 
pleasure, no less than a dufy to be guided, it has been decided that the ex- 
tended biographical memoir shall form a separate volume, probably introduc- 
tory to a collected series of Professor Edward Forbes' works. 



The late Professor Edivard Forbes. 135 

men as Mr John Goodsir, Mr James Syme, Mr James^Miller, 
Dr J. Y. Simpson, Dr J. H. Balfour, Dr J. H. Bennett, and 
others, already professors in that same university within'the 
walls of which, as youthful companions, their mutual friendship 
had commenced, — a friendship unbroken but by death. 

Edward Forbes, of Scottish extraction, was born in the Isle 
of Man, on the 12th day of February 1815. We have heard 
himself say, that had he made the attempt to define the period 
when the love of natural history first arose as the day-star in 
his heart, he must have searched back into the dim and^dis- 
tant recollections of his earliest childhood. This peculiar 
propensity, or rather passion, must have been in-bred, and all 
his own ; for it is understood that no individual of his family, 
nor even of his acquaintanceship, had the slightest taste for 
scientific studies. So this surpassing love of natural history 
must have been either born with him, or speedily and spon- 
taneously generated in his brains. 

His first printed guide-book was one of the driest, — 
Turton's English Edition of the Systema Natural of Lin- 
nseus ; and we know, on his own authority , that by the time he 
was seven years of age, he had formed a small but tolerably 
well arranged museum of his own. Next, though still in very 
early life, came the perusal of Buckland's Reliquim Dilu- 
vianai, Parkinson's Organic Remains, and Conybeare's Geo- 
logy of England, — all rather difficult reading for a boy, and 
possibly rather wrestled with than fully understood. However, 
there is nothing so good as a high standard in the intellectual 
struggles of youth, as difficulties ere long spontaneously un- 
fold themselves, and become smooth and shapely, just as the 
wings of the butterfly enlarge and brighten, when the hard- 
ened coating of the chrysalis is cast away. Neither is there 
anything so bad as bringing all early instruction down to a 
level with the limited understanding of childhood. There are 
few really good books which even full-grown men completely 
comprehend; but this, though an argument against the capacity 
of the readers, is surely none against the excellence of the 
books. Those above named, however, when he was not more 
than twelve years of age, inspired Edward Forbes with a 



136 The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

warm and abiding love of Geology. At this period also, it 
may be stated as a remarkable, perhaps unprecedented fact, 
that he compiled a Manual of British Natural History in all 
its departments, — a youthful labour, a reference to which, we 
know, he afterwards found serviceable up almost to his close 
of life. 

At sixteen he visited London ; and while there, was chiefly 
occupied by the study of the art of drawing, under Sasse, a 
celebrated trainer for the Royal Academy in those days. The 
careful practice of drawing in outline from the antique, which 
he then acquired, was of advantage to him for ever after in 
his zoological pursuits and publications. About a year after 
this, he came to Edinburgh, and entered the medical classes, 
as the best course of initial and elementary study in relation 
to those departments of science to which he had even thus 
early determined to dedicate his life. He became at once the 
friend and pupil of Professor Jameson ; and from that period 
till he found himself his successor (how much we mourn the 
brief survival !) he frequently referred, with grateful acknow- 
ledgment, to the benefit he had reaped from his scientific in- 
struction, and friendly counsel. In the summer of the ensu- 
ing year he first endeavoured to apply practically the know- 
ledge he had now acquired, by making an exploration of a 
part of Norway, — chiefly with a view to the mineralogy 
of that picturesque country. He returned with large collec- 
tions, and published an account of his proceedings and obser- 
vations in Loudon's Magazine (vols. viii. and ix.) under the 
title of " Notes of a Natural History Tour in Norway," — 
being his first contributions to science. At nearly the same 
period, and in the same work, he printed his earliest papers on 
submarine researches, — " Records of the results of Dredg- 
ing," — for which he became eventually so noted, having, in 
fact, commenced in his sixteenth year those remarkable obser- 
vations by means of the dredge, with the accurate register of 
depths, which, it is well known and admitted, have thrown 
an entirely new light upon the geographical distribution of 
marine life. We need not here say how amply he has filled, 
even to overflowing, the measure of that early promise. He 



The late Professor Edward Forbes. 137 

has far transcended all others in the importance and extent of 
his submarine researches in the British Seas, as well as in 
those of Greece and Asia Minor. 

He thus pursued his studies with great intensity of thought 
and application, yet with so much of the buoyant light- 
headedness of youth, as no doubt to draw many very worthy 
common-place people into the belief that he was making no 
particular progress in his pursuits, and had too much of the 
unconstrained, it might almost seem, unacademical, spirit of 
the German " Burschen " in his general bearing and mode 
of life. But the result more than justified the hopes and 
expectations of those who augured, because they knew of, 
better things. He did not confine himself to scientific pur- 
suits, but mingled with them many miscellaneous literary 
exercises, thus strengthening and enlarging his intellectual 
faculties, and fitting himself all the more to take eventual 
advantage of those points in the minds of others, to whom a 
discursive power, and some imaginative impulse, were required 
to create a tendency towards scientific studies, rather than a 
dry enunciation of technical details, which so often fails to 
affect the feelings. It is not knowledge or intellect alone that 
is required in science, though each is indispensable, and both 
are too often found wanting. There must be feeling and 
affection, as towards a living being, as if it formed almost an 
inseparable component portion of our own existence. It was 
thus that Edward Forbes built up all his great things on a 
secure foundation, — no man more cautious yet so bold, — but it 
was by the exercise of something akin to the imaginative 
faculty that he first foresaw and felt the grandeur of those 
general views, — such as the zones of living life, which exist 
not alone upon the sunny surface of the earth, but in the dark- 
some waters far beneath it, — and which he afterwards wrought 
out with the patient zeal of a devoted inquirer, not less than 
rapid apprehension of an accomplished naturalist.* It is but 

* The natural law above alluded to, and of which Professor Edward For- 
bes was the first, as he continued to be the principal exponent, is this, — that 
as there are great and characteristically distinct zones of animal and vegetable 
life, in altitude, as we proceed upwards on the sides of mountains, or into alpine 



138 The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

seldom that such a mind is born into the world, and hence our 
loss. If the rash hand of the fool or the maniac destroys some 
so-called priceless work of art, — some Portland vase, unique 
and unequalled in the elegance of its fair and frail propor- 
tions, — extraordinary human skill may so repair it, that ordinary 
human sight is deceived into the belief that it stands again 
before us in its first integrity, almost without a flaw ; but if 
" the silver cords be loosed," and " the golden bowl be broken/ ' 
who can re-animate the insensate form 1 The desolate dwell- 
ing cannot be re-entered, — the fallen column no more upraised 
upon the earth. 

The residence of our lamented friend was continued almost 
uninterruptedly in Edinburgh, as his head-quarters, until 1839. 
We believe that 1837 formed an exceptional season, as he 
spent that year in Paris studying geology under Constant Pre- 
vost, mineralogy under Beaudent, and zoology under De Blain- 
ville and Geoffroy St Hilaire. During the autumn of all 
these busy and invaluable years he explored some interesting 
portion of the Continent of Europe, or beyond it, doing good 
service to science by a somewhat lengthened sojourn, at one 
time in Illyria, at another in Algiers. The results of these 
various visitations have been publicly recorded, as were also, 
about the same period, a short treatise on the Mollusca of the 
Irish Sea, and several papers on zoology and botany.* 

valleys, from the sea, so there are also equally distinct and different zones of 
animal and vegetable life, in depth, as we descend (which we can only do by 
dredging) from the sea-shore, down the mountains, and into the great submerged 
and sunless valleys, of the ocean. 

* See " Malacologia Monensis," Edin., 1838 ; " On the Land and Fresh- 
Water Mollusca of Algiers and Bougia," — Annals of Nat. Hist., vol. ii. ; " On 
the Distribution of Terrestrial Pulmonifera in Europe," — Reports of Brit. Assoc, 

1838 ; " On a Shell-bank in the Irish Sea, considered zoologically and geologi- 
cally," — Annals of Nat. Hist., vol. iii. ; " Notice of Zoological Researches in 
Orkney and Shetland during the month of June 1839," — Reports Brit. Assoc. 

1839 ; " On the Asteriadae of the Irish Seas," — Wernerian Memoirs, vol. viii. ; 
" Keport on the Distribution of Pulmoniferous Mollusca in the British Islands," 
— Reports Brit. Assoc, 1839; "On the Association of Mollusca on the British 
Coasts, considered with reference to Pleistocene Geology," — Edin. Acad. Annual, 
1810; " On a Pleistocene Tract in the Isle of Man, and the relations of its 



The late Professor Edward Forbes. 139 

In the winter of 1839-40, he delivered a course of lectures 
in Edinburgh on Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, of a 
strictly scientific nature, for professed working students ; and 
he also gave at that time a course of a more popular character 
on Zoology, in its connection with Geology on the one hand, 
and Mental Philosophy on the other. Early in the year 1840, 
he completed his beautiful and still standard work on British 
Star-fish and Sea-urchins (published in 1841), adorned by not 
fewer than 120 accurate and highly-finished illustrations. 
These latter were all designed by himself ; and we may here 
note that his artistic skill was fully and frequently employed, 
not only in the representation of animal forms, but in sketches 
both of rural and architectural scenery, and, most character- 
istically of all, in the vignettes and tail-pieces to his various 
publications, where we have humour and sentiment, gracefully 
and truthfully combined. This power of drawing was of in- 
calculable advantage in his professorial career, by enabling 
him to exhibit to the eye many things beyond expression by 
the power of words. By making use of different coloured 
chalks, he would give most life-like sketches, not only of outer 
form, but of internal structure, both being in some cases of a 
nature so fragile, unfixed, translucent, that little or nothing 
could be understood regarding them, by those previously un- 
instructed, from the inspection of the actual subjects. But 
this accomplished instructor having ascertained, by the most 
minute and pains-taking labour, the actualities of form and 
substance, and having impressed them on his own mind, was 
able, by the combined power of a retentive memory and a 
skilful hand, to bring into the clearest light what was in itself 
invisible to common eyes, or, if visible, then incomprehensible 
by common intellects, till seen through the borrowed lustre of 
his understanding. Alas ! it seems but as the remembrance 
of yesterday, that the feeling returns upon us with all its 
freshness, how in his recent summer course (so frankly under- 

Fauna to that of the neighbouring Sea," — Reports Brit. Assoc. 1840. We men- 
tion the preceding merely as among the more prominent of his earlier contri- 
butions, and to show how soon his determinations tended towards marine 
researches. 



1-10 The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

taken, and so fully accomplished) while he was demonstrating 
the essential nature and attributes of those almost crystalline 
creations from the " blue profound," of which he was himself 
the prime expositor, the interest of his most original descrip- 
tions was almost as it were submerged in admiration of the 
beautifully graceful forms which seemed to arise as if by 
magic from beneath his long and delicate fingers, and how a 
murmur of applause was not refrained from by his grateful 
and admiring audience, — spectators, rather they might then 
be called. 

In April 1841, he accepted an invitation from his friend, 
Captain Graves, who commanded the surveying squadron in the 
Mediterranean, to join the " Beacon," in the capacity of natu- 
ralist, holding a nominal appointment from the Admiralty, 
which gave him position but no pay. He continued in the ex- 
ploration of the Archipelago and of the coasts of Asia Minor, 
with ample and most valuable results.* The Beacon having 
visited the coast of Lycia in the beginning of 1842, for the 
purpose of conveying away the remarkable remains of antiquity 
discovered at Xanthus by Sir Charles Fellows, her crew were 
employed there in making excavations among the ruins, and 
preparing for the removal of the marbles ; for which task, how- 
ever, she proved unfitted. She therefore went back to Malta 
for the necessary requirements ; and being expected to return 
to Lycia, Mr Edward Forbes and Lieutenant Spratt (having 
been previously joined by the Bev. Mr Daniel, an accomplished 

* The following are a few of the important papers, the materials for which 
were acquired about this time. " On two remarkable Marine Invertebrata in- 
habiting the uEgean Sea" — Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1841. " On the species Nesera 
(Gray) inhabiting the iEgean Sea" — Proceedings Zool. Soc, xi., p. 75. "On 
the Radiata of the Eastern Mediterranean"— Linn. Trans., xix., p. 143. " Re- 
port on the Mollusca and Radiata of the JEgean Sea, and on their distribution, 
considered as bearing on Geology" — Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1843. " On a Collection 
of Tertiary Fossils from Malta and Gozo" — Proceedings of Geol. Soc, iv., p. 231. 
'• On the Fossils collected by Lieutenant Spratt in the Fresh-water Tertiary 
Formation of the Gulf of Smyrna" — Journ. Geol. Soc, i., p. 162. " On the 
Geology of Lycia" — lb., ii., p. 8. " On the Fossils collected by Lieutenant 
Spratt in the Islands of Samos and Euboea" — lb., i ii., p. 73. " On a Remark- 
able Phenomenon presented by the Fossils in the Fresh-water Tertiary of the 
Island of Cos"— Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1845. 



The late Professor Edward Forbes. 141 

draughtsman) were kindly permitted to remain, for the sake of 
further antiquarian and natural history investigations. Mr 
Daniel was unfortunately cut off by fever in his prime ; but 
notwithstanding this calamity, the results of a few months' ex- 
ploration were most satisfactory. No fewer than eighteen 
ancient cities, the sites of which were unknown to geographers, 
were examined and determined ;* and many valuable facts in 
geology and zoology ascertained and recorded. 

Having successfully accomplished a task, not unattended by 
difficulty and danger, Mr Forbes was on the point of proceed- 
ing to conduct corresponding investigations in the Red Sea, 
when letters from England announced his (unsought and un- 
thought of) election to the chair of Botany, in King's College, 
London ; an honour not more gratifying than unexpected, as 
he was not even aware of the lamented death of his predecessor, 
Professor Don. He was chosen over the heads of several 
very competent, — indeed, eminent candidates, — without having 
been a candidate himself. He returned immediately to Lon- 
don, and finding that his professorial duties were confined to 
the summer season, he sought and obtained the curatorship of 
the Museum of the Geological Society. 

In this superficial sketch we enter not into details. Of Pro- 
fessor Edward Forbes' great excellence as an accurate and 
philosophical botanist we feel quite assured. One who knew 
him well, and is highly competent to judge (Dr Joseph Hooker, 
a kindred spirit), has expressed his wonder that the author of 
so many and varied geological treatises should have found 
time to aim at original researches in any other department of 
science, and should have been so successful in that aim. " This 
was mainly due to the early age at which he acquired its rudi- 
ments ; to the efficient practical training in systematic botany 
and collecting that he received in Edinburgh ; to his quick 
perception of affinities ; to his philosophical views of morpho- 
logy, distribution, structure, functions, and the mutual rela- 
tions of all these ; to his mind being richly stored with the 
literature of the science ; to the wide experience obtained dur- 
ing his travels ; and, finally, to that heaven-given power of 

* See Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis, 2 vols., 1847. 



142 The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

generalization and abstraction which he so eminently pos- 
sessed." * His introductory address, on assuming the Chair 
of Botany, was remarkable alike for excellency of expression 
and originality of thought. It was printed by desire of the 
Governors and Council. " Those who attended his class will 
ever remember the charm he threw around the study of vege- 
table structure, and the delightful hours they spent in his com- 
pany during the periodical excursions, which he made a point 
of taking with his pupils, in the neighbourhood of London. 
Nor were these excursions attended by pupils alone. Many 
are the distinguished men of science in London who sought 
the opportunity of availing themselves of his great practical 
knowledge of every department of natural history." t 

One of his most important papers (belonging to an after pe- 
riod) is of a mixed nature, such as he alone could furnish from 
his own " invincible armoury," — " On the connection between 
the Distribution of the existing Fauna and Flora of the Bri- 
tish Isles, and the Geological Changes which have affected 
their area." J In this signal work we have opened up to us a 
wide field of speculative research into almost every depart- 
ment of natural science, while it contains, imbedded in itself, 
a vast and varied mass of knowledge. It throws a flood of light 
on some most intricate inquiries regarding the age and rela- 
tionship of the rocks of Britain. 

In 1845 he was offered and accepted the honorable and 
advantageous appointment of Palaeontologist to the Geological 
Survey of the United Kingdom ; and thereafter resigned his 
situation in the Geological Society, of which at a future pe- 
riod (1853) he was chosen president. § In connection with this 

* Gardeners' Chronicle, Dec. 2, 1854. t Athenceum, Nov. 25, 1854. 

X This very remarkable paper is published in the Memoirs of the Geological 
Survey of Great Britain, vol. i., p. 336. Our author's other works, as bearing 
on Botany, are chiefly these : — " On the Morphology of the Reproductive Sys- 
tem of Sertularian Zoophytes, and its analogy with that of Flowering Plants," 
— Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1844. " On some important analogies between the Animal 
and Vegetable Kingdoms,'' — Royal Institution, Feb. 1845. " On the Distribu- 
tion of Endemic Plants, more especially those of the British Islands, considered 
with regard to Geological Changes/' — Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1845. 

§ His " Anniversary Address" forms a part of the " Proceedings" of the 
Geological Society for 1854. 



The late Professor Edward Forbes. 143 

department, for the duties of which he was so admirably qua- 
lified, we need not do more than name the Palaeontological and 
Geological Map of the British Islands, with explanatory Dis- 
sertation, forming part of that now national work, Mr Keith 
Johnston's Physical Atlas, to which Professor Edward Forbes 
also, and more recently, contributed the map, with letter- 
press, of the " Distribution of Marine Life." This post of Palae- 
ontologist he continued to hold till the period of his death ; at 
least we are not aware that his elevation to the chair of Na- 
tural History here — the highest and most influential situation 
of the kind to be obtained in Britain — led to any change, al- 
though some eventual modification might have been found ex- 
pedient to obviate over-labour on the one hand, or the neglect 
of scientific business on the other. 

His being placed among us here was, indeed, deemed a most 
fortunate circumstance in relation to the proposed establishment 
of the so-called Economic or Industrial Museum, forming a 
branch of, or in some other way intimately connected with, the 
great zoological and geological collections of the university — 
themselves about to be, as we and all our community fondly 
hope, endowed, re-arranged, and opened gratuitously to the 
public. But where is now the accomplished head and the will- 
ing hand, that would have planned so wisely, and so plainly 
pointed out, the most approved and appropriate courses which 
we ought to follow, — where the kindly heart and disinterested 
disposition, which would have smoothed down and overcome the 
difficulties which cannot but beset the re-construction, on a 
new, enlarged, untried foundation, of a great scientific Insti- 
tute about to be unsealed ? 

But we shall not prolong our mournful meditations on this 
most sad bereavement, which we really regard as one of the 
greatest which could have befallen our community. Natural 
science is necessarily retarded among us for many a day. But 
let the rising generation bear in mind how much he did with 
no more assistance than they may still obtain. Let them re- 
member, not only his love of knowledge, and assiduity in its 
attainment, but more especially his noble and generous temper, 
ever radiant even in the midst of opposition, like the sun, whose 



144 The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

clearness no envious cloud can long encumber, though, when 
broken and dispersed, it may seem to make his brightness all 
the more effulgent. Let them think of his simplicity, modesty, 
freedom from arrogance and affectation, from jealousy and all 
uncharitableness, and how he ever kept the even tenor of his 
way, unspoiled by success, unmoved by flattery, fearless in his 
love of truth, undaunted in his hatred of malevolence and guile. 
Let not only the young, but also the mature, the middle-aged, 
the ancient, think of these things.* 

" But our idle regrets," says a great and most remarkable 
observer in the same field, " can neither restore the dead nor 
benefit the living. Let us rather manifest our regard for the 
memory of our illustrious brother, — taken so unexpectedly 
from among us, — by making his disinterested devotion to 
science our example, and by striving to catch the tone of his 
frank and generous spirit. And seeing how very much he 
succeeded in accomplishing within the limits of a life that has, 
alas ! fallen short by more than thirty years of the old allotted 
time, let us diligently carry on, in the love of truth, our not 
unimportant labours, remembering that much may be accom- 
plished in comparatively brief space, if no time be lost, and 
that to each and all that ' night cometh ' at an uncertain 
hour, under whose dense and unbroken shadow ' no man can 
work.' " t 

* So abundant are Professor Edward Forbes' works, that we have not as yet 
named the most complete and important of them all, — his " Natural History of 
British Mollusca, and their shells" (in conjunction with Mr Hanley), 4 vols., 
1848-53. His latest public efforts were made at the meeting of the British As- 
sociation, held during last autumn at Liverpool, where he was elected President 
of the Geological Section. One of his most recent written labours (excepting 
his engagements with this Journal) was an article in the Quarterly Review, for 
September 1854, on Sir Roderick Murchison's Siluria. 

t Address to the Royal Physical Society, by Hugh Miller, Esq. — Witness, 
29th Nov. 1854. 



145 



Introductory Lecture delivered at the opening of the Natural 
History Class in the University of Edinburgh, on Wed- 
nesday, 1st November 1854. By the late Edward Forbes, 
F.R.S., F.G.S., Regius Professor of Natural History.) 

[The notes of this Lecture were found among Professor 
Forbes' Manuscripts, and although probably not intended for 
publication, they are now printed, in the hope that they will 
be acceptable to his friends and pupils, and that they wil 
furnish valuable hints as to the mode of conducting courses of 
Natural History. 

There are few persons who would willingly admit that they 
know nothing of natural history ; and, in one sense, they are 
right : for, the beauties and curiosities of nature meeting the 
sight of man at every turn, there can scarcely be a human 
being, however ignorant and degraded, who has not at some 
time observed and admired them. 

But natural history, properly so-called, is more than this : 
it is the science of the understanding of natural objects. 

When we consider that all objects untransformed by the 
art of man are natural, the vastness of this science in its full 
extension must be great indeed, for it would embrace all that 
concerns the earth and its productions, the surrounding air, 
and extend into the domains of astronomy. But as that which 
is aimed at by the professorial office is rather the teaching 
how to study and master a science, through the exposition of 
its leading facts and laws, than to communicate all that is 
known about it, to extend the field of our teachings through- 
out the realms of natural history, would be to prevent the 
purpose we have in view. 

But there are certain great and principal sections of our 
science which should and will form the substance of our 
studies here, and which, however various and different they 
may seem, are in reality intimately and inseparably blended, 
These are the history of living beings, as they are on our globe 
and as they were, and the preparation and constitution of the 
earth's crust for the reception and development of life, 

VOL. I. NO. I.-WAN. 1855 ? K 



146 The late Professor Edward Forbes'.* 

We thus embrace biology, in its more special sense, and 
geology. 

Since the details of one portion of biology, viz., the natural 
history of plants, are fully taught by one of my colleagues, 
and since the course of study for which I contend, that which 
would conduct you to geological knowledge through a prelimi- 
nary investigation of the classification and characters of 
living beings, can in the main be effected only through zoo- 
logy, or the study of the animal part of the creation, it is to 
the latter division of biology that I shall confine my prelec- 
tions. 

And since, for the understanding of geology (the science to 
which the latter half of the course will be devoted), an 
acquaintance with the characters and combinations of 
minerals is requisite, the sub- science of mineralogy will ne- 
cessarily form part of our studies. 

This, then, will be the order of our work. Commencing with 
the consideration of those general facts and principles that 
are common to the several sections of natural history, we shall 
proceed to the study of existing animals, and through them, 
arrive at an understanding of extinct forms of life, known 
only in the fossil state. This department, or paleontology, 
will, along with mineralogy, form the basis of our enquiry 
into the structure and geological history of the globe. 

Almost all the varied science which we shall have to survey 
has been eliminated from the facts of nature, within very 
modern times. Among the ancients, strange as it may seem, 
little progress appears to have been made in natural history, 
and the very science, the materials for the study of which lie 
most abundantly across the pathways of men, was that most 
neglected, and abandoned to dreamy fable. There are only 
two authors of antiquity, whose works are preserved, worthy 
of being cited as original contributors and understanders of 
science. These are Aristotle and Strabo ; the first, unequalled 
in all times for the grasp of his intellect and the variety of 
his acquirements, has left in the fragments of his treatise 
" Usp/ Swap/' a masterly essay in scientific geology, and a 
wonderfully accurate statement of well-directed observations. 
The second, in his geography, the minute accuracy of which 



Introductory Lecture. 147 

I have admired, when travelling by the guidance of his descrip- 
tions, and by them only, through unexplored districts in 
Western Asia, has in several instances described and com- 
mented upon geological phenomena, and started views which for 
centuries remained unnoticed, because far in advance of their 
time. 

Now it is certainly remarkable that there should be no evi- 
dence of any other than these two illustrious philosophers, 
amongst all the ancients, having made real progress in our 
science. In all the statements of importance put forth by 
them, the information is given from their own observation, and 
no references are made indicative of there having been other 
men in the field, working in the true spirit of induction, which 
distinguishes what they themselves did and placed on record. 
Of other ancient authors whom we are accustomed to quote 
on account of natural history statements, Dioscorides, although 
the preserver of much interesting information concerning 
plants, can scarcely be regarded as more than a herbalist, 
whilst Arrian and Pliny are in the main compilers, and cer- 
tainly have no claim to take scientific rank with Aristotle and 
Strabo. 

The building of the great edifice of natural history science 
was long deferred, although, as we have seen, the corner 
stones were placed early. During the last 200 years almost 
everything has been done, and during the latter of these two 
centuries, the best part of the work. The order of develop- 
ment of the several sections has been in the main empirical. 
Thus botany advanced first ; chiefly through the impulse given 
to the study by its adoption in schools of medicine, and its 
connection with the materia medica ; zoology passed through 
many phases, owing much to the systematization of the know- 
ledge of it in his day by the great Linnaeus ; and more, after- 
wards, through the wedding of it with comparative anatomy, 
by John Hunter, Cuvier, and their cotemporaries. Geology, 
after struggling through the mist of vague speculation, though 
cheered by occasional and momentary breaks of sunshine, 
at length, at the beginning of this century, emerged into clear 
day, and rapidly and steadily advancing, has now taken its just 
place amongst the foremost and grandest of the sciences. 

K2 



1 4 8 The late Professor Edward Forbes' s 

If we regard the position and condition of the natural his- 
tory sciences at the present moment, we may consider the age 
and time most favourable to the successful study of them. 
But Ave must not deceive ourselves, and fancy that because 
natural history is popular, it is therefore generally understood. 

Were we to form our opinion from the number of books on 
all branches of the science, issued almost monthly from the 
press, in Britain alone, and perused with avidity, we might 
suppose ourselves a nation of naturalists, and fairly reckon 
upon finding every tenth educated person we meet versed 
even in the technicalities of zoology, botany, and geology. 
Yet is it so ? I need scarcely reply in the negative. On the 
contrary, we are too well aware of the prevailing and wide-spread 
ignorance of these studies. The fact is this, the books in 
question are bought and read ; the interesting statements they 
contain excite momentary attention and pleasure ; even scien- 
tific classifications seem pleasing, because suggestive of well 
digested order. But the knowledge so gained is word-know- 
ledge only. Now this kind of knowledge can take no root, 
unless it be accompanied by a knowledge of things and beings. 
When Oliver Goldsmith, genius as he was, tried his hand at a 
" History of Animated Nature," and a very delightful book he 
made of it, he knew so little of the chief subject of his chapters 
viz., quadrupeds, that he described the cow as casting her 
horns annually. There is no more dangerous experiment than 
that of writing about things without a practical acquaintance 
with them. And there is no information which passes more 
speedily and thoroughly away from the memory than that of 
natural history, if it be learned from books only. 

The remedy is an easy one. Verify what you read in your 
book, and hear in your class-room, by observation in the field, 
and in the museum. Observe for yourselves. Try to decipher 
the structure, and make out the names of animate and inani- 
mate objects from actual specimens. Even to do this in 
the most rudimentary fashion is better than to rest content 
with reading the most lucid descriptions. Many a man can 
define a vertebrated, an articulate or a radiate animal, with 
out an erroneous expression, and yet be sadly puzzled as to 
what some unaccustomed specimen placed before him might 



Introductory Lecture. ]49 

be. The student who has counted and compared the legs of 
a fly and a spider, and noticed the resemblance between the 
segmentation of a centipede and of a lay worm, is further ad- 
vanced in knowledge of the characters of the great articulate 
group, than he who can repeat whole pages of definition on 
the subject by heart, and yet would be exceedingly embar- 
rassed were he to be presented with a cockchafer, and called 
upon to point out those peculiarities in its external organiza- 
tion that distinguish it as an insect. 

Many a reader of geological treatises will tell you con- 
fidently how the world was made, yet be at his wits' end if re- 
quested to name and define specimens of the rocks which he 
would meet with in situ were he to walk from this class-room 
to the summit of Arthur's seat. I remember some years ago, 
having a painful interview with a modest and intelligent per- 
son, who on account of testimonials and undoubted hard read- 
ing, had been appointed to the office of naturalist and geologist 
in an important foreign expedition. No man could have passed 
a better oral or written examination upon the sciences required 
of him, but unluckily all his knowledge of them had been 
derived from books. He was utterly adrift when asked how 
he would go to work when he arrived at the scene of his in- 
tended labours, and what tools he would use. Still more so 
when called upon to name a series of specimens of objects 
with which he would probably have to institute his first com- 
parison. This gentleman, in no spirit of petulance or despair, 
but simply through an honest sense of his inability to fulfil the 
task required of him, resigned his mission at once. 

Now, I would earnestly urge on every student of this class 
the necessity of exercising himself frequently in observation 
of natural objects. My teaching, were it to be as perfect as 
my utmost ambition would desire, would be of little avail, 
unless you use your own eyes. Above everything go to the 
fields, and the seaside. You could not be more favourably 
situate for out-of-door study than you are here. In a huge 
metropolis such as London, or even Paris, to make field ob- 
servations, is to give up entire days to the work. But here 
the healthy exercise which all of you ought to take, the 
invigorating stroll around our beautiful neighbourhood, may 



150 The late Professor Edward Forbes's 

be made at the same time one of the best scientific lessons. 
The Queen's Park is a museum of British zoology in itself, 
and one of the finest natural geological models in the world. 
The shores of the Frith of Forth are strewn with interesting 
specimens of marine animals. The very ditches of the mea- 
dows, almost within the town, abound in curious freshwater 
creatures, every one a study in itself. To strolls in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh, whilst a student in the University, I 
am indebted for much knowledge that has proved to me a 
never-ceasing pleasure and a benefit in after years. 

Do not neglect the museum. It may not be all we could 
wish, but it is more than enough for supplying the materials 
of study during the time you can give to it. It has been 
said of hospitals, that their capacities for instruction are not 
always in proportion to their vastness, and their number of 
beds is not of so much consequence as variety and interest of 
cases. So with museums ; it is not mere extent and great 
accumulations of specimens that render them available for 
purposes of study, but rather the systematic illustration of the 
leading types of the several kingdoms of nature. This is the 
purpose which we shall keep in view in getting our museum 
here into order, a task that will take some time, but which, 
nevertheless, is, I trust, advancing. Now, from the types of 
animal and mineral forms exposed in its rooms and cabinets, 
you ought to be able to acquire a fair fundamental notion of 
the science we are met to cultivate. How best to make use 
of the collection I will explain in another lecture. 

The main purpose of your assembling in this class-room is 
the acquiring a knowledge of the principles of natural history, 
of the leading facts of zoology and geology, and of the way 
to go to work in pursuing the practice of these sciences. 
Within these limits the method of instruction by lectures is 
well adapted for conveying the requisite information, and 
forming a basis for more detailed studies in the cabinet and 
the open air. Moreover, you will thus be guided in the course 
of study which can only be pursued in your chambers. Study, 
when desultory and unguided, is rarely beneficial, although 
better than none at all. When properly and systematically 
conducted, the study of natural history invigorates the mind, 



Introductory Lecture. 151 

exercises and strengthens the reasoning powers, and educates 
the observing faculty. For these qualities, it is selected to be 
a branch of professional education ; and those among you who 
are intended for the noble and self-sacrificing profession of 
medicine, will never regret having devoted a fair portion of 
your time to the receiving of zoological, botanical, and geolo- 
logical instruction. 

These are days when almost every man, sooner or later in 
the course of his life, travels, either of necessity, or for pur- 
poses of information and amusement. Delightful as it is to 
explore strange lands, no small part of the pleasure and the 
benefit of travelling is lost to the man who is ignorant of natu- 
ral history. The differences between one country and another 
do not depend wholly upon their inhabitants, their edifices, or 
their towns, Nature, animate and inanimate, varies in each 
region of the earth's surface. The differences strike even the 
uninformed, — but in what manner? Vaguely, dimly, and 
ignorantly. Hovv often, when we visit foreign countries, do we 
meet with intelligent travellers, who, perceiving those differ- 
ences, and unable to comprehend them, lament grievously 
over their ignorance, and exclaim, " Would that we knew 
something of natural history !" Often have I heard a like 
exclamation uttered by the active-minded soldier or sailor, 
who has longed for occupation in some far-away and lonely 
station, whence all the sense of loneliness might have been 
banished, had he been able to observe the wondrous world of 
living creatures and the construction of the rocky soil around 
him. Many of you will probably find yourselves under similar 
circumstances, but, I trust, not under like intellectual difficul- 
ties. Learn to observe and to know nature in good time, and 
you will never be oppressed by listlessness, or wearied through 
want of objects of interest w r ith which to engage the mind. 

Under conditions which to most minds induce hopeless idle- 
ness, it is possible for you not only to make yourselves happy, 
but to gain fame, if that be your ambition, and certainly to 
contribute, in no small degree, towards the advancement of 
science. Nay more, under these conditions, you may be in 
the most favourable position for the perfecting of your own 
knowledge, and the opening out fresh fountains of discovery. 



152 The late Professor Edward Forbes 1 s 

You will have the advantage over many a naturalist at home ; 
for there is no advantage in our department of science so great 
as that conferred by travel. The mind becomes warped and 
narrowed when limited to the contemplation of one set and con- 
dition of objects. Observation is exercised, but without the 
check and gloss of sufficient comparison, and we think we see 
all, when we are regarding but a fragment. The zoologist and 
botanist can, it is true, by means of menageries, gardens, and 
museums, gather together readily the fruits of travel. Still, 
the natural combinations, so to speak, of living beings, are not 
fully and fairly seen through such artificial media. The mi- 
neralogist can do much in the cabinet and in the laboratory ; 
but there is a mineralogy on a grand scale that must be studied 
in the open air, and in the recesses of the earth. It is cus- 
tomary to say that minerals are the same everywhere they oc- 
cur : but this is not strictly true ; and the curious and minute 
differences of constitution, and even of crystallization, which 
distinguish the minerals of one region from those of another, are 
indicative of phenomena which have yet to be worked out in 
the wide geographical fields. The geologist, though he may 
ground himself thoroughly in his science at home, above all 
other naturalists, requires to correct and extend his know- 
ledge by wide-spread research and observation ; and, when Sir 
Charles Lyell said that there are three requisites for a geolo- 
gist, and that these are, " Travel, travel, travel !" he gave that 
advice which, if it had been the doctrine of the illustrious Wer- 
ner, would have placed his favourite science in a very differ- 
ent position half a century ago, and freed it at an earlier day 
from the trammels of local prejudice and partial knowledge. 

Now to those who must stay at home — and they are many — 
the greatest service that can be conferred by him who travels 
is the communication of correct scientific observations. All 
of you, then, who look forward to see the wonders of foreign 
regions, prepare yourselves, in good time, to understand and 
describe them ; and let those to whom the British islands are 
to be a life residence, learn also, in order that they may un- 
derstand the new facts that will thus be brought to light. 

When urging upon some of my friends the benefit and de- 
light they would derive from natural history studies, I have 



Introductory Lecture. 153 

heard the objection occasionally put forth, that they are in- 
compatible with active professional or business occupations ; 
or, at least, that the carrying them out worthily, and in a 
spirit of true science, not mere dilletanteism, cannot be ef- 
fected without an interference with the sterner duties of life. 

Plausible as this objection seems, it is not well founded. 
The proof that it is not so lies in the fact that many of the 
ablest advancers of the natural history, as well as of other 
sciences, and, I might add, of literature and philosophy, are 
men diligently engaged in daily duties of a different kind, 
and doing their tasks thoroughly and well. The names of 
many of the most eminent of British men of science are those 
of fully occupied physicians and successful merchants. Who, 
for example, have done better service towards the investiga- 
tion of the zoology of the British Islands than Dr George 
Johnston of Berwick, and Professor Thomas Bell of London, 
both carrying out extensive and original researches whilst 
busily engaged in arduous and never-neglected professional 
duties % In the last century, Ellis, a busy London merchant, 
changed the whole face of zoophytology. Only last year died 
Charles Stokes, a name not popularly known, but very fa- 
miliar to men of science at home and abroad, similarly oc- 
cupied with Ellis, who, nevertheless, found time to aid, by his 
extensive and original knowledge and ever-judicious advice, 
almost every naturalist of whatever denomination in Europe. 
At the present moment I could point out several of our very 
best zoologists and geologists among the most diligent and 
ablest of British merchants. The law, too, might do much 
for us, but does not often add to our ranks ; yet it is a curious 
fact, that one of our chief authorities for the anatomy of 
the invertebrata is a lawyer. The army and navy have more 
time at their disposal ; but it is not among the idle portion of 
the services that we find the scientific amidst arduous duties ; 
and a naval officer, in command of one of our ships now in the 
Black Sea, has contrived to acquire and communicate the first 
satisfactory and scientific information concerning the coal- 
fields of Asia Minor. Let it not be pleaded, then, that 
science is to be put aside on account of active professional occu- 
pations of any kind. The excuse never comes from the able 



154 The late Professor Edivard Forbes 1 s 

and willing. It is exactly by the aid of the classes of men 
who do their professional and business duties best that science 
has reaped, and is reaping, its most valuable harvests. 

To urge upon you the desirability of studying natural his- 
tory, on account of the material benefits that may result from 
the pursuit, would be to take a very low ground of persuasion. 
You do not come here to acquire the art of making fortunes 
by this kind of learning, but to study it because it is a 
science worthy of the mind's employment intellectually en- 
nobling in the knowledge it imparts. That which it pleased 
the Creator to make — the universe and the world on which we 
live, and the beings that live upon the world with us — these 
are surely subjects worthy of our deepest study. Every crea- 
ture, whether existing or extinct, every fragment of rock and 
constituent mineral, each and all are revelations of Divine 
wisdom. Now, all which was worthy of God's making is 
worthy of man's learning, is too plain a truth to need a com- 
ment. Well might the old Christian father exclaim, " Crea- 
vit angelos in ccelo, vermiculos in terra ; non superior in istis, 
non inferior in illis." 

Yet such is the nature of man, that he is constantly harp- 
ing about things beneath his dignity. The politician, whose 
business really concerns the fleeting moment, who, whilst he 
boastfully fancies himself stirring the world — as the fly in 
the fable stood upon the axle and fancied itself the mover of 
the wheel — who is useful, because politicians must be as things 
are constituted, and therefore, and therefore only, respectable — 
the politician regards the man of science with compassionate 
concern or supercilious indifference, deeming his pursuits un- 
practical, because not always useful in the lowest sense. Yet 
the very politics of the world are changing through the advance- 
ment of every form of knowledge, and the development of the 
character and power of nations depends in no slight degree on 
the progress of sciences that seem at the moment wholly iso- 
lated and theoretical. 

Show the man of commerce and the statesman a utilitarian 
bearing in scientific researches, and all the dignity and va- 
nity of man are forgotten. Show that gold is to be got or to 
be saved through our work, and the value of our science is at 



Introductory Lecture. 155 

once admitted. Short-sighted diplomatists and sorry econo- 
mists ! The spread of a thirst for pure knowledge is in its 
results eventually of more benefit, both politically and pecu- 
niary, to the state, than all the immediate " useful applica- 
tions." A wise people, delighting in intellectual pursuits for 
their own sake, is a shrewder generation than one lost in 
money-making and statecraft. 

But to get at the mind of a world that values wealth and 
power as the grand aim of earthly occupation whilst this 
world lasts, we must occasionally employ its own weapons. It 
is true that natural history, under its sub-sciences, physics and 
chemistry, cannot do this very effectively or frequently ; but, 
nevertheless, it has something to say. More especially in its 
mineral aspects does it bear upon utilitarian interests. In 
these gold-seeking days, a little knowledge of mineralogy 
would have prevented the waste of not a little gold. I have 
seen boxes of yellow mica, imported from California, under 
the belief that they were filled with the precious metal, and 
carefully packed prisms of quartz brought home, after being 
dearly paid for as diamonds, the seller probably having re- 
gretted the cheapness at which his necessities compelled him 
to dispose of them, and the buyer dishonestly chuckling over 
the goodness of the bargain he had made. On the other 
hand, I have lately placed, in the cases of the museum, frag- 
ments of a mineral that promises to yield a fortune, which lay 
open, abundantly, to the day, and stood by the roadside un- 
noticed until it attracted the eye of a scientific observer. 

Especially valuable is geological knowledge. Not many 
years ago, a competent engineer, visiting a district where lime 
was precious for agricultural purposes, and was procured from 
a considerable distance inland at much cost, being impressed 
with the belief, drawn from his geological observations, that 
there ought to be limestone strata beneath the superficial 
covering, went to work systematically to test his impression, 
and ended, to the amazement of the people, by obtaining a 
lease of the limestone v in a district where the natives never 
heard of its presence. He then made his shafts, and supplied 
them with the desideratum. 



15(3 The late Professor Edward Forbes's 

In this case money was made by geological knowledge, — 
oftener it may be prevented being thrown away. 

Not a hundred miles from Edinburgh I have seen, since I 
last lectured in this class-room, costly excavations in progress, 
the object being a common one — the search after coal in a spot 
where any geologist would have told the seekers that they 
might as well throw their money into the sea. In this case a 
good geologist, who knew the country well, did give timely 
warning, but in vain. As if to illustrate the absurdity of this 
wasteful and unscientific experiment, the so-called " practical" 
men who conducted these operations were actually mining 
amid vertical strata, sinking their shaft in the dip, and driv- 
ing their galleries in the strata of the bed ; so that, however 
long they continued their fruitless task, they would be (and 
possibly at this moment are) constantly working in the same 
bed in which they commenced. 

But I trust that, whilst there shall be no danger of the stu- 
dents of this class making such preposterous blunders, they 
will always bear in mind the intellectual dignity of the science, 
and whilst they apply its results to every useful and economi- 
cal purpose to which they may be adapted, never forget that 
the grand aim and object is the contemplation and understand- 
ing of the greatness and goodness of the Deity, as revealed to 
us in creation. This purpose constitutes the worthiness of our 
science, and stamps it with unmistakeable grandeur. 

Edinburgh has long been famous as a nursery of naturalists. 
A large proportion of the most distinguished British zoologists 
and geologists of our day, and not a few foreign ones, acquired 
or cherished their taste for the study of nature in this univer- 
sity. The physical advantages of the district have had doubt- 
less much to do in attracting the minds of students to natural 
history. But these would have been ineffective without the 
teachings and enthusiasm of my late illustrious predecessor in 
this chair, who was himself preceded by a less known but able 
man, Professor Walker, imbued with a like spirit. The emi- 
nent men who have gone before me held that the student who 
aims at being a naturalist, in the proper sense of the word, 
must combine biological with geological knowledge. For the 



Introductory Lecture- \hl 

same view I most strenuously contend. It was the doctrine 
held and practised by Linnaeus, by Cuvier, by Blainville, by 
Brongniart ; and at the present day by such men as Owen, Dar- 
win, and Falconer, all formerly Edinburgh students ; by Agas- 
siz, Loven, Phillippi, and Dana. A philosophy of natural his- 
tory can only spring out of this combination, and can never be 
evolved from the exclusive study of isolated sections. I hold 
that the student should begin by taking broad and compre- 
hensive views of the general bearings of the science ; and when 
afterwards, as he must if he is to master it well, he engages 
in monographic researches, then he will reap the benefit of 
having laid a foundation of good, sound, general principles. 

The day will come when, ere we attempt a complete descrip- 
tion and precise definition of any one species of animal or 
plant, we must first have worked out not only external varia- 
tions and internal structure, but also the whole history of its 
distribution in geological time and geographical space. 

I am aware that these views are not invariably assented to 
by the naturalists of the present day, although in favour of 
them the opinions of the ablest may be cited. I trust to you, 
gentlemen, for the evidence of their correctness. To the fu- 
ture career of many of you I look forward with hope and con- 
fidence. I have had a guarantee of it in the ability and ear- 
nestness displayed by many of the students of this class dur- 
ing the past summer. Whatever I can do I will do, and hope 
you will come to me freely for advice and assistance. We 
have fine subjects for study ; let us go to work earnestly and 
diligently, and we shall be sure to gain much good scientific 
knowledge before the winter shall have passed away. 



[ 158 ] 
REVIEWS. 



Die Conchi/lien der Nord-Deutschen Tertidr-gebirges. The 
Fossil Shells of the Tertiary Formations of the North of 
Germany. By Prof. Beyrich. Berlin : 1853-4. Parts I. — 
III. 

No one can have directed his attention to a physical map of the 
North of Europe, excluding, of course, the Scandinavian penin- 
sula, without being struck by the vast extent of the flat, or only 
very slightly undulating country, which stretches from the south- 
western frontiers of Belgium through Holland, Oldenburg, Hano- 
ver and Prussia, into the very heart of Russia. This relatively 
low flat region also comprises parts of Silesia and Prussian 
Poland, with Pomerania and adjacent territories. No inconsider- 
able portion of this tract consists of unproductive sands, turf 
bogs, and dreary morasses, occasionally interrupted by districts of 
diluvial clays, which have been converted into rich and productive 
meadow lands. 

In later times the value of this district has been greatly in- 
creased by the discovery of extensive tracts of brown coal, which 
have been successively worked, and, especially in the neighbour- 
hood of Magdeburg, and of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, supply the in- 
habitants with a cheap and valuable fuel. The working of these 
brown coal beds, however, has led to another, and, geologically 
speaking, still more important discovery. These brown coal beds, 
derived from the decay of the vegetation of vast lagoons and 
swamps, form the basis of an interesting series of tertiary deposits, 
some of which have proved to be unusually rich in the remains of 
marine mollusca, showing in many districts a remarkable con- 
nexion with the well-known tertiaries of Belgium and other coun- 
tries. 

At first, however, they did not meet with all the attention they 
deserved, and, although the contents of the Septaria clays of Berlin 
and of Magdeburg, and those of the nodules of Sternberg, have 
been long known, it is only since the Belgium tertiaries have been 
worked out by the exertions of Sir Charles Lyell and Professor 
Dumont, that the attention of the German geologists has been 
directed to ascertaining their correct position in the tertiary system. 
Amongst those who have been most active in working out these 
results is Professor Beyrich of Berlin, the author of the work now 
under our consideration. It will not, therefore, now be uninter- 
esting to the readers of the Philosophical Journal, to have placed 
before them a short outline of the work, so far as it is already 



Reviews. 159 

published, and of the plans and views of the author in carrying 
out his undertaking. 

Professor Beyrich soon recognised the insufficiency of the pre- 
viously existing catalogues, or lists of names of the Molluscous 
Fauna of the tertiary beds of North Germany, to enable the geo- 
logist to establish a correct comparison between them and the fos- 
sils of other countries. They were generally unaccompanied by 
illustrations. Even the investigations of Philippi respecting the 
tertiary shells of Cassel, Freden, Zuilkorst, and the neighbourhood 
of Magdeburg, are not sufficiently comprehensive to enable the 
geologist to institute exact comparisons between them and the 
productions of other localities ; the progress of the study of the 
North German tertiaries has consequently been slow. The evil of 
such an imperfect state of the literature of this branch of science 
had been acknowledged by the Direction of the Imperial Institute 
of Geology of Vienna, who immediately prepared the commence- 
ment of a separate work on the shells of the tertiary basin of 
Vienna by Professor Homes, in which not only the names but full 
descriptions and accurate drawings of all known existing species 
should be given. 

Professor Beyrich wishes to do for the North of Germany what 
Homes has undertaken with regard to the Vienna basin. 

" It is my intention," he observes, " to extend the work to all 
the tertiary formations which have been discovered, from the fron- 
tiers of Belgium and Holland, eastward through North Germany 
as far as the Oder. All these formations belong undoubtedly to 
one series of deposits, closely connected with each other, and of 
which the faunae are so intimately allied by numerous gradations, 
that the removal of any single member from the series would 
destroy the continuity of the whole. In order to have a clear 
insight into the relative connexions of deposits which occur at such 
various and distant points, we must bring together for comparison 
the fossils from the neighbourhood of Dusseldorf, Osnahriick and 
Biinde, those of Hildesheim and Cassel, those from Liineburg and 
the island Sylt, as well as from the neighbourhood of Magdeburg, 
and from the Markgraviate of Brandenburg. We must also exa- 
mine the tertiary shells which have been transported into new posi- 
tions in the diluvial deposits, in order to obtain a perfect view of 
the molluscous fauna of the tertiary seas of the north of Germany." 

The eastern boundary of the country which Professor Beyrich 
proposes to examine is somewhat artificial, being limited by the 
extent of our knowledge on the subject. Between the Elbe and 
the Oder, great progress has been made of late years in the inves- 
tigations of tertiary geology, while no observations have been made 
respecting the extension of these fossiliferous tertiary beds beyond 
the Oder. The author thinks it probable, however, that they 
nevertheless exist. The geological features of the country form 



160 Reviews. 

a natural boundary to the south. The Hartz and other mountain 
districts, which rise more or less abruptly from this northern 
plain, mark with more or less exactness the limits of the ancient 
ocean. Alternations of marine and fresh-water deposits are no 
where met with, nor do any of those combinations of organic 
forms occur, which are characteristic of brackish waters. This 
ancient tertiary sea was permanently shut off from those fresh- 
water basins, which in the interior of Germany formed extensive 
and perhaps contemporary deposits. The marine tertiary forma- 
tions, which extend through the countries watered by the Weser as 
far as Gottingen and Cassel, are a southern prolongation of this 
North German tertiary deposit, and must be considered as sepa- 
rated from the north-eastern prolongations of the Mayence basin, 
which is characterized by its peculiar composition, and the abnor- 
mal development of its fauna. 

We cannot state thus generally the views of Professor Beyrich 
without adding one or two remarks, modifying, in some degree, the 
universality of the expressions. When Professor Beyrich states 
that there is no alternation of marine and fresh-water deposits, he 
surely cannot have overlooked the fact that these marine forma- 
tions almost everywhere overlie the brown coal, and that although 
no animal remains have been found in this brown coal, it must be 
looked upon as a fresh- water deposit formed in vast lagoons or 
swamps probably at no great elevation above the then level of the 
ocean, and derived from the decay of fresh-water vegetable matter. 
In the next place it appears to us that in the present state of our 
knowledge, it is somewhat arbitrary to attempt on the one hand 
to connect the tertiary beds of Cassel, Biinde, Gottingen, &c, with 
those of North Germany, from which they are separated by moun- 
tain ranges of considerable elevation, and on the other to cut off 
these same Cassel tertiaries from the North Eastern prolonga- 
tions of the Mayence Basin with which the physical, and, to a certain 
extent also, the mineralogical connection appears to have been both 
natural and continuous. 

The author then proceeds to show the importance of institut- 
ing a comparison between the tertiaries of Belgium and those of 
North Germany, observing that, although the time is not yet come 
for the complete development of this parallelism, there are certain 
established points of connection which must not be lost sight of. 

After explaining Dumont's five systems (Landenien, Ypresien, 
Panisilien, Bruxellien, and Laekenien), which, taken together, are 
the equivalents of the Paris Eocene formations up to the sand of 
Beauchamp, and of those of England up to the Barton clay, he 
observes : — " Hitherto we know of no fossils from any part of the 
North of Germany which positively prove the existence of tertiary 
deposits of so great an age. The oldest North German tertiary 
Fauna, viz., that of what I have called the Magdeburg Sands 



Reviews. 1 61 

agrees rather with that of Lethen in Belgium, which belongs to 
the lower portion of the Tongrian (Systeme Tongrien), and imme- 
diately overlies the Systeme Laekenien, the uppermost of the five 
Systems of Dumont just alluded to. Moreover, the occurrence 
of this Fauna is as yet confined in North Germany to the country 
west of the Elbe between Magdeburg, Calbe, and Egeln." 

The next fossiliferous bed in ascending order which occurs in 
Northern Germany is the Septaria Clay of Berlin, which, with its 
characteristic fossils, has hitherto been found near Stettin, Freien- 
walde, Bukow, Hermsdorf, and Liibars near Berlin, Burg, 
Holienwarthe on the Elbe below Magdeburg, and Gorzig near 
Kothen. The same clay occurs in an isolated position in the 
Liinebiirger Heath at Walle, near Celle, but it is not again met 
with in a westerly direction nearer than Belgium, where the clay 
of Boom Baesele and other places south of Antwerp is perfectly 
identical. 

Professor Beyrich refers the Fauna of the Sternberger beds to 
the same Belgian System (Systeme Rupelien). They contain the 
characteristic shells of the Septaria clay, with others which are 
not found in the older beds. It also occurs in the neighbourhood 
of Stettin. The author is still uncertain whether any beds occur 
in North Germany corresponding with the deposits of Kleyn- 
Spawen, placed by Dumont between the Rupelmonde Clay and 
that of Lethen, and which are referred partially to the Rupelmonde, 
and partly to the Tongrian System. This is important because 
these are the beds which, as De Koninek first suggested, have the 
greatest analogy with those of the Mayence basin. 

All the tertiary deposits of the lower Elbe belong to a more 
recent period, as well as those of other more northern localities 
near Liineburg, Hamburg, and Holstein, and those of the island 
Sylt and Schleswig. Of the same age are those observed by F. 
Roemer on the frontier of Holland, and by Acfeld and Dusseldorf. 
They must not, however, be placed higher than the deposits of 
Bordeaux, the Touraine, Turin, and Vienna. Deposits of the age 
of the clay of England and of Antwerp are altogether wanting in 
North Germany. The youngest tertiary deposits of North Ger- 
many belong to the Bolderberg System, which is placed by 
Dumont and Lyell as parallel with the typical Miocene formations 
of France and other countries, and of which, although inferior 
to that of the Vienna basin, it is a better representation than the 
Belgian deposit. 

After thus describing the physical characters of the North Ger- 
man tertiary deposits, the author proceeds to discuss the question 
as to where the boundary line is to be drawn between the Eocene 
and Ivliocene formations in Belgium ; and after fairly stating the 
views of Dumont, Lyell, and d'Orbigny, he appeals to the evidence 
of North Germany, from which it appears that, in so far as the 

VOL. I. NO. I.— JAN. 1855. L 



1(>2 Reviews. 

lowest beds of the Tongrian System appear as the base of the whole 
marine tertiary formation of the North of Germany, to the total 
exclusion of all older formations, this is an important geological 
support to the view of Sir C. Lyell, that a stronger line of separa- 
tion is to he drawn between the Laeken and Tongrian systems 
rather than between the Tongrian and the Rupelmonde systems ; 
but he does not agree with Lyell in giving to these united systems 
the name of Upper Eocene rather than Lower Miocene — he rather 
adopts the views of the French Palaeontologist in considering 
them the forerunners of the Miocene formation, and is therefore 
prepared to call them Lower Miocene. 

After alluding to the different suggestions of Dumont and others 
for various subdivisions of the tertiary formation, he observes, 
(while at the same time refusing to be bound to the mere artificial 
rule of percentages), that the terms Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene, 
should be maintained as representing periods of time, the centres 
of which are well known to us, but whose beginnings and ends 
run into each other ; in the same way as, the more our knowledge 
is extended, we find to be more and more the case in all investiga- 
tions respecting geological periods. 

In conclusion, the author adds a few words respecting the ar- 
rangement and the form in which he proposes to give his descrip- 
tion of the north German tertiary shells. The Univalves precede the 
Bivalves ; and adopting the plan of Hbrnes's work on the Vienna 
Basin, he commences with the Gastropods. This has the advan- 
tage of establishing a more easy system of comparison between the 
two formations ; and with the same highly laudable view he has 
determined to adopt the same order of genera. This is the more 
praiseworthy, as he admits that in some instances a more satis- 
factory arrangement might have been adopted. Such a sacrifice 
of personal views is the more to be admired in proportion as it is 
rare ; and the advantage to students of the two systems cannot be 
questioned. He has wisely determined not to overload his work 
with too much description, or the useless repetition of synonyms 
already published in so many other standard w r orks. 

To give some idea of the extent of the work, we add a list of 
the genera already published, with the number of species belong- 
ing to each, genus : — Voluta, 10 species ; Mitra, 11 ; Oolumbella, 
3 ; Terebra, 6 ; Buccinum, 13 ; Purpura, 2 ; Cassis, 7 ; Cassida- 
ria, 3 ; llostellaria, 2 ; Aporrhais, 2. Total, — 60 species on 15 
plates. 

We cannot conclude these remarks without thus publicly award- 
ing our thanks to Prof. Beyrich for having undertaken this work. 
It is evident that we can have no correct idea of the real nature of 
the successive fades of the Molluscan fauna of the Northern 
Oc an without it. It will indirectly tend to give us more correct 
views of our own interesting tertiary formations, and thus lead to 



Reviews. 163 

a truer knowledge of the various gradations through which tho 
creation of tertiary forms have proceeded from the close of the 
cretaceous epoch down to its most recent deposits ; and while, on 
the one hand, we urge Prof. Beyrich to advance in his great work 
as rapidly as circumstances will allow him, we must also express 
a hope that he will meet with such encouragement from British 
Palaeontologists, as will prove to him that his labours are fully 
appreciated in the country of a Lyell and a Forbes. 



Memoirs of the Life and Scientific Researches of John Dal- 
ton, Hon. D.C.L., Oxford, &c. By William Charles 
Henry, M.D., F.H.S. Printed for the Cavendish Society, 
1854. 

We have now the satisfaction of welcoming a work on Dalton, 
which leaves us nothing to desire, so far as regards his personal 
history or his scientific labours. His history was eventless, his 
nature unimpassioned, his intellect clear and self-reliant, and his 
perseverance inexhaustible. By many and slow steps he won his 
way to reputation, and what to so modest a philosopher seemed 
w r ealth, was added to fame. 

Born in 1766 in Cumberland, the son of a yeoman, whose small 
copyhold afforded no patrimony for a younger brother, Dalton 
shared in the labours of his father's farm during the summer 
months, and in addition commenced at the precocious age of 
twelve, to teach a school in his native village. When fifteen years 
old, he removed to Kendal, and along with his elder brother 
Jonathan, conducted a seminary for children of members of the 
Society of Friends, among whom the Daltons had been numbered 
for three generations. 

In the humble office of schoolmaster, he continued at Kendal 
for eight years, devoting his leisure to the study of mathematics, 
natural philosophy, chemistry, and the languages, in the prosecu- 
tion of which he was encouraged and assisted by Mr Gough, a 
blind gentleman of remarkable acquirements, who set him the ex- 
ample of keeping a meteorological register. For this the continu- 
ally changing aspects of such a district as that around Kendal, 
w T ith its hills and dales, and sheets of water, presented peculiar 
facilities, and Dalton soon became an enthusiastic meteorologist, 
and continued one to the last. Bound meteorology, indeed, all 
his researches naturally grouped themselves, and it was originally 
to solve important problems in the science, which he had more or 
less cultivated for twenty years among his native hills, that he 
entered upon those enquiries into the laws of Heat, the Constitu- 

l2 



164 lieu lews. 

tion of Gases, and the Composition of Chemical Compounds, which 
afterwards made him so famous. 

The first of his scientific publications, " Meteorological Obser- 
vations and Essays," appeared in 1793, soon after his removal 
to Manchester, to enter on the office of Tutor in Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy in a Dissenting College in that town. He 
resigned this appointment at the end of six years, but continued 
to reside in Manchester to the close of his days. It is not our 
intention here to trace the events of his personal history : it will 
suffice, therefore, to state that the reputation he acquired by his 
Meteorological Essays, was greatly increased by the publication in 
the Manchester Philosophical Memoirs, from 1799 onwards to 
1801, of Essays on Evaporation; on the conduction of heat by 
liquids ; on the constitution of mixed gases ; on the force of steam 
or vapour from water, and other liquids ; on evaporation ; and on 
the expansion of gases by heat. 

These remarkable papers attracted the notice of the scientific 
world and led to Dalton's invitation to lecture at the Royal Insti- 
tution, London, in 1804, where Davy was then delighting audi- 
tors of all ranks and professions by his chemical prelections. In 
the short course of lectures Dalton delivered at this time, he an- 
nounced the results of researches, which were not published till 
1805. These embraced an experimental enquiry into the elastic 
fluids of the atmosphere; an investigation into the diffusion of 
gases ; and a Memoir on the absorption of gases by water. It 
was this last paper, read to the Manchester Society in 1803, but 
not published till 1805, which contained what its author called a 
" Table of the relative weights of the ultimate particles of gaseous 
and other bodies ;" or what we should now name a Table of Atomic 
Weights. It was the first such Table, and was destined more 
than any of his publications to make its author memorable. 

He was led to construct such a Table originally from the de- 
sire to solve a problem important to meteorology : " why is one 
gas more soluble in water than another ?" He thought the dif- 
ferent solubilities of gases might prove to depend on the unlike 
size of those ultimate particles, which he afterwards named atoms, 
and regarded as so essentially indivisible that he enforced on his 
pupil, Mr Hansome, that a law of Multiple Proportion could not 
fail to exist, in these naive, but most expressive words — " Thou 
knows it must be so, for no man can split an atom!" (Life, 
p. 222.) 

From this time forward, chemistry much more largely occupied 
his time than before, and fully alive to the novelty and import- 
ance of his views on atomics, he proceeded to embody them in a 
work which his modesty and simplicity of character did not pre- 
vent him from naming a " New System of Chemical Philosophy ,•" 
a title which the scientific world cordially and admiringly received 



Reviews. 165 

and ratified. The first part of vol. I. of the New System was not 
published till 1808, and the second not till 1810. The second 
volume did not appear till 1827. It contained in an Appendix, 
what its author styled a " Reformed" Table of Atomic Weights, 
in which oxygen figures as 7 : nitrogen as 5 + or 10 \ ; carbon 
as 5-4 ; sulphur 13 or 14 ; and phosphorus as 9 ; hydrogen being- 
regarded as unity. It is not a little remarkable that the author 
of the atomic theory was wrong, and far wrong, in every one of his 
atomic weights. He would accept none of the corrections of other 
chemists, and priding himself on his practicality defended all his 
numbers, which are now universally discarded ; but it was this 
stubborn self-reliance which enabled him to transcend the imper- 
fection of his self- supplied data, and by the power of his genius 
to announce laws, which, paradoxical though it may appear, he 
established as true, although every example of their truth he 
offered was false. 

Dr Henry's work enables us to dispose conclusively of the 
much-vexed question how far Dalton was anticipated by others in 
his announcement of those laws of combining proportion by weight, 
which obtain in chemistry. His biographer's revelations strik- 
ingly show how difficult a task it ever is to write history faithfully, 
and how little even the most able and friendly contemporaries of 
a man can often be trusted in their estimate of his doings. Every 
chemist was aware that Dalton had been anticipated in the disco • 
very of the law of Reciprocal Proportion, by Richter (following out 
the views of Bergman and Wenzel), not to mention the law of 
Definite or Constant Proportion, which he did not claim as his 
own ; and that Higgins had preceded him in regarding chemical 
combination as occurring between the ultimate particles of bodies. 
At the same time, it was matter of almost total uncertainty how 
far Dalton, who read exceedingly few books, was familiar with 
those earlier researches ; but the general impression, advocated in 
his own behalf by Higgins, and so far favoured by Davy, was, 
that Dalton had some acquaintance with Higgins's views, but 
none, as Dr T. Thomson specially asserted, with those of Richter. 

It now appears that Dalton was ignorant altogether of the ex- 
istence of Higgins or his writings, till many years after he pub- 
lished his views on atomics ; and Dr Henry shows very distinctly 
that though Higgins did not hesitate to hint at plagiarism, his 
doctrines, however ingenious, are inconsistent with each other, 
and are not based on such considerations as led Dalton to his 
conclusions. 

On the other hand, his biographer gathered from the lips of 
the chemist himself, that he had profoundly studied Richter's 
tables of combining proportions before he published his Atomic 
Theory ; but it does not less clearly appear, that before he was 
familiar with the views of the German chemists, he had not only 



16G Reviews. 

realized very clearly the existence of what are now termed the 
laws of Constant and of Reciprocal Proportion, but had disco- 
vered the law of Multiple Proportion, which no one had even 
suspected to exist, before he announced it ; and had in effect an- 
nounced the equally important law of Compound Proportion, the 
honour of proclaiming which no one disputes with him. 

Dr Henry also shows more fully than had been shown before, 
that with an almost inexplicable perversity, Dalton insisted on 
disbelieving in those beautiful laws of Combination by Measure, 
which Gay-Lussac proved to obtain in the case of gases, and en- 
titled the Theory of Gaseous Volumes, although it was the coun- 
terpart of his own theory of Combination by Weight, and, as every 
one now sees, confirmed and extended it. 

Dalton died a believer in the existence of atoms which " no 
man can split." His biographer has marshalled with great ful- 
ness and clearness all the arguments deducible from recent che- 
mical discoveries and speculations, in support of the existence of 
indivisible ultimate particles, or true atoms ; but he impartially 
acknowledges that they cannot be demonstrated to exist, and con- 
tents himself with urging the probability of their existence. The 
important and much disputed question here raised, we shall not 
discuss on this occasion, but all to wdiom it is interesting will find 
new and valuable materials for its settlement in Dr Henry's work. 

It remains to add, that on the personelle of Dalton, of which 
we have said nothing, ample and very interesting particulars are 
furnished ; and that the volume is enriched by contributions from 
many distinguished men of science. The Cavendish Society has 
done a signal service in publishing a work so well written and so 
valuable. 



The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colours, and 
their Applications to the Arts. By M. E. Chevreul, 
Membre de l'lnstitut de France, &c, &c. Translated from 
the French by Charles Martel. London : Longman & Co. 
1854. 

Chevreul is a remarkable example of distinction won in depart- 
ments of enquiry so different, that posterity is likely to halve or 
double him, and insist on the existence of at least of two Messieurs 
Chevreul, the one famous amongst chemists, as the discoverer of 
the true nature of Fatty bodies ; the other, a high authority among 
Natural Philosophers and Artists, as a discoverer of new relations 
among colours. There is, however, but one Chevreul, and his work 
on colour, which sprang out of his labours as chemist to the Gobe- 



Reviews. 167 

lins tapestry dye-works, stands in natural and pleasing association 
with his purely chemical investigations. 

His views upon colour have heen so long and so highly appre- 
ciated on the Continent, and especially in France, that our foreign 
brethren have naturally wondered that we have been so tardy in 
acknowledging their value, especially in their application to the 
practical chromatic arts. Our natural philosophers did not over- 
look their importance, as our university libraries can testify ; and 
in 1848, the Cavendish Society published an admirable abstract of 
Chevreul's views, of the existence of which the translator of the 
work before us appears to be quite ignorant. It was not, however, 
till the Great Exhibition in 1851, that the conspicuous superiority 
of the French coloured designs drove our workmen to discover the 
cause of their own inferiority, and the continual reference to Chev- 
reul as one of the great authors of the skilful use of colours by the 
French dyers, weavers, and other workers in the chromatic arts, 
turned the attention of practical men in this country to his book. 
The volume before us is the fruit of the interest thus awakened in 
the author's researches, and we welcome its appearance in an 
English form. 

Large as the work is, it is the demonstration of a single fertile 
principle, which its author calls the " Law of the Simultaneous 
Contrast of Colours." The purport of this law, is to point out 
the singular fact, that when two coloured objects, such for example 
as a red and a green ribbon, are placed side by side, or so near 
each other as to be seen together, the quality and intensity of their 
respective colours do not appear the same as when each is looked 
at separately. Thus, the same red ribbon Avill have a different 
tint if seen side by side with a green, with a yellow, and with a 
blue ribbon, and these colours will in their turn be modified to the 
eye, by their juxtaposition with red. This is the Simultaneous 
Contrast of Colour. If, again, two shades or tints of the same 
colour be placed together, — for example, a light red, and a dark 
red, the latter will appear darker, and the former lighter, than 
either does when seen alone. This is the Simultaneous Contrast of 
Tone ; the word " tone," being used by Chevreul as synonymous 
with intensity of tint or shade, not as referring to any real or sup- 
posed analogy between colour and sound. 

So far as tone is concerned, the rule is sufficiently noticed above. 
As for contrast of colour, it occurs according to the principle that 
every colour adds its complementary to the colour it is placed 
near or beside. Thus, red causes other colours near it to appear 
as if its complementary green were added to them. Green tints 
them with red. Blue adds to other colours orange. Yellow adds 
to them purple. The appearance of any coloured body beside 
another coloured body, is thus different from what it is when seen 
alone or on a white ground, and the difference is such as would be 



168 Reviews. 

produced by adding to the isolated colour so much of the comple- 
ment of the colour which by its proximity, modifies it. 

It had long been known, as Chevreul amply acknowledges, that 
when the eye is fatigued by looking at one colour it sees its com- 
plementary ; but it was reserved for him to show that fatigue is 
not essential to the development of the phenomenon, or rather 
that there are two phenomena which have been confounded toge- 
ther, — the one, long observed, where the eye gazing long on one 
colour, sees thereafter on white surfaces its complementary ; the 
other that discovered by Chevreul, where the colour and its com- 
plement are seen side by side. The former he names the Succes- 
sive contrast ; his own discovery the Simultaneous Contrast of 
Colours ; and he points out very clearly that the phenomena may 
intermingle so as to give rise to what he calls Mixed contrast of 
colours. 

The application of those observations to the practice of the 
chromatic arts is carried out by Chevreul in the most elaborate 
and interesting way. With the utmost patience, conscientious- 
ness, and sagacity, he illustrates the light which his discoveries 
throw on the details of painting, glass- staining, tapestry-weaving, 
carpet-making, the selection of furniture, the arrangement of 
flowers in gardens, the provision of uniforms for soldiers, the 
choice of linings for ladies' bonnets, and much else. 

Those things lie beyond our sphere, but we could wish that 
some of our writers who publish on the Harmony of Colours in 
organised beings would study Chevreul. They might find that 
they had been long anticipated, and even surpassed. Much, for 
example, has been said regarding the occurrence of complementary 
colours in flowers and birds, as if the discovery were something 
new. It is not only old, but those who read the book will find that 
an explanation (as we venture at least to suggest) of the pleasure 
w T ith which the complementary colours, such as red and green as- 
sociated in plants and in birds, is to be found in the fact pointed out 
by Chevreul, that when complementary colours are placed together, 
each exalts the other, so that red makes green greener, and green 
makes red redder, than either would appear alone. The eye is 
gratified with the full colour in these cases, not in virtue of some 
vague recognition of complementaries, but because by no other 
arrangement can two colours be made to show so fully and richly. 

We cannot forbear stating that justice is not done to Chevreul 
in the present translation. It is awkward, inelegant, often bar- 
barous in style, and sometimes quite unintelligible. Uncoloured 
diagrams, also, are employed in illustrating the work, but they are 
most inadequate ; and the plea for omitting colours, that the 
reader can make such for himself is untenable ; for a reader skilful 
enough to do that need not study Chevreul. 



( 169 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Letter from Mr M' Andrew to Dr Balfour, relative to a 
Communication from the late Professor E. Forbes. 

A few notes for a paper " On some points concerning the Natural 
History of the Azores, by the late Professor E. Forbes," have 
been placed in my hands for elucidation. They are the result of in- 
formation furnished by me, and as my lamented friend pointed 
out to me the bearing which such information had upon his Theory 
concerning the Origin of the Fauna and Flora of the British 
Islands, I am enabled to furnish the following statement, which 
may not be without interest, as recording and explaining certain 
opinions of the eminent naturalist, who has just been taken from 
among us. 

Professor E. Forbes has stated, that when in 1846 he published in 
the 1st volume of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain, his essay " On the Connection between the Distribution 
of the existing Fauna and Flora of the British Isles, and the Geo- 
logical Changes which have affected their area, especially during 
the epoch of the Northern Drift," his theory, that previous to 
or during the glacial period, the Continent of Europe had extended 
as far west as the Azores, was inferred from geological and bota- 
nical phenomena, and that at that time there were no data acces- 
sible for testing his opinion, by reference to animal life. He says, 
that if his views were correct, then the terrestrial and marine mo- 
luscs of- the Azores should be neither peculiar nor American, but 
Lusitanian types, and species identical with Portuguese molluscs, 
or those inhabiting the coasts and shores of Madeira and the Ca- 
naries. " This question,'" he continues, " may now be said in a 
great measure to be answered ;" and he refers to the accompanying 
list of 52 species of marine, and 20 species of land mollusca* col- 
lected in the Azores by my son, James J. M'Andrew, during the 
last winter. Of these, he states, that all the marine, except two or 
three critical forms, are Lusitanian, or in a few instances, Canarian 
species ; and that of the land shells, only three are undescribed 
types, the remainder being common to the Lusitanian or Atlantic 
Island fauna. These facts he considers as fully supporting his theory. 

In the notes before me, Professor Forbes also calls attention to 

* I have ventured to make a few corrections in the lists, omitting Mitra nigra, 
which is identical with M. fusca, and adding Helix lactea, H. crystallina, and 
H. barbula (Moulet.) The latter received by Professor E. Forbes from Fayal, 
is, of all, the most peculiarly Lusitanian, having, to the best of my knowledge, 
only been obtained previously in Portugal and the adjoining Province of Gal- 
licia in Spain. 



170 



Correspondence. 



the curious fact, that whilst both the land and marine shells are 
chiefly of European species, the littoral portion of the latter are 
mostly of African type, common to West Africa, as well as to the 
Canary and Madeira Islands. He has not given any interpreta- 
tion of this significant record of changes which the earth must have 
undergone since the introduction of the existing fauna, and which 
may possibly be deserving of the attention of geologists. 

The preceding facts are all that are referred to in the notes be- 
fore me, and I only hope that I have succeeded in stating them 
intelligibly. 



Robt. M 'Andrew. 



Liverpool, 19«A Dec. 1854. 



List of Shells obtained from the Azores. 



Marine 
Chiton fascicularis — (Celtic and Lu- 

sitanian.) 
Patella vulgata — (Celtic and Lusita- 

nian.) 
Acmsea Gussoni — (Mediterranean and 
Canaries.) 
„ parva — (Celtic.) 
Emarginula (pink) — (Madeira.) 
Fissurella — (Mediterranean.) 
Haliotis (tuberculatus, var. ?) — (Lusi- 
tanian.,) 
Trochus Langieri — (Portugal and Me- 
diterranean.) 
„ striatus, var . — (Portugal and Me- 
diterranean.) 
„ (monodonta) Berthelotti — Cana- 
ries and Madeira.) 
Turbo rugosus — (Lusitanian.) 
Phasianella pullus ? — (Lusitanian.) 
Fossarus Adamsoni (littoral) — (Africa 

and Canaries.) 
Littorina striata (littoral) — (Africa 

and Canaries.) 
Rissoa cingillus— (Celtic.) 

„ crenatus — (Mediterranean and 

Canaries.) 
„ clathrus — (Celtic and Lusita- 
nian.) 
„ cimex — (Lusitanian.) 
„ new species ? 
„ new species ? 
Cerithium adversum — (Celtic and Lu- 
sitanian.) 
„ reticulatum — (Celtic and Lusi- 
tanian.) 
Scalaria clathratula — (Celtic and Lu- 
sitanian.) 
Eulima Boscii ? — (Canaries and Ma- 
deira.) 
„ distorta — (Canaries, Celtic, and 
Lusitanian.) 



Mollusca. 

Natica intricata ? — (Lusitanian and 
Canaries.) 

Chemnitzia elegantissima (Celtic 

and Lusitanian.) 

Mitra fusca (littoral) — (Africa, Cana- 
ries, &c.) 
, y zebrina (littoral) — (Africa, Ca- 
naries, &c.) 

Mangelia septangularis ? — (Celtic.) 
" (or Columbella) (Peculiar.) 

Nassu incrassata — (Celtic and Lusita- 
nian.) 

Columbella rustica — (Lusitanian.) 
„ cribraria ? ? — (Canaries.) 

Murex corallinus — (Lusitanian.) 

Purpura haemastoma — (Lusitanian and 
Canaries.) 

Triton nodosum (dwarf var.) — (Lusi- 
tanian and Canaries.) 
„ tuberosum — (Canaries.) 
, t scrobiculatum (Mediterra- 
nean.) 

Cypraea pulex — (Mediterranean.) 

Pedipes (littoral) — Africa and Cana- 
ries.) 

Conovulus albus — (Celtic.) 

Ianthina fragilis j flQ 
„ exigua J 

Spirula Peronii — (Portugal, Canaries, 
&c.) 

Tapes 

Cardiumpapyraceum— (Mediterranean 
and Canaries.) 

Cardita calyculata — (Mediterranean 
and Canaries.) 

Ervilia castanea — (Portugal, Canaries, 
and Mediterranean.) 

Cytheria Chione — (Lusitanian.) 

Pecten pusio— (Celtic and Lusitanian.) 

Lima hians— (Celtic and Lusitanian.) 



Correspondence. 171 

Land Mollusca. 

Testacellus Maugei ? from St Mary's. Helix, new species? from St Michael's 
Vitrina Lamarkii ? from St Michael's. and St Mary's. 

Helix aspersa, from St Michael's. „ new species ? from St Michael's 

,, lactea, from St Mary's. and St Mary's, 

„ lenticulata, from St Michael's Bulimus decollatus, from St Mary's. 

and St Mary's. „ species allied to B. pupa ? from 

„ rotundata, from St Michael's and St Michael's and St Mary's. 

St Mary's. „ new species ? from St Michael's. 

„ crystallina, from St Michael's. ,, ventrosus, from St Mary's. 

,, cellaria or lurida, from St Mi- Zua luhrica, from St Michael's. 

chael's. Balea fragilis, var., from St Michael's. 

„ rubescens, var., from St Mi- Pupa compostoma ? from St Michael's. 

chael's. Limax cinereus, from St Michael's. 
„ new species, like arbustum, from 

St Michael's. 



Seliuyn on Australian Geology. — The following notice of various 
points connected with the geology of the colony of Victoria, is ex- 
tracted from a letter (19th May 1854,) from Mr Alfred Selwyn 
to Professor Ramsay : — High results would accrue to geological 
science were more of our colonies examined in the able and syste- 
matic manner followed by Mr Selwyn, who has now been for about 
two years in charge of the geological survey of the colony, after 
having been for about six years actively and ably engaged in the 
geological survey of Great Britain. The notice possesses a melan- 
choly interest from the mention of that gifted man, whose untimely 
death will long be felt and deplored by geologists in every quarter 
of the world. 

" For the last three months I have been at work between Mel- 
bourne, Port- Philip Head, and Western Port Bay. I have found 
and collected a considerable number of tertiary fossils, mostly in 
a stratum of blue stiff clay, containing bands and nodules of hard 
grey limestone, with veins containing sulphur and fine crystals of 
selenite, the whole very like the London clay, or Barton Cliff, 
Hampshire. Among the fossils are terebratula, and a few other 
bivalves, turitella, vermetus, patella, nautilus, murex, buccinum, 
&c. I shall send a quantity home to Forbes by first opportunity. 
I have found them in only one place, on the east side of Port- 
Philip Bay. 

" I think I mentioned in my last, that I had found fossils, ap- 
parently Lower Silurian, in the auriferous rocks at Mount Ivor, 
fifteen or twenty miles east of Mount Alexander. 

" Another matter of great interest, and one I mentioned in a 
letter to Jukes some twelve months since, is now proved beyond a 
doubt, viz., the extension of the auriferous drifts under the great 
lava plains of the rivers Loddow, Campaspie, &c. At the very 
place where I first saw some evidence of such being the case, 
they are now sinking through the lava down into the auriferous 
drift. I have also lately seen several small grains of native tin 



172 Correspondence. 

mixed with the gold from the Ovens and Ballarat. This is, I be- 
lieve, uncommon. 

" To the eastward of West Port Bay the country has never been 
explored. I intended to have begun an examination of it this 
autumn, but the wet weather having set in a month earlier than 
usual, has obliged me to defer it till next summer, it being a very 
difficult country to penetrate. There are no roads, and many 
steep ranges covered with dense scrubs and thickly timbered. I 
know it to he for the most part coal measures, and in this district 
it is, if anywhere, that workable beds of coal, are likely to be dis- 
covered. From what I have seen of the coal measure beds, they 
seem to consist chiefly of thick bedded soft sandstones, green, 
brown, and yellow, of various shades, and I think they are quite 
unconformable on the older (Silurian or Cambrian) palaeozoic 
auriferous rocks. Of this, however, I have no certain proof at 
present. 

" The traps and basalt of the Western Port district, are evidently 
of much older date than the great lava plains in the vicinity of 
the diggings, which are the products of recent volcanoes, while the 
former are, I should say, igneous, but not strictly volcanic. All the 
districts occupied by the older igneous rocks are hilly, scrubby, 
and densely timbered, while those occupied by the volcanic rocks 
are open grassy plains, almost destitute of timber, with a few scat- 
tered conical hills, apparently, for the most part, craters, or points 
of eruption. There are, I find, traditions amongst the aborigines 
of some of these hills having been seen on lire by their ancestors, 
which does not seem improbable. In one or two I have visited, 
the craters are distinctly visible with a small gap broken down on 
one side of the wall." 



Spratt on the Occurrence of Coal in Turkey.— In the present 
juncture of affairs, the following extract from a Letter from that 
able geologist, Commander Spratt of the Spitfire, to Professor 
Forbes, is of much interest, showing the possible supplies of coal 
that may be obtained by Government for our steamers in the East. 

" I am truly glad to hear that the Kosloo coal proves to be of 
the true carboniferous age by the fossils, as the governments here 
are said to have some intention to work the mines by English 
miners, and by their knowing that the district is really so valu- 
able and promising, they may be induced to secure to themselves 
a deeper share and interest in the working of the district ; for the 
coal may be found in almost every valley betvveeen Erakle and 
Amastris, at from one-half to seven or eight miles, and at various 
elevations from 50 to nearly 1000 feet, and there are many 
valleys which open into the sea on this line of coast. A fir.e spe- 
culation is open here, the coal being found above the surface of 
the sea at all angles on the sides of the valleys. It has been 



Correspondence. 



173 



much disturbed, and seems to lie in undulating basins like the 
Belgian, having been subjected to a great lateral pressure during 
the disturbance and uplifting of the strata. 



North 




4321 12 34 5 6 789 10 

Rough Section (two miles) of the ridge on the east side of the Kosloo valley 
with its numerous coal seams. Many faults displace the seams varying from a 
few inches to several feet. 
No. 1 Coal-seam. 
„ 2 Coal 18 feet. 

„ 3 ,, 3 feet bad, excepting 10 inches. 
„ 4 „ 5 feet bad, soft, dip 30 degrees on north side; 4 feet, G inches, 

soft, on south side. 
„ 5 „ 4 feet, 10 inches, roof of conglomerate, containing quartz 

pebbles, with 6 inches of shale between it and the coal. 
„ 6 „ 5 feet soft. 

, 7 „ 4 feet 10 inches very good — best. 
„ 8 „ 5 feet. 
,, 9 „ 5 feet. 
„ 10 „ Coal-seam.. 
„ 11 „ 9 feet. 
„ 12 „ 5 feet, dip south-east, 32 degrees. 

" I give you here a list of the valleys with coal, some of which I 
have crossed on my route from Kosloo to Erakle, or Erayle as it 
is pronounced. Tlie details were given me by my intelligent friend 
Mr Barkley, the civil-engineer working the mines for the Turks, 
to whom the development of these resources is mainly due. I 
procured from him one or two specimens of the fossils when 
there, which he had in his house, and also worked at the pit's 
mouth the next day, and thus found what was sent you. 
Localities with Coal. 

Amont Keni.—r-Nme miles from Erakle, one mile from the sea — 
a seam of very good coal, cropping out on the side of the valley. 

Ali Jaza. — Two seams worked by Groat squatters, five and 
eight feet each, dipping 70° to north-east, and one and a half 
mile from the sea. 

Tchonsh Jaza. — Two seams, both coal. 

Ooloosoo. — Twenty miles from Erakle, has a thermal spring 
70°, and a good seam of coal just discovered. 

Okoosnu.- — Thirty miles from Erakle. Has several seams on 
the summit of the mountain, two and a half miles from the sea. 
The coal lies of various inclinations, and is of good quality. 

Zunzeldek. — -Three miles east of Kosloo ; has seven or eight 
seams ; very similar to the Kosloo, and varying in their size and 
inclinations. 

Baluk and Uzuhnas. — Several seams in these valleys, one 



174 Proceedings of Societies. 

having a seam of good coal, twelve feet thick, about two miles 
from the sea; all variously inclined. 

" The coal is interstratified with shales, sandstones, and con- 
glomerates of quartzose pebbles, with occasional bands of clay. 
The whole overlying a mass of gray limestone, and apparently un- 
conformable, but upon this I could not satisfy myself fully ; in- 
deed it would require a series of observations during many days 
to describe the district thoroughly, and I have not time now to re- 
fer to my journal and note book, to refresh my memory fully 
upon it. The coal measures pass upwards into a friable reddish 
shale, near Erakle, where they have been baked by volcanic out- 
pourings, viz., streams cf serpentine, greenstone, and trachyte peb- 
bles ; and, at Erakle, we have these upper shales on the coast, 
with some fossil oysters in them of a very small size." 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
Monday, Dec. 4, 1854. Right Rev. Bishop Terrot, V.P., in the Chair. 

Farther Experiments and Remarks on the Measurement of 
Heights by the Boiling Point of V/ater. By Professor J. D. Forbes, 
— This paper is in continuation of one printed in vol. xv. of the Royal 
Society's Transactions, and in a previous number of this Journal. The 
object of it is to test the correctness of the method of observation, and of 
calculating the results, then proposed, and to compare both with those of 
more recent authors, particularly of M. Regnault of Paris, and of Dr 
Joseph D. Hooker. 

The author finds the results of his subsequent observations in 1846 in 
the Alps, up to heights considerably above 10,000 feet, to agree well with 
those previously published, made in 1842. They combine in shewing a 
sensibly uniform fall of the boiling point at the rate of 1° for 543 feet of 
ascent (in a standard atmosphere at 32° of temperature), which differs 
only 6 feet (in defect) from his previous determination. The average de- 
viation of the individual results from the formula is only ^ of a degree 
(without regard to sign). 



Barometer. 


Boiling Point. 


Difference from 
My formula. 


Difference from 
Rognault's 
Formula. 


Inches. 


Fahr. 






20 77 


194 ! 28 


+ 0°22 


+ 0°32 


20-79 


194 33 


- 008 


+ o-oi 


22-40 


19794 


- 0-04 


+ 0-12 


22-67 


198-51 


- 008 


+ 0-06 


2315 


199-52 


- 0-07 


+ 06 


23-35 


199-94 


+ 0-01 


+ 0-15 


23-89 


201-04 


- 0-11 


+ 0-03 


2399 


201-24 


- 0-09 


+ 0-08 


2402 


201-31 


+ 0'04 


- 0-20 


24-105 


201-47 


- 0-17 


+ 0-03 


25-14 


203-51 


+ 0-04 


+ 0-19 


28-49 


209-54 


- 07 


- 0-06 



Proceedings of Societies. lib 

The agreement with M. Regnault's table is also extremely close ; and 
considering the ordinary limits of error of such observations, the writer 
considers it nearly indifferent for elevations under 13,000 feet which 
method of calculation be used. 

The consistency of the results shews that the method of observation 
(which differs in some respects from that commonly used) and the gra- 
duation of the thermometers were satisfactory. 

On carefully examining T)r Joseph Hooker's detailed results, (obligingly 
communicated by him), which that naturalist considered to be incompati- 
ble with Professor Forbes's formula, it is shewn that the inconsistencies 
of observation are so considerable, that it is difficult to give a decided pre- 
ference to one formula rather than another, for the purpose of represent- 
ing them ; but that up to heights of at least 13,000 feet, a linear formula, 
or one which assumes the lowering of the boiling point to be exactly pro- 
portional to the height, seems to express the observations as well as any 
other ; and the rate of diminution is almost the same as that deduced from 
Professor Forbes' observation, or a lowering of 1° for 538 feet of ascent. 

The author has little doubt that M. Regnault's table, (which was not 
published when he last wrote), does really represent the law according to 
which water boils more accurately than the simpler linear formula, though 
the difference is in most cases insensible. For all ordinary heights (or 
up to 12,000 feet) Regnault's table may be more accurately represented 
by the formula 

h == 535 T. 

Where h is the height in English feet, T the lowering of the boiling 
point in Fahrenheit's degrees, reckoning from 212.° But he finds that 
Regnault's table may be represented in every case which can occur in 
practice, and with almost perfect accuracy, by the following formula, 
which is nearly as easy to use : — 

h = 517 T + T 2 . 

On the Chemical equivalents of certain Bodies, and the relations 
"between Oxygen and Azote. By Professor Low. 

The author commences his paper with a review of the opinions enter- 
tained by Dalton, Berzelius, and others, regarding the equivalent numbers 
of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, which have been differently 
fixed, according as we start from combination by weight or by volume. 
He remarked that while either view was perfectly suited to explain all 
the general phenomena of decomposition, yet since chemists had begun 
to examine the phenomena of substitution, it became apparent that it 
was absolutely necessary to employ the equivalents determined by weight. 
The author then proceeds to show that on a proper comparison of the 
properties of these elements, and of the constitution of their compounds, 
their atomic weights must be Hydrogen 1 , Carbon 6, Nitrogen 7, Oxygen 8. 

Reference is then made to the nature of azote, and to the opinion more 
than once expressed since its discovery in 1772, that it might be a com- 
pound, and to the views of Davy and Berzelius, the latter of whom sup- 
posed it must contain an inflammable base, which he proposed to term 
Nitricum. The author stated that he had long since arrived, by an en- 
tirely different line of argument, at the conclusion that nitrogen was a 
compound substance containing carbon ; and as no other element can pos- 
sibly combine with that substance so as to produce a compound whose 
equivalent shall be 7, except hydrogen, he concludes that azote is 
actually represented by the formula CH. Pursuing the same line of ar- 
gument, he pointed out that oxygen might be a compound of azote and 
hydrogen, and referred to certain properties of ozone as indicating its 



17G Proceedings of Societies. 

compound nature. The author concludes his paper by showing how in 
all probability other elements might actually be considered as compounds, 
referring particularly to selenium and tellurium, chlorine, iodine, and 
bromine, and the metallic bases of the alkaline earths and alkalies. 



Monday, Dec. 18, 1854. Right Rev. Bishop Terrot, V.P., in the Chair. 

Miscellaneous Observations on the Salmonidce. By John Davy, 
M.D., F.R.S., Inspector- General of Army Hospitals. 

These observations are given in seven sections. 

In the 1st, the author treats of the air-bladder of these fish, and the 
contained air, which he found, in every instance that he examined it, to be 
chiefly azote. 

In the 2d, he points out a mistake he had fallen into in the instance of 
the female fish, as regards its abdominal aperture, which in a former paper 
he had described as open only for the passage of the ova ; on further ex- 
amination made on the larger species, he has ascertained, that though 
virtually closed, except during the spawning time, it is not absolutely 
either by a membrane or adhesion. 

In the 3d, on the breeding localities of the Salmonidae, he states his opi- 
nion that running water is not essential to the hatching of the ova, and 
he adduces instances in proof and illustration. 

In the 4th, which is on the variable time of the hatching of the ova, he 
describes examples of difference as to time of the production of the young 
fish under circumstances apparently identical, or circumstances only very 
slightly different, tending to show the influence of a vis insita in the 
several ova. 

In the 5th, on circumstances and agencies likely to take effect on the 
young fish, he notices two trials, — one in keeping the young fish in dark- 
ness after quitting the egg, which had no marked influence ; the other in 
keeping them in the smallest portion of watir capable of covering them, in 
relation to the position of young fish during a time of drought ; in one 
instance life was protracted 52 hours ; in another 74. 

In the 6th, on the food of the young fish, he endeavours to prove that 
the food most suitable for them, and for which they are best fitted, is the 
infusoria. Young charr, under his observation, attained their perfect 
form and became fit to be set at large, to which no food had been given, 
and were, it is presumed, fed and nourished by these microscopic animal- 
cules. 

In the last section he submits some remarks on the vexed question of 
the par, viewed as a species, and comes to the conclusion that till a par 
is found propagating its kind, proof must be held to be wanting of the 
existence of such a fish, a true species distinct from the salmon or sea- 
trout fry. 

On the Structural Character of Rocks. Part III., Remarks on the Stra- 
tified Traps of the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. By Dr Fleming. 

The author referred in the first instance to the character of Stratifi- 
cation, illustrating the subject by specimens displaying the intermittent 
character of the carrying agent, and of the supply of material, pointing 
out the Hailes Quarry as furnishing the best example of the repetitions 
of strata. He then stated the views of Townson, \V nitehurst, and Jame- 
son, as to the relation of the trap rocks to the sandstones with which they 
are interstratified. He then took notice of a statement in the thirteenth 



Proceedings of Societies. 177 

volume of the Transactions of the Society, by Lord Greenock, that Edin- 
burgh may be considered as a valley of elevation, the trap rocks in the 
neighbourhood dipping outwards as from a common centre. This opinion, 
he stated, was true in reference to the rocks on the east and west sides of 
the city, but not true as to those on the south and north, as at Blackford 
and Burntisland. Dr Fleming then stated, that there were nine masses 
of trap in the neighbourhood, included in the sandstones, all of them hav- 
ing some peculiar structural characters, — viz., Calton Hill, Salisbury 
Crags, Arthur's Seat, Lochend, Hawkhill, Blackford, Craiglockhart, 
and Granton. At this part of the paper he made some remarks in the 
so-called " outburst of trap" of Inchkeith, stating that the island con- 
sisted of at least a dozen of beds of trap alternating regularly with ac- 
knowledged sedimentary beds of sandstone, shale, and limestone, contain- 
ing organic remains. 

The author then commenced his survey of the stratified traps of the 
neighbourhood, by considering particularly the structural character of the 
Calton, or as it was termed at an earlier period, the Caldton. This trap- 
pean mass he considered as extending from Greensicle to Samson's Ribs, 
including Heriot-Mount, St Leonard's, and the Echoing Rock. The 
Calton Hill had been described by Townson, Faugas St Foord, Jameson, 
Webster, Boue, Saussure, Cunningham, Milne, and Maclaren. 

Dr Fleming then illustrated his views of the sedimentary character of the 
whole hill, by tracing on the Ordnance map, the coloured spaces occupied 
hj the twelve beds of which the hill consists, assisted by a coloured sec- 
tion. The peculiarities of each bed in regard to its structure and mine- 
ral contents were pointed out; the author concluding by noticing the more 
interesting of the simple minerals of the hill, especially the Sarcite of 
Townson, first characterized from Calton specimens, and afterwards known 
as Cubizite and Analcime, exhibiting a specimen which he had procured 
from the hill when a student at the University. 



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, 



Chlorophyll in Green Infusoria. — Prince Salm Horstmar has found 
that the green infusoria which form so abundantly on stagnant water, 
when treated with alcohol, give an extract having all the optical properties 
of a solution of chlorophyll. It gives the black-band in the red part of 
the spectrum described by Stokes, as well as dispersion of a blood-red light. 
The same result was obtained with an alcoholic extract of Spongia fluvia- 
tilis. — Poggendorjfs Annalen, vol. xciii., p. 159. 

Noctiluca Miliaris exists in the Mersey in myriads. It is this species 
chiefly which imparts a phosphorescent appearance to the water at night, as 
may be proved at any time by taking some of the river water containing 
them into a perfectly dark room, and splashing it about with any hard 
body to irritate them. They may be seen as little hyaline-globules about 
the size of a pin's head. Three or four years ago, in company with Mr 
Price, we saw millions of them collected together at Hilbre Island, in a 
little pool, when they tinged a portion of the water, about two yards in 
circumference, with a deep pink colour. The individuals in this collection 
were of a light pink hue under the microscope ; those from the river are 
colourless. The men upon the ferry steamers state that the phospho- 
VOL I. NO. I. — JAN. 1855. M 



178 Scientific Intelligence. 

rescent appearance of the water is much more noticed some years thnn 
others. They associate its presence with southerly winds. — Byerley, 
Fauna of Liverpool, in Lit. and Phil. Trans, for 1854. 

Actinia Troglodites has been found in pretty good numbers upon the 
Leasowe shore and near Egremont slip. I have kept as many as eight or 
ten together for upwards of six weeks. They were often very ill-used for 
want of a fresh supply of sea water, but seemed to be most tolerant under 
the infliction. It was seldom until after having been kept for ten or twelve 
days in the same water, that they began to droop considerably, and they 
were speedily restored by a change. No food was given at any time. At 
first they threw off a great number of germs or ova, which, before they 
were extruded, could be plainly seen through the external envelope, and 
especially at the bases of those specimens which had not attached them- 
selves, and could be turned over for examination. It appeared quite clear 
to me that these germs, young actinias, (or whatever they may properly be 
called), made their exit through breaches of continuity in the outer enve- 
lope, near its junction with the basal disk, and sometimes through ragged 
apertures in the base itself; in fact, I have hooked out the germs which 
were just on the point of emerging with a blunt probe, which was deli- 
cately used, and did not make the opening. The germs were about the 
size of a pin's head, and perfectly globular; they showed, by careful 
watching, a very sluggish motion. Three or four were put into a wide- 
necked 1^ oz. bottle, having a ground glass stopper, with some sea water, 
and were intended for a microscopic inspection in the evening ; they were 
quite forgotten, however, and at the expiration of two months, one was 
found to have become developed into a perfect but very small actinia, the 
oral disk with the tentacles being fully and beautifully expanded. It is 
now (after six months) alive, but has never increased in size ; it continues 
closely shut up, when there is a fresh supply of water, for some days, but 
after a week, and from that to a fortnight, fully expands again. For this 
reason the water has not been changed more than six times since it has 
been in my possession. No pabulum of any kind has ever been given. 
It seems to make no difference whether the stopper is kept in the bottle 
or not, so far as the animal's health is concerned. These creatures were 
6hy of expanding during the day, and then were as flat as a coin. I used 
always to pay them a visit before bedtime, knowing that I should be re- 
paid by a view of their full-blown expansion during the previous dark- 
ness ; the stimulus of candlelight used to set their tentacula in active 
motion, without making them " retire for the night." — Ibid. 

Testaceous Mollusca. — The following northern species of testaceous 
mollusca reach their most southern habitat about the northern and central 
parts of the British Seas, though a few of them re-appear on the Nymph 
bank, a kind of Arctic outpost off the south of Ireland. 
Panopoea Norvegica, North Sea Chiton marmoreus, N. Sea, Hebrides 



Tellina proxima, „ 

Astarte elliptica, Clyde and North Sea 

„ arctica, Zetland 
Cardium Suecicum, Irish Sea 
Crenella nigra, North Sea, Hebrides 

„ decussata, „ ,, 

Nucula tenuis, Scotland, Irish Sea 



Acmaea testudinalis, Irish Sea 
Pylidium fulvum, Clyde & South of 

Ireland 
Propylidium ancyloides, „ 

Puncturella noachina, „ 

Emarginula crassa, Carnarvonshire 
Trochus Alabastrum, Orkney 



Leda pygmaea, Hebrides „ undulatus, Hebrides 

Pecten niveus, „ „ helicinus, Hebrides&Irish Sea 

Aiiomia striata, „ Scissurella crispata, Clyde 

Hippothyris psittacea, North Sea | Aporrhais Pes Carbonis, Zetland 

Terebratula Cranium, Zetland Cerithium metula, Zetland 

f'hiton Hanleyi, North Sea, Hebrides | Scalaria Groenlandica, North Sea 



Zoology. 



179 



Chemnitzia rufescens, Clyde 

Natica helicoides, Orkney & North Sea 

„ pusilla, North Sea 
Velutina flexilis, „ 
Trichotropis borealis, South of Scot- 
land 
Fusus berniciensis, North Sea 



Fusus Norvegicus, North Sea 
„ Turtoni, „ 

Trophon clathratus, Irish Sea 
„ Barvicensis, North Sea 

Mangelia Trevilliana, „ 
„ nana, Orkney 

Philine quadrata, North Sea 



extending only to the British 

Rissoa Zetlandica 
Skenia planorbis 
Scalaria Trevilliana 
Aclis nitidissima 
Eulima bilineata 
Natica Montagui 
Buccinum undatum 

„ Humphrey sianum 

„ Dalei 
Fusus Islandicus 

„ propinquus 

„ antiquus 
Mangelia rufa 

„ turricula 



The following are northern species, 
channel, or but little to the south of it. 
Xylophaga dorsalis 
My a truncata 

„ arenaria 
Thracia villosiuscula 
Cochlodesma praetenue 
Tellina pygmaea 
Cyprina Islandica 
Astarte compressa 
Modiola Modiolus 
Leda caudata 
Megathyris cistellula 
Chiton ruber 
Lacuna pallidula 

„ vincta 

„ crassior 

Crenella discors, I have never met with south of the British seas, and 
suspect that when reported from the south of Europe, it has been con- 
founded with Crenella marmorata, and Crenella costulata. Philippi's 
description evidently applies to the former. 

It is a most remarkable fact connected with the distribution of land 
shells, that some species are extended over very wide districts, while 
others are restricted to an area of a few square miles, or even less. 
Great Britain does not offer for observation a single species which is not 
likewise an inhabitant of France or Germany, though the neighbouring 
countries of the continent possess some which are not to be met with in 
this kingdom ; and while thus among the hundreds of islands of Great 
Britain not one produces a species peculiar to itself, in the groups of the 
Canaries, Madeiras, and Azores, each island presents some species sup- 
posed to be strictly local. 

This fact is particularly striking in the Madeiras — where Madeira pro- 
per contains but few species ; whilethe small islandof Porto Santo supplies 
an astonishing number, in general specifically distinct from those of Ma- 
deira, and the rocky islets called the Desertas, with difficulty accessible 
by man, have each some peculiar forms and in great abundance. 

These facts seem to indicate that Great Britain and Ireland, including 
the Hebrides, Orkney, Zetland Islands, &c, have at one time formed part 
of the European continent, but that the more distant islands which I have 
named — raised by volcanic action from the depths of the Atlantic, have 
been each the scene of the creation of certain species which have been 
confined within their narrow limits by the surrounding sea. 

Opposed to this idea is the fact already alluded to, that some marine 
littoral species, I may particularly mention Littorina striata, are common 
to West Africa, the Canaries, Madeira, and the Azores, which (as it is 
quite impossible for littoral phytophagous animals to have travelled along 
the bottom of the ocean) would lead us to infer that the African continent 
had at one time extended as far west as the last-named islands, in accord- 
ance with an opinion very ably supported by Professor Edward Forbes, 



ISO Scientific Intelligence. 

in his report on the connection "between the distribution of the existing 
Fauna and Flora of the British Isles, published in the Memoirs of the 
Geographical Survey of Great Britain. Which of these theories is correct, 
or whether they can both, with some modification, be reconciled to each 
other, I must leave for geologists to determine. The only solution which 
suggests itself to me is, that the shores of the African continent may have 
extended as far west as the islands in question, and that immediately on 
the subsidence of the land, when it was barely submerged, and the con- 
ditions not yet incompatible with the existence of littoral species of marine 
mollusca, the volcanic action took place, elevating the lofty masses of which 
most of these islands are composed, and that their peculiar land mollusca 
are of more recent origin. 

Such an explanation would, I believe, be consistent with established 
geological facts, but I merely suggest it for the consideration of those 
who are more qualified than I can pretend to be to grapple with the vast 
subject of the history and conditions of our planet, in times anterior to the 
present distribution of land and water. — Macandreiv, in Proc. of Lit, 
and Phil. Soc. of Liverpool, 1854. 



Action of Water and Air on Basalt. — Bensch having ground a quan- 
tity of basalt to a fine powder, with water on a porphyry slab, left it for 
some months in a beaker glass covered with paper. At the end of that 
time it was found to have been converted into a mass so ha,rd as to require 
a smart blow of a hammer to break it. Its fracture was similar to that of 
the natural basalt, and the interior consisted of a black core, having a 
waxy lustre, and surrounded by a less compact gray mass. By longer ex- 
posure to the air, an efflorescence of carbonate of potash appeared on the 
surface, and 1*8 per cent, was extracted by water. The specific gravity 
of the basalt was 2'887, and after extraction of the carbonate of potash 
the internal portion of the altered basalt had a specific gravity of 2*1588 ; 
that of the external portion was 2*0423. There is no doubt that a hydrate 
must have been formed in this case, and the observation may serve to throw 
some light on the changes which take place in the weathering of rocks. — 
Annalen der Chimie und Pharmacie, vol. xci. p. 234. 

Pleistocene Classification. — The following table of the classification of 
the different formations of the pleistocene or glacial period of geology, is 
constructed from Mr Smith's papers, and may help us to form an idea, or 
rather to lose ourselves in the attempt to form an idea of the extent of 
time necessary for its production. 

1. Elevated marine beds. Ancient beaches. 

2. Submarine forests. 

3. Alluvial beds, most likely marine, but affording as yet no 

organic remains. 

4. Upper Diluvium or Till. The most recent deposit of the Till. 

Has yielded bones of the fossil elephant, and water-worn 
shells. " Cyprina Islandica/' " A balanus," &c. 

5. Marine beds in the Till, affording shells. Occur at Airdrie 

500 feet above the sea level. A bed of " Tellina proxima." 
In site under No. 4, and above No. 6. 

6. Lower Diluvium, Till, or Boulder Clay. 

7. Stratified Alluvium, consisting of sands, gravels, and clays, 

without organic remains. Resting in the Clyde district, im- 
mediately upon the upper members of the carboniferous 
system. — Ferguson, in Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of Liverpool, 
1854. 



Chemistry. 181 

Observations on some Mines of the United States. By Dr Charles T, 
Jackson. — A long band of iron and copper pyrites exists in the State of 
Vermont, which has been long worked for the manufacture of green vitriol. 
In the districts of Vershire and Corinth, it becomes so rich in copper, as 
to contain on the average, 16 per cent, of that metal. Dr Jackson has 
examined the conditions under which the copper is met with. It occurs in 
a series of parallel veins situated between beds of mica slate, the direction 
of which is nearly north and south, and the inclination of which is about 
30°. The mean thickness of the veins is from three to four feet. The 
pyrites contains a notable proportion of gold, though not in sufficiently 
large quantity to permit its separation at the cost of the copper. Dr 
Jackson proposes to obtain it by roasting with a quantity of nitrate of 
soda, lixiviating the sulphate of copper, and extracting the gold from the 
residue by amalgamation. 

The most interesting mine in Vermont is that of Bridgewater, situated 
about five miles from the village of that name. The veins, whith are 
numerous, are quartzose, and contain gold, argentiferous galena, blende, 
and copper pyrites. The neighbouring rocks are taicose and chlorite 
slates, formed of granular quartz, with talc and chlorite in crystalline 
scales. The beds run from north-east to south-west, while the veins of 
auriferous quartz run nearly north and south. On examining the quartz 
veins , where they are cut by the stream which passes through the valley, 
numerous particles of gold were found. Blende and galena are the prin- 
cipal minerals of the vein ; and on pulverizing and washing different speci- 
mens, there was always obtained a large quantity of galena mixed with 
gold, which can be separated without the use of mercury. The whole gold 
passes into the lead, and can be readily separated by cupellation. A ton 
of the lead gave in this way, gold to the value of 603 dollars, and 25 dol- 
lars of silver. It is remarkable that all the accessory minerals of the 
veins contain gold, and it is present in the gahnite and blende, which are 
found in them. 

The mines of Georgia and North Carolina, are at present in active work, 
and their production is rapidly on the increase. The Goldhill mine in 
North Carolina produces weekly gold to the value of 3000 dollars. 

CHEMISTRY. 

Researches upon the Ethers. By M. Berthelot. — M. Berthelot has 
studied the action exercised by the acids in sealed tubes with the aid of 
time and heat, upon the compound ethers, common ether, and alcohol. 
This action, in certain cases, results in known phenomena, in others it 
has given some new results, which are not without some interest, relative 
to the constitution of ethers. 

They belong to three different classes — 

1st, The formation of compound ethers by means of common ether and 
acids. 

2d. The direct formation of ethers by means of alcohol and acids. 

3d. Decomposition of ethers under the influence of water and acids. 

1. Formation of compound ethers by means of common ether and acids. 

M. Berthelot obtained benzoic ether, by exposing benzoic acid and 
ether in a sealed tube to a temperature of 360° C. for nine hours ; the com- 
pound thus obtained had the odour and all the properties of benzoic ether; 
it boiled at 210° C. The formation of this ether commenced at 300° C, 
but at this temperature even after prolonged contact very little was 
formed. 

Ether and palmitic acid produce by heating for nine hours at 360° C. ; 
palmitic ether, fusible at 22° C. 

Ether and butyric acid at 360° C. in six hours produce butyric ether. 



182 Scientific Intelligence. 

Ether and fuming hydrochloric acid by fifteen hours, contact at 100° 
C form hydrochloric ether. 

2. Direct formation of the compound ethers by means of alcohol and 
acids. 

By heating in sealed tubes at a temperature of 250° C, alcohol and the 
fatty acids, combination readily takes place. In this manner the following 
compounds have been obtained. 

Methylpalmitic ether, a crystalline compound fusible at 28° C, and 
solidifying at 22° C. 

Ethylpalmitic ether, fusible at 21 5° C, and solidifying at 18° C. 

Amylpalmitic ether, a waxy substance fusible at 9°. 

The combination of alcohol with the fatty acids is never complete, 
either for the alcohol or the acid ; but the formation of these three ethers 
is most abundant in the presence of excess of acid. 

At 100" C. after thirty hours contact, benzoic, acetic, and butyric ethers 
are produced in great abundance. Stearic ether is produced in small 
quantity in about 102 hours ; but the action is complete in this period 
when acetic acid is present. 

3. Decomposition of ethers by the action of water and acids. 

The formation of the compound ethers is never complete : this is owing 
to the decomposing action exercised upon them by the water set at liberty 
during the reaction. The presence of acids increases the intensity of this 
action upon the ether 3. 

Water heated to 100° C. during 102 hours with stearic and oleic ethers, 
begins to decompose them with the regeneration of stearic and oleic acids ; 
but under the same conditions does not act upon benzoic ether. 

"Water at 240° C, after some hours' contact begins to acidify benzoic 
ether ; but the decomposition is feeble. Acetic ether, however, undergoes 
considerable decomposition at this temperature. 

Acetic acid, diluted with two or three times its volume of water, by 
contact for 106 hours at 100° C, acidifies in a great degree stearic, butyric, 
and benzoic ethers, without producing any acetic ether. 

Benzoic acid at 240° C, assists the decomposition of acetic ether, but 
only traces of benzoic ether, are formed, the greater part of this acid 
remaining free. 

The acid which produces the decomposition may also enter into com- 
bination with the alcohol. The phenomenon is then nothing more than 
a simple replacement of one acid by another. The action of benzoic acid 
upon acetic ether is of this kind ; with fuming hydrochloric acid the action 
is more marked ; in 106 hours at 100° C. it produces decomposition with 
acetic, butyric, benzoic, and stearic ethers, setting these acids at liberty 
and forming hydrochloric ether. 

Constitution of the Amides. — The researches of Gerhardt and Chiozza 
on the secondary and tertiary amides have led them to suppose that these 
substances are formed on the type of ammonia, in which one, two, or 
three equivalents of hydrogen are replaced by compound ^radicals. Wurtz 
takes a different view of their constitution, and supposes them to be 
formed like the acids on the type of water. Adopting the commonly re- 
ceived equivalents, acetic acid may be represented according to Gerhardt's 
view by the formula 

H/ U2 
Acetamide is formed from it, according to Wurtz, by the elimination 
of the two equivalents of oxygen which are placed externally to the group 
in combination with two equivalents of hydrogen, and the residue NH. 
come in their place. The different amides of acetic acid in this view would 
be represented in the following manner. 



Botany. 183 

Acetic Acid. Acetamide. Ethyl ace tamide. 

C 2 H 3 2 | 02 C 4H 3 2 j NH C 4 H 3<^j N (C 4 H 5 ) 

Anhydrous acetic acid. Diacetamide. Ethylodiacetamide. 

C 4 H 3 2 ) Q C 4 H3 2 \ TVTTT C 4 H3 2 1 ^r ,Q TT \ 

C 4 H 3 2 J ° 2 C 4 H 3 2 J Nti C 4 H 3 2 J * ^ ^ 

The amides of a bibasic acid may be similarly represented, and selecting 
oxalic acid as an example, we have the following formulas. 

Oxalic Acid. Oxamide. Oxamic Acid. Oxamethane. Diethyloxamide. 

C 2^|o 2 c 2^\nh C2 ° 2 }nh C2 ° 2 1nh C2 §}n(C 4 H 5 ) 

H |U 2 h/^ 11 H/ U2 C 4 H 5 / U2 h/^^* 118 ) 

The production and character of the amides are readily explained accord- 
ing to this view, but though ingenious it can scarcely be considered as 
equal in simplicity and beauty to that of Gerhardt's. The principal, in- 
deed, the only advantage it possesses is that it affords an explanation of 
the feebly acid properties of some of the amides, in so far as the basic hy- 
drogen of the original acid is not removed. On the other hand, if we 
carry it out to its full extent, we should expect all the amides to possess 
acid properties, which they certainly do not ; nor is there any reason why 
oxamic should not, like oxalic acid, be bibasic, for it would still contain 
two equivalents of basic hydrogen. — Annates de Chimie et de Physique. 
3d Series, vol. 42, p. 43. 

Alcohol from the Tubercules of Asphodelus ramosus. — The tubercules 
of Asphodelus ramosus have been employed for some years in Algeria 
for the manufacture of alcohol. It has been asserted that they contain 
neither starch nor sugar, and the experiments of M. Clerget fully confirm 
this opinion. When grated and pressed they yield 81 per cent, of juice 
of specific gravity 1-082. When treated with iodine not the slightest in- 
dication of starch can be obtained. The juice has no action on polarised 
light, but if it be heated with hydrochloric acid at the boiling temperature 
it rotates the plane of polarisation to the left very powerfully. When 
mixed with two per cent, of yeast it enters rapidly into fermentation, 
and yields 8 per cent, of alcohol, being about twice as much as can be ob- 
tained from the juice of the sugar beet. The dried tubercules of the plant 
do not } T ield more than 3 per cent, of alcohol. M. Clerget is engaged in 
the investigation of the principle which undergoes fermentation. 

BOTANY. 

On Datura Stramonium. — M. Alphonse De Candolle has made ob- 
servations on the origin of Datura Stramonium, the thorn apple, and 
other allied species, in which he states — 1. Datura Tatula, L., is in 
all probability of American origin, being a native of Venezuela, per- 
haps of a large portion of South America, and of Mexico ; it might have 
been imported into Europe about the sixteenth century, and have thus 
become naturalized first in Italy, then in the south-west of Europe, with- 
out having as yet reached the south-eastern part. 2. Datura Stramonium, 
L., appears to have been a native of the Old World, probably of the bor- 
ders of the Caspian Sea and the adjacent regions, certainly not of India ; 
and it is very doubtful whether its existence in Europe can be traced back 
farther than the time of the Roman Empire ; it seems to have been scat- 
tered over Europe between that epoch and the discovery of America. 

Datura ferox, L., is a very doubtful plant, both as regards the species 
and its native country. It seems to be a variety of Datura Stramonium. 



184 Scientific Intelligence. 

Datura Metel is easily distinguished by its pubescence and its reflected 
fruit, but its native country is also doubtful. It seems to be indigenous in 
intertropical America. — Bibliotheque Univ. de Geneve, Nov. 1854. 

New Himalayan Genera. — The following are two of the most remark- 
able new genera that have hitherto presented themselves to us during the 
examination of our Indian Herbarium. Their very remarkable structure 
has induced us to take the earliest opportunity of making them known, 
believing, as we do, that they are peculiarly interesting both in a struc- 
tural and systematic point of view. The genus Maddenia, in particular, 
is quite exceptional in its order, from presenting apparently normally 
dimorphous flowers, a feature that has not hitherto been recorded amongst 
Rosacece. 

Diplarche, which is an undoubted Ericeous plant, differs from the 
majority of the family in the longitudinal dehiscence of the anthers, 
and from all in the two series of stamens, of which the outer or upper 
series is epipetalous, and the lower sometimes epipetalous, but more 
frequently hypogynous. 

In the name Maddenia we are desirous of commemorating the botanical 
services of Major E. Madden, of the Bengal Artillery, a well-known and 
most valuable contributor to our knowledge of Himalayan plants. 

We have named the genus Diplarche, in allusion to the two series 
of stamens, which is its most remarkable character. Its nearest affinity 
is certainly the little Loiseleuria procumbens (Azalea, Lin.) of the 
Scottish mountains, which is also a native of the Arctic regions, and 
of the alps of Northern and Southern Europe, Siberia and North 
America, but does not inhabit the Himalaya. With this, Diplarche 
agrees in habit, and in the dehiscence of the anthers, but differs in the 
alternate leaves, and many other important characters of inflorescence and 
flower. The dehiscence of the capsule is normally septicidal, though not 
obviously so at first, owing to the dorsal portion of the valves breaking 
away from the septa, which remain attached to the axis of the capsule as 
thin scarious membranes. The ripe capsule appears to have two integu- 
ments, the outer coriaceous coat of each valve separating from the inner 
or more crustaceous one, whose margins alone are in flexed. 

It has been remarked long ago, by De Candolle and others, that Eri- 
cew are intermediate between Calycifiorm and Corollifioraz; and though 
the present genus certainly tends to favour this view, it does not in our 
opinion throw any further light upon the position of the great order, or 
rather alliance, of Ericeos. These great groups of Jussieu are no doubt, 
to a great extent, artificial, but in the present state of systematic botany 
they are essential aids to determining the positions of the many Natural 
Orders they include : for this purpose we believe them to be the most 
valuable that have been suggested hitherto. — J. D. Hooker and T. Thom- 
son, in Hooker's Journal of Botany, Dec. 1854. 

Plants in the Crimea. — In the " Gardener's Chronicle" for December 
16, 1854, the following account is given of some of the vegetable produc- 
tions of the south-western portion of the Crimea, and their existence seems 
to indicate a winter climate not more severe than that of Hampshire or 
Sussex. 

Every gardener knows that in hard winters, even near London, Cis- 
tuses of all kinds are killed ; but we learn from Marschall v. Bieberstein 
that Cistus creticus is not uncommon (minime rarus) on the hills of the 
S. Crimea overlooking the Black Sea. Pallas also relates that the Manna 
Ash, a tender tree near London, inhabits the warm southern dales ; there- 
fore the winters to which these are exposed cannot be worse than those 
round London. The same remark applies to the dyer's Sumach, Rhus 



Mineralogy. 185 

Corlaria, which forms trees in the southern valleys, and which entirely 
justifies the inference we formerly drew from the presence of Pistacia 
Terebinthus, a tender tree common in the South Crimea, where it forms 
a trunk as thick as a man's body. We have lately beard the accuracy of 
our statement about the Caper plant questioned, and doubts expressed as 
to whether it really grows in the Crimea at all. We, therefore, beg to 
quote the words of our auththority as to " Perfrequensin is sterilibus 
subsalsis Tauriae, ad pontum Euxinum, et in planitiebus caspico-caucasi- 
cis. Colliguntur Capparides ab incolis oppidi Kisljar et per omnem Ros- 
siam divenduntur." (Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cane, II., 2.) This is said of the 
sharp-leaved variety of Capparis sp>inosa, called ovata. Pallas also 
mentions the Caper bush, and says it is called Shaitan-Karbus. 

Pallas enumerates as many as 24 distinct varieties of grapes cultivated 
either for wine or the table. Some of these are no doubt European va- 
rieties introduced, others are not recognisable as such. None of them 
appear to be of importance enough to deserve cultivation in this country. 
Far otherwise is it with the apples of the Crimea, of which we hope that 
some of our officers will be able to secure cuttings when the fatigues of 
their campaign shall be over. Pallas speaks of one called Smap-Alma, 
which keeps till July, and only acquires its excellence before the new year. 
Of this we are told that waggon loads are annually sent to Moscow and 
even to St Petersburgh. There is also an autumn apple, which a friend, 
who was on the south coast in 1847 or 1848, thought by far the best he 
had ever tasted in any country. 

We must not omit, in taking our farewell of the Crimean climate, to 
mention the existence of a cobnut of extraordinary size, for a few speci- 
mens of which we are indebted to Captain George Elliot, R.N., of H.M. 
ship Arethusa, who obtained them at Eupatoria. Pallas calls them Tre- 
bizond-Funduk, describes them as " short obtuse nuts of uncommon size," 
and says that they are the produce of Corylus Colurna. What we have 
received are larger than any that we have before seen. 

MINERALOGY. 

Artificial Production of Silicates and Aluminates. By M. Daubree. 
-—By bringing chloride of silicium and other volatile chlorides in contact 
with lime and other bases at a red heat, decomposition occurs, and silicic 
acid is produced and is deposited in crystals, either alone or in combination 
with the bases present. By means of lime, magnesia, alumina or glucina, 
and chloride of silicium, crystallized quartz is obtained in its usual form, 
and part of the base is converted into a silicate. With lime Wollastonite 
(table spar) is obtained in rhombic tables, with two faces replacing the 
obtuse angles, exactly as in the natural crystals. These tables are fre- 
quently united in the form of a cross, like the crystals of staurolite. By 
means of magnesia peridote is obtained, in rectangular prisms. Alumina 
gives a silicate in long prisms with an oblique base, which is not attacked 
by acids, is infusible, and has all the properties of kyanite. It is interest- 
ing to observe that in this reaction chloride of aluminium is produced at 
the cost of the silicium. 

In order to produce a double silicate, it is not enough to mix with two 
bases in the requisite quantity, but there must be an excess of one of them 
in order to supply the requisite amount of oxygen to the silicon. In this 
way a mixture of lime and magnesia yields colourless and transparent 
crystals of augite (diopside). By a mixture of seven equivalents of potash 
or soda, and one of alumina, or one of alkali, one of alumina and six of 
lime, crystals of the form and characters of felspar are obtained. By using 
different bases, and modifying their proportions, crystallized Willemite 

VOL. I. NO. I.— JAN. 1855. N 



186 Scientific Intelligence. 

(silicate of zinc), idocrase, garnet, phenakite, emerald, euclase, and zircon 
are obtained. By making a mixture corresponding to the constituents of 
magnesia, tourmaline, and iron, and magnesia tourmaline, adding excess 
of lime or magnesia, and exposing the whole to the chloride of silicium, 
in addition to rock crystal, very distinct hexagonal prisms with all the 
properties of tourmaline were obtained. 

By passing chloride of aluminium over red-hot lime, crystals of alumina, 
corresponding to the two well-known forms of corundum, were obtained. 
When magnesia is used, the silicic acid unites with the* excess, and crys- 
tals of spinelle are produced. A mixture of chloride of zinc and aluminium, 
brought in contact with lime, produces gahnite. 

Chloride of titanium, acting on lime, produces titanic acid in the form 
of Brookite. Chloride of tin gives the crystallized oxide. Chloride of iron 
gives specular iron ore, and if mixed with chloride of zinc, Franklinite is 
produced. Chloride of magnesium gives crystallized magnesia, exactly 
similar to the periclase of Monte Somma. 

The results of these experiments lead to many interesting conclusions, 
They shew us how such minerals, as augite, garnet, epidote, axinite, and 
many other minerals, which certainly cannot have been produced by fusion, 
may be formed. Indeed, the production of a large number of minerals 
may, with great probability, be attributed to the action of volatile chlorides 
and fluorides, and the penetration of those into the fissures of limestone; 
and the very powerful action of lime on these compounds, may explain 
the abundance of silicates which exist disseminated through many lime- 
stones. Minerals, such as spinelle, chondrodite, mica, augite, amphibole, 
serpentine, &c, are frequently found in limestones which contain no mag- 
nesia, and this hitherto unexplained fact may be due to the difference in 
the chemical affinities of lime and magnesia; for it is observable that in 
all these experiments chloride of magnesium is decomposed by lime. Many 
other obscure facts may also be explained by reference to these researches, 
which are of very great mineralogical interest. — Comptes Rendus, vol. 
xxxix., p. 135. 

Meteoric Iron from Greenland.* — Forchammer describes a meteoric 
stone discovered by Rinck, in possession of the Esquimaux at Niakoruak, 
Lat. 69° 25', by whom it had been found at a short distance from their 
hut, on a stony flat through which the river Annorritok flows into the 
sea. It weighed 21 lbs. The specific gravity of the whole mass was 7*00, 
that of small fragments varied from 7*02 to 7'073. It was so hard that 
it could neither be filed nor sawed, but was very brittle. Its fracture was 
granular ; it took a high polish, and showed beautiful Widmannstatt's 
figures when acted on by nitric acid. By treatment with acids it evolves 
sulphuretted hydrogen, and hydrogen of bad odour exactly like inferior 
cast iron. At first iron alone is dissolved, and a black matter consisting 
of minute crystals is left behind, which eventually dissolves, and a black 
powder, which proved to be carbon, floats through the fluid, while, in place 
of the fragment of the iron, a gray porous mass amounting to 1 or 2 per 
cent, of the stone is left. It contained — 

Iron 93-39 

Nickel 1-56 

Cobalt 0-25 

Copper , 45 

Sulphur 0-67 

Phosphorus 018 

Carbon V69 

Silicon 0-38 

98-57 



Mineralogy. 187 

Besides these there are found metals of the alumina group (with oxides 
soluble in caustic alkalies) , of the Zirconia group (with oxides insoluble in 
alkalies, but precipitated from their salts by sulphate of potash), and of 
the Yttria group (oxides insoluble in alkalies, soluble in carbonate of am- 
monia, and not precipitated by sulphate of potash). The two latter groups, 
which have not been previously found in meteorites, form the principal part 
of the undissolved gray porous mass, but their quantity is so small that the 
author has been unable to determine with certainty what members of 
these groups are present. 

The crystalline grains, which are less soluble than the rest of the mass, 
consist of iron and carbon, with small quantities of sulphur and phospho- 
rus. Although it is difficult, if not impossible, to stop the solution at the 
proper point, so as to insure this substance being pure, Forchammer has 
made two analyses, and found 11*06 and 7*23 per cent, of carbon. A car- 
bonate of iron having the formula Fe 2 C, would contain 9*66 per cent, of 
carbon, and this is probably its constitution. Its specific gravity is 7' 172. 

This meteoric iron belongs to a very rare variety, and contains so large 
a quantity of carbon, that it may be called meteoric cast-iron. That found 
in Greenland by Parry, as well as another specimen mentioned by Forch- 
ammer were perfectly malleable. — Poggendorff's Annalen, vol. 93, p. 155. 

Analysis of some Minerals. By Carl Von Hauer. 
Delvauxite. — The analyses of this mineral differ greatly from those 
given by Delvaux. Hauer finds a much smaller quantity of water and 
only traces of carbonic acid. His numbers for the air-dried mineral 

I. II. 

Silica 2-08 1-24 

Lime 7-07 7*39 

Peroxide of iron 46*40 46*34 

Carbonic acid trace trace 

Phosphoric acid 1867 17*68 

Water , 26*04 26*71 



100*27 99*36 

No. 1, from Berneau, Belgium ; No. 2, from Leoben in Styria. 

The mineral when dried over chloride of calcium, lost 9*02 and 9*92 
per cent., and abstracting this quantity of water and the silica, which is 
obviously a fortuitous constituent, the results stand thus, — ■ 

I. II. 

Peroxide of iron 5203 5254 

Lime 7*94 8*37 

Phosphoric acid 20*93 20*04 

Water 1908 19*04 



99*98 99*99 

Leading to the formula 2(CaO) P0 5 -f 5 (Fe 2 3 ) P0 5 + 16 HO, which 
is analogous to that given by Berzelius for the uranite of Autun, 2 (CaO) 
P0 5 + 4 (Ur 2 3 ) P0 5 + 15 HO. 

KaJcoxene.' — The specimen analysed consisted of silky needles and 
rounded masses, and also of dirty green kidney-shaped forms resembling 
wavellite. The former only were analysed. 

Insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 3*63 

Peroxide of iron 45*05 

Lime trace 

Phosphoric acid > 18*56 

Water 30*94 

98*18 



188 Scientific Intelligence. 

This analysis agrees very closely with that of Richardson, and also 
with those of Steininan, provided we subtract the silica and alumina found 
by these chemists, and which are obviously impurities. The formula is 
2 (Fe 2 3 ) P0 5 -f-12 HO. The greenish kidney-shaped masses were of 
different composition, and their analysis leads to the formula 3 Fe 2 3 
2 PO 5 -}-20 HO, but the author does not venture to describe them as a 
different species. 

Gieseclcite. — A very pure specimen from Nunasoruaursak in Green- 
land, gave — 

Silica 46-40 

Alumina 26*60 

Peroxide of iron 6*30 

Magnesia 8 - 35 

Oxide of Manganese trace 

Potash 4-84 

Water 676 

99-36 
For this the author gives the formula — ■ 
fMg 0\ 
3 j Fe O J Si O3+2 Al 2 3 3 Si 3 -f 3 HO. 

Anauxite.^—A pure specimen of this mineral from Bilin, gave — > 

Silica 62-20 

Alumina 23*82 

Lime TOO 

Protoxide of iron.. 



i traces 
Magnesia 

Water 1240 



} 



99-42 
The formula is Al 3 3 Si 3 -f 3 HO, which is that of cimolite, but 
although a similarity exist in constitution, there is none in mineralogical 
characters, for anauxite is found in minute crystals, while cimolite is 
amorphous. Breithaupt places it close to pyrophyllite, which however 
contains much less water. 



[Several valuable communications have been received, which form want 
of space are unavoidably postponed to next number.] 



THE 

EDINBURGH NEW 

PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL. 



Notice of Ancient Moraines in the Parishes of Strachur and 
Kilmun, Argyleshire. By Charles Maclaren, F.R.S.E. 

Glaciers exert a powerful action on the face of a district 
which they have at any time occupied, and in this way traces 
of their ancient existence may be discovered long after they 
have disappeared. The most conspicuous of these traces are 
of three kinds ; first, the striated, grooved, and dressed sur- 
faces of the rocks over which the glaciers have moved; secondly, 
the piles of gravel and sand which collect on their sides and 
at their lower ends, and are called moraines ; and, thirdly, 
the large blocks which they have transported to vast distances 
from their original localities, which blocks, indeed, once con- 
stituted part of the moraines, but are sometimes found unac- 
companied by anything in the regular form of a moraine. 
Traces of all these three descriptions are met with in many parts 
of Scotland. Those now to be described are in Argyleshire. 

Moraines in Glensluan. 

Glensluan is situated about a mile southward from the vil- 
lage of Strachur. It runs nearly south and north, and is 
divided from Loch Fyne by a single ridge, a mile in breadth. 
The glen is about two miles and a half in length, fully two- 
thirds of a mile in width, and is inclosed on all sides by moun- 
tains, from 800 to 2000 feet high, except on the north, where 

NEW SEKIES. — VOL. I. NO. II. — APRIL 1855. 



190 Charles Maclaren on 

it opens into Glen Eck. An unbroken circular wall of rock 
shuts in the south end S, forming the upper half of the glen 

Fig. 1. — Glensluan. 






"W 



";></ 








til 



■ '«/*,•-■.., 



into a very perfect amphitheatre. The north end N, is rather 
narrower, owing to the smaller elevation of its sides, and the 
whole when mapped, has a slightly curved form, the bearing 
of the upper portion being one point (or 11°) east of north, 
and that of the lower, two points. It is a trough, excavated 
in the mica slate, and conforming in its direction to the strike 
of the beds (see the cross section, Fig. 2), so that the stream- 
lets which descend from the eastern ridge E, flow over the faces 
of the strata, while those descending from the western ridge W, 
flow over their edges. In consequence apparently of this dip 
of the rock to the west, the east side of the glen has in section 
a slightly convex, the west a slightly concave outline, and the 
latter is more highly inclined than the former. Both sides 
have a pretty thick coat of clay sand and gravel, which sup- 
ports a strong growth of coarse grass, rushes, ferns, and heather. 
Scarcely any rock is seen, except in the beds of the rivulets, 
or occasionally on the west side at t, 400 feet above the bottom 
of the valley, where the edges of some of the beds of slate 
protrude, in consequence perhaps of their greater firmness. On 
the same side, but lower, and towards the foot of the glen, a 
bed of blue compact limestone crops out and is quarried. The 
Sluan, a rapid stream, running from south to north, discharges 
the collected waters of the glen into the river Cur near K, 
which river flows here through a flat meadow, and falls into 
Loch Eck, about two miles eastward. 

The bottom of the lower end of the glen for about 1800 feet 
from the meadow at K, is occupied by a remarkable series of 



Ancient Moraines in Argyleshire. 



191 



mounds of clay and gravel, crossing the hollowlike embank- 
ments, and which, if met with in a valley of the Alps, even 
where no ice was visible, would at once be recognized as the 
terminal moraines of an ancient glacier. They are very 
conspicuous, and attract the eye of the traveller as he passes 
along the road, not only by their forms, which are peculiar, 
and strange for the situation they occupy, but by the contrast 
which their smooth surfaces, covered with bright green grass, 
and furrowed by the plough, present to the dark shaggy un- 
cultured declivities amidst which they stand. These mounds 
had evidently, at one time, extended completely across the 
glen, but the stream whose course they barred, has cut a nar- 
row passage for itself, not in the middle of the hollow, but 
close to the eastern ridge. Their external form, like that of 
the alpine moraines, is very irregular. Sometimes they pre- 
sent an arched outline across the valley, as in Fig. 3. The 

Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 




upper mounds a and b, Fig. 4, have this shape. Sometimes the 
two extremities are high, and the middle low ; but in passing 
over the ground, it is easy to discover that since the materials 
were deposited, the surface has been much altered by the de- 
nuding action of the river itself, and the various streamlets 
which flow down from the western ridge after heavy rains. 
No section can give a correct idea of the whole deposit; and 
as one along the middle must have been to a great extent ima- 
ginary, I have thought it my best course to sketch in Fig. 4, 

Fig. 4. 




the natural section afforded by the deep cut which the river 
has made in its eastern side, where the composition of the 
mounds is well exposed, and their approximate depth seen. 

o 2 



192 Charles Maclaren on 

The section, Fig. 5, passes right along the middle of the 

Fig. 5. 




valley. S is the wall of rock which forms the southern boun- 
dary of the valley ; M the moraines ; K the meadow at the 
north end of the valley. 

Fig. 2 is a section across the valley, showing its form ; the 
oblique lines show the dip of the strata, which is to the west 
at an angle of 10° or 12° ; m shews the position of the moraines, 
and t marks the place where portions of the rock, probably 
harder than the rest, protrude through the covering of turf. 
On the east side, as already mentioned, the strata present 
their sides, and on the w r est their edges to the surface, and 
this is apparently attended with a difference in the distribution 
of the alluvial matter. 

Fig. 4 is a section along the lower part of the channel of 
the stream, showing the depth of the moraines as laid bare by 
the action of the water ; a, the uppermost mound, has its sur- 
face clothed with grass, and marked by the ploughshare. At 
the river side, it presents an escarpment of clay and gravel, 
varying from 20 to 70 feet in vertical depth, but the height 
from the rock to the convex top is fully 100 feet. Its breadth 
across the valley is about 250 feet, and must have been 350 
before the river channel was excavated. 

The second mound, b, is divided from the first by a small 
ravine, cut by a streamlet ; its top is about 15 feet lower 
than the top of a ; its height above the stream fully as great ; 
it is a little broader, and it is fully 500 feet in length, from 
south to north. Fig. 3 is a view of it taken from a point a 
little below the village. Its top, n, o, p, and its northern de- 
clivity, were beautifully green in November last, and, being 
divided into well-marked riggs, must have been under the 
plough very recently. The riggs are rudely represented in 
the figure by vertical lines. The dark crooked space below n, 
is the water course. 

The elevations c and d have not the regular form of mounds 



Ancient Moraines in Argyleshire. 193 

or embankments, like a and b. They are rather detached hil- 
locks, the remnants apparently of larger masses. Their height 
at the river varies from 20 to 40 feet ; they are partly covered 
with wood, and are connected with the western hill, by grassy 
slopes of the same, materials, which have been furrowed by 
torrents. 

The last of the hillocks, e, is about 40 feet above the meadow 
in Glen Eck ; v marks the site of the village, and r the road. 
The entire mass of materials constituting these mounds, 
hillocks, and slopes, is spread over an area about 1800 feet in 
length. The breadth, including the river-bed, which has been 
carved out of them, is about 350 feet at the upper end, and 
500 or 600 at the lower. The depth varies from a few feet to 
100, and the whole form one continuous mass. The height of 
the first mound a above the meadow at K, I found by measure- 
ments taken with a pocket level, but not with all the accuracy 
I could desire, to be about 205 feet. The descent is more rapid 
here than in the upper part of the valley, as is well shown by 
the river channel. 

In materials, form, and position, these mounds have pre- 
cisely the character of the terminal or frontal moraines of 
glaciers at the foot of alpine valleys. First, as to the materials ; 
they consist of the debris and detritus of the mica slate, in the 
form of sand, clay, and gravel, without any trace of stratification, 
but mixed with blocks. The blocks, which are partly angular, 
partly rounded, may be seen embedded in the masses where 
the interior is exposed, and a few are found on the surface, the 
remnant probably of a much greater number which may have 
been removed to clear the ground for the plough, or to build 
the cottages and outhouses of the village. Secondly, in out- 
ward form there is the same resemblance. A terminal or 
frontal moraine consists of sand, gravel, and blocks, carried 
down from the upper part of a valley by the ice, and deposited 
in piles or ridges at the foot of the glacier. When the glacier 
is advancing it pushes these before it ; when retreating it leaves 
them behind it ; and if it continues to retreat for a series of 
years, a succession of such accumulations is found at its lower 
end, generally in the shape of mounds or ridges, transverse to 
the direction of the glacier valley, sometimes in contact with 



lJU Charles Maclarcn on 

one another, sometimes standing apart. Four or five ridges of 
small size may be seen at the foot of the upper glacier of 
Grindelwald, one behind another. There are three or four 
ancient ones in the valley of Lutchen, not far from Interlaken, 
forming a continuous mass, nearly a mile in length, of great 
depth, and with an undulating surface, like those in Glen- 
sluan. The glacier of the Rhone in 1826 had nine terminal 
moraines, one behind another, which Mr Desor, with reference 
to their form, calls (digues) embankments. In the Vosges 
mountains, where traces of ancient glaciers abound, the de- 
scriptions and sections of the moraines given in the work of 
Mr Collomb, would apply very accurately to those in Glen- 
sluan. Lastly, in position, the mounds of Glensluan have the 
same correspondence with the frontal moraines of glaciers; that 
is, they stretch across the foot of a valley, which, if it existed 
in the Alps, at the proper elevation, would contain a glacier. 

Long valleys open at both ends, and nearly level, are not 
favourable to the existence of glaciers, which, it must be re- 
membered, are moving masses of ice. There should be a cavity 
above to collect the snow and ice, and a certain fall in the 
ground to give it motion. The cavity is generally wider than 
the glacier- valley, and has received the names of " Reservoir," 
" Amphitheatre," " Basin d' Alimentation," and when very 
large, " Mer de Glace." The upper part of Glensluan, which 
is somewhat wider than the under part, is a very perfect amphi- 
theatre, well fitted both to store up the materials of a glacier, 
and to set them in motion. Professor Forbes has shown, that 
the motion of a glacier is that of a semifluid mass, whose mo- 
bility increases with its breadth and depth ; and when we find 
that even a valley, like Glen Eck, open at both ends, and with 
its bottom nearly level, has been the scene of glacier agency, 
as demonstrated by its powerfully abraded and grooved rocks, 
we cannot doubt that the same agent would act with still greater 
effect in Glensluan, which has, in the first place, a rather 
highly inclined bottom ; and, in the second, has a wall of rock 
nearly vertical, at its head, to serve as a point oVappui, and 
urge the gravitating mass northward. "With regard to the 
other traces of glacial agency, I saw distinct marks of abrasion 
on the protruding rocks of the western declivity, and I have 



Ancient Moraines in Argyleshire. 195 

little doubt that striated surfaces may be found, when more 
carefully sought for ; but from the position of the strata, in 
reference to the direction of the valley, we cannot expect them 
to be numerous. Striae and groovings are most deeply cut 
and best preserved on schistose rocks, when the line of glacier 
motion runs across the edges of the strata, while in Glensluan 
it coincides with the strike. 

In the form, then, of these mounds, in the materials com- 
posing them, and in the position which they occupy, we have all 
the essential features of the terminal moraine, and in the valley 
above, we have the mould in which the ancient glacier was cast, 
and in which a glacier would certainly be again found, were 
the necessary climatic conditions to recur. 

If we reject the glacier hypothesis, the existence of these 
mounds cannot be accounted for. The small stream of the 
valley has done something to destroy them, but neither it nor 
a much larger stream could possibly produce them ; and the 
effect of debacles, oceanic currents, and similar cosmical 
agents, in whatever way employed, would be, not to raise such 
objects, but to level them. These oddly-shaped and oddly- 
placed piles of gravel must have remained a puzzle, if the icy 
regions of the Alps had not furnished a key to explain them. 

Immediately above the upper mound a, in Fig. 4, a smaller 
one, x, will be observed. It is the lower end of a ridge of the same 
materials (gravel and clay) which ascends from two to three 
hundred feet on the western declivity. It projects two or 
three yards from the surface of the hill at the head, and thick- 
ens to 30 or 40 feet at w, the foot. It has a large conspicuous 
boulder resting on its upper end, and there is a similar ridge 
running parallel with it, immediately above it in the valley. 
They are probably portions of a lateral moraine, passing here 
into a terminal one. 

Glensluan joins Glen Eck, and it is possible that the lowest 
portion of the mounds may belong to the latter. Similar de- 
posits of gravel and sand are found on both sides of Glen Eck. 
They are peculiarly abundant from Whistlefield to Strachur, 
and, though not in the distinct form, are probably the rem- 
nants or wrecks, of lateral moraines. At the junction of the 
two glens, the materials would be mingled, and it may be dif- 



196 



Charles Mac I ar en on 



ficult to draw the line that separates them. There is no am- 
biguity, however, in the mounds above the village, which un- 
questionably belong to Glensluan. 

Moraines in Glenmessan. 

Ancient moraines of an equally remarkable character are 
found in Glenmessan, about three miles north-west from the 
village of Kilmun. This glen is a rugged, straight valley, 
two miles long, inclosed between mountains 1500 feet in 
height. At its head, or northern end, it is joined by two la- 
teral valleys ; and here it is nearly level and comparatively 
wide, while its southern portion is extremely narrow, and de- 
scends rapidly. The river Messan, which flows through it, is 
a considerable stream (r, r, r in the map below), and has a 
pretty waterfall. At the farm-house of Corusk (k on the map), 

Fig. 6. — Glenmessan. 






• i 1 i ' /' 










the glen terminates in a plain from two to live furlongs in 
breadth, and which extends, with some inequalities, to the 
head of Holy Loch. Precisely at this southern termina- 
tion, where the glen is still very narrow, it is crossed by two 
large mounds of earth (A, B). In shape they closely resemble 
the artificial embankments made for railways, or the dikes 
thrown across valleys to form reservoirs, or the ramparts con- 
structed for military purposes to fortify or close up a moun- 



Ancient Moraines in Argylesliire. 197 

tain pass. As any of these uses is quite irreconcileable with 
the position they occupy, the excursionists from Kilmun and 
Dunoon, who pass them on their way to the waterfall a mile far- 
ther up the valley, must have been sorely perplexed to account 
for their origin. Their great size demonstrates that they must 
owe their birth to some powerful agent. The elevation of the 
larger one, B, above the bank of the stream on its south side, 
as measured by a pocket level, I found to be 77 feet. The ele- 
vation of A, above the hollow which divides it from B is 40 feet. 
(See Section 1, below the map, which gives the profile along 
the line a, b; r is the river.) The length of B across the 
valley, in the direction h, g (see Section 4), is 320 feet; 
but it is truncated at the east end by the passage r, which the 
river has cut, and its original length must have been 350 feet, 
which is the present length of A. Both mounds are covered 
with herbage, but the truncated end of B discloses the nature 
of their materials, which is seen to be a confused assemblage of 
gravel and sand, with a few blocks of the mica-slate intermixed. 
Admit that they are ancient moraines, and every difficulty 
connected with their existence here disappears ; and we shall 
seek in vain for any other rational explanation of their origin. 
Moreover, other evidence of the presence of mighty masses of 
ice abounds in the valley. Marks of abrasion may be seen on 
the contorted laminae of the mica-slate to the height of some 
hundred feet ; projecting ledges of the rock have their north- 
ern faces smoothed, while the southern remain rough, showing 
the direction in which the ice moved ; and a highly inclined 
or nearly vertical surface, 10 feet high, just opposite the trun- 
cated end of B, and within 30 feet of it (under h in the map), 
is beautifully marked with horizontal grooves, from half an 
inch to an inch in breadth. There are other fine specimens 
of striation and grooving on the rock at a greater height, and 
the perfect condition in which these traces of glacial action 
are preserved is readily explained by the planes of stratifica- 
tion being at right angles to the line of the valley, so that the 
gliding mass of ice would pass right across the edges of the 
strata. It is always under such circumstances that the striae 
and groovings are most distinct. When a glacier moves along 
the planes of a schistose rock, it will smooth the exposed surface 



1 98 Charles Maclaren on 

if armed at its bottom with sand, but if armed with pebbles, 
it will tear off the laminae, instead of cutting furrows in them. 

At Stranlonick, more than a mile further up in the glen, 
there is a flattish mound of gravel and clay with blocks, which 
is probably also a terminal moraine, though less distinctly 
characterized than those just mentioned. It lies in the middle 
of the valley, having diverted the river to the east side. It 
measures about a furlong in length and breadth, rises from 10 
to 30 feet above the stream, has a very uneven surface, with a 
few blocks on it, and many dispersed through its mass. 

As already stated, a plain or meadow extends southward 
from B, and in looking over this plain, the eye is arrested by 
four very distinct mounds or hillocks, C, D, E, F, which are 
probably remnants of one or more frontal moraines. Their pro- 
files will be seen in sections 2 and 3 along the lines c d, and 
ef. Mound C is about 600 feet in length ; its greatest breadth 
250 ; its greatest height 25 or 30 above the plain, into which 
it descends with gently sloping sides. (See section 2.) A 
boulder of mica-slate, measuring three cubic yards, rests on 
its west end. Mound E is 400 feet long and 200 broad, rises 
with abrupt sides 30 feet above the plain on the west side, 
and 40 on the east. An incision made by the river in its north 
end (r, section 3) shows that it is composed of sand, gravel, 
and blocks, without any trace of stratification, and on its un- 
even top there are the remains of a small plantation. Mound 
F is 200 feet long, very narrow, rises 30 feet above the plain 
on the north side, 40 on the south. (See section 3). Mound 
D is 210 feet long, 140 broad, and 30 in height above the 
plain. It has two considerable blocks resting on it. Both D 
and F are rendered picturesque by their sharp, well-defined 
forms, and the tufts of brushwood which crown them. The ma- 
terials of all the six mounds are apparently identical, a confused 
assemblage of sand, gravel, and blocks ; and that of the plain 
itself, as seen in the watercourse, seems much the same. 

But if these mounds be fragments of moraines, the glacier 
which formed them must have rested on the gravel and clay of 
the plain, and must have glided over them, as it glided over the 
rock in the narrow valley above AB. Have we any proof of gla- 
ciers travelling over a bed of such materials \ Yes we have, and 



Ancient Moraines in Argi/leshire. 199 

of the same description with that by which the movement of gla- 
ciers over rocks in situ is established. In August 1850, when 
Mons. Charles Martin and myself were in the west of Scot- 
land, we visited Mr Smith of Jordanhill, then residing at He- 
lensburgh ; and that gentleman kindly showed us how and 
whence he had obtained many of the arctic shells, which have 
furnished, in his hands, so important a link in the chain of evi- 
dence proving the existence of a glacial climate in Scotland at 
the period of the boulder clay. He pointed out to us at the 
same time, on the beach at Row, a number of blocks embedded 
in the clay, with their upper surfaces striated ; and called at- 
tention to the fact, that though these blocks were scattered 
irregularly over a considerable area, the striae on all of them 
were parallel, or pointed in one direction, that is, N.N.W. 
and S.S.E. From this he inferred that they had been striated 
in the exact position which they now occupy, and have re- 
mained unmoved since the ice passed over them. In my 
" Geology of Fife and the Lothians," published in 1839, 1 ex- 
pressed a similar opinion (page 213) as to the striated blocks 
embedded in the boulder clay near Edinburgh. The evidence, 
however, was not unequivocal, and I was led to doubt its sound- 
ness on reading Agassiz's Etudes sur les Glaciers, published 
in 1840, and felt then inclined to believe that the strise were 
better accounted for by assuming that the blocks had been em- 
bedded in the bottom of a glacier ; that during the downward 
motion of the icy mass, they had been striated themselves 
while cutting striae on the rock below (a reciprocal action 
easily understood) ; and that they had been afterwards mingled 
with the boulder clay, when that deposit was formed (as then 
supposed) out of the wrecks of the moraines, by the fusion of 
the ice, or an irruption of the ocean. A month or two after- 
wards, I had an opportunity of testing Mr Smith's conclusions 
in the neighbouring locality of Gareloch, where rocks striated 
in situ are so abundant, and I found them fully confirmed. 
There were striated blocks there lying loose on the surface, 
from which nothing could be inferred ; but every striated block 
embedded in the clay on the beach was striated in one invaria- 
ble direction, which was precisely that of the valley, namely, 
N.N.W. and S.S.E. They were not numerous (I counted 



200 Charles Maclaren, on 

eight), but the parallelism of their striation was perfect, and 
I was surprised and mortified to find, that when I examined 
the district, and published my account of the striated rocks of 
Gareloch, three or four years previously (Edin. Phil. Journal, 
Jan. 1846 and Jan. 1847), the parallel striation of the boulders 
had been entirely overlooked. It was Mr Smith's observations 
at Row, that brought me back to the opinion which I had too 
hastily renounced. In 1852 or 1853, Mr Hugh Miller and Mr 
Robert Chambers discovered whole acres of blocks embedded 
in the clay between Leith and Joppa, all striated in one uni- 
form direction (E.N.E. and W.S.W.), which agrees correctly 
with the striation of the fixed rocks in the neighbourhood. 

If we infer the ancient existence of glaciers, and the direc- 
tion in which they moved, from the parallel striae on rocks in 
situ, we cannot refuse to receive the parallel striation of blocks 
embedded in a matrix of clay, as evidence of the same import. 
I have no doubt, then, that when the subsoil of the plain below 
Corusk is exposed, embedded blocks will be found in it, and 
striated in the direction of the valley, namely, N.W. by N., 
and S.E. by S. Upon these, as a floor or bottom, the glacier 
had moved, and the mounds D, E, F, are remnants of its ter- 
minal moraines, that is, of the clay, sand, gravel, and blocks, 
which being borne on its surface, were dropped over its lower 
end, and perhaps afterwards pushed before it. With regard 
to the mound C, its smooth sloping sides give it a different 
character, and render it probable, that it is merely a protube- 
rant portion of the bottom. That bottom may consist of the 
old stiff boulder clay ; but judging from what is seen on the 
banks of the river, it more resembles the upper and looser clay, 
and it may even be the lower portion of the matter constituting 
the moraines. The semi-fluid constitution of glaciers, as de- 
scribed and illustrated by Professor Forbes, leads to the con- 
clusion, that under certain circumstances, they will travel over 
such a deposit. For, as the clay and gravel of moraines has 
more than twice the specific gravity of ice, it is evident that 
the power of a glacier to drive a large mass of such materials 
before it, must cease at a certain point, since beyond that point 
it will be easier for the glacier to dilate itself upward, than to 
overcome the resistance in front. But as it swells upward, the 



Ancient Moraines in Argyleshire. 201 

resistance in front will diminish, and the glacier may puslAhe 
upper part of the moraine before it, while it glides over the 
lower ; or it may override the whole, and the ultimate effect 
will then be to raise the glacier to a higher level. It is per- 
haps in this way that the insignificant size of the terminal 
moraines of some large glaciers (such as that of the Unter Aar) 
is to be accounted for. They may be, as it were, engulfed, in 
consequence of the glacier riding over and covering them. 

It is not difficult to find a probable cause for the glacier of 
Glenmessan stopping at AB, and piling up its terminal mo- 
raines there. The lateral valley of Corusk w, though short is 
steep in the sides, and would have its separate glacier, whose 
course would be in the direction fc, h, at right angles to the 
motion of Glenmessan glacier. When the latter, therefore, ar- 
rived at the line g, A, it probably encountered a rampart of ice 
flanked by piles of gravel and clay, issuing from the gorge at k, 
and stretching right across its path. Its southward march would 
thus be stopped, and stopped perhaps so long, that after the 
rampart of ice had disappeared, it was not able either to propel 
its own massive moraines A, B, or to override them. If the 
work of M. Collomb, Preuves de V existence oVAnciens Gla- 
ciers dans les Vallees des Vosges, is consulted, it will be seen 
from his two maps (pp. 12 and 180), that the ancient moraines 
are generally found at the junction of lateral valleys with 
the principal one. Sometimes the glacier in the lateral valley 
had arrested the glacier in the principal, and sometimes the 
latter had arrested the former. In another point the ancient 
moraines in the Vosges illustrate those we have been describ- 
ing; they are generally " multiple," consisting not of one 
mound or ridge, but of several, ranged, as he expresses it, par 
echelon, or one behind another. Occasionally there are two, 
like A, B — often there are three, and of various forms and mag- 
nitudes. At Kirchberg, for instance, there is a double one 
slightly curved, 400 metres long, and one of the mounds is 
10 metres ( = 32J- feet) high. At Hussern there is one 3 5 
metres (49 feet) high, at Sondernach one 50 metres (164 feet) 
high ; at Wessenberg there is a triple moraine, the highest 
point of which is 35 metres (115 feet) above the river, which 
has cut a breach through the middle of the three ridges. 



202 Notice of Ancient Moraines in Argyleshire. 

These ancient moraines are in general of a slightly curved 
form, with the concave side facing the upper part of the val- 
ley, but some are straight, as that of Hussern. 

The mounds E, F, D are perhaps the work of the glacier of 
Corusk valley, but they may have been formed by that of 
Glenmessan before the mounds A B existed. At n, right in 
front of the opening of Corusk valley, there is a vertical pre- 
cipice, 100 feet high, facing that opening, and as smooth as a 
w r all of dressed masonry, though cut across the planes of the 
mica slate. Might w r e suppose that the glacier issuing from 
Corusk valley abutted against the rock here, cut it down ver- 
tically, and smoothed it ? 

The valley of Glen Eck, which unites with Glenmessan at 
m, contains many traces of glacial action. Abraded and 
rounded rocks are numerous on the east side of Loch Eck, and 
there are fine examples of striae and groovings from the level 
of the water up to an elevation of 100 feet. They may be 
seen at various points within three miles from the foot of the 
loch, sometimes on highly inclined surfaces, and always run- 
ning horizontally, or nearly so, leaving no doubt that a glacier 
many hundred feet in depth had moved along the valley. The 
loch is shut in at the foot by a flat, uneven mound of earth 
rising 25 feet above its surface, and through which the water 
has cut a winding passage. This mound is in reality the 
commencement of a plain that extends two miles southward, 
but it has much the aspect of a terminal moraine ; and when 
we consider its size, materials, and position, as a barrier of 
clay and gravel shutting in a narrow cavity ten miles long, 
and rising 360 feet above the bottom of that cavity (for such 
is the depth of Loch Eck), we are tempted to think that it 
may be what its appearance indicates. If it ever was a mo- 
raine, the rude stratification seen on the banks of the stream 
shows that the materials composing its upper part must have 
been re-arranged, and of course under water. 

We have seen that blocks embedded in the old boulder clay 
have their upper surfaces striated in situ. The question, then, 
presents itself, Do these striated blocks (which in some cases 
lie very compact, and, as it were, in one plane) only occur at 
one level, namely, at the top of the old, and immediately below 



On the Physical Features of Saturn and Mars. 203 

the newer boulder clay, or do they occur at more than one level, 
as at the top, the middle, and towards the bottom of the older 
deposit 1 The conditions necessary to the formation of glaciers, 
and to that of the boulder clay, are apparently so different, that 
we can scarcely suppose them to alternate. The few facts 
known to me, however, rather favour the idea that they did 
alternate, or at least that the striated blocks occur at more 
than one level ; but information is yet wanted on the subject. 
Mr Robert Chambers, in a paper published two years ago, 
expressed an opinion that the mounds A B were probably parts 
of a lateral moraine of the glacier of Corusk valley, I con- 
sider this opinion altogether untenable ; but as I learn from 
•him that he has subsequently renounced it, nothing more need 
be said upon the subject. 

Note. — The description of the moraines in Glenmessan is the substance of a 
communication made viva voce to the Geological Section of the British Associa- 
tion, at the meeting in Edinburgh in 1850. But the discussion commencing at 
the foot of page 198 is an addition. 



Physical Features of Saturn and Mars, as noted at the 
Madras Observatory. By Captain W. S. Jacob, H.E.LC. 
Astronomer. (With Two Plates.) 

Saturn. 
Our knowledge of the physical features of the planet Saturn 
has received several important additions within the last few 
years ; an eighth satellite discovered almost simultaneously in 
America and England, by Bond and Lassell, — the inner ob- 
scure ring, also seen about the same time by Dawes and Bond, 
— and the fine line or division in the outer bright ring ; these 
are the most notable points that have been brought to light. 
The last two are not, indeed, strictly speaking, recent discover- 
ies, since the obscure ring would appear to have been seen, 
and even some measurements of it made, by Dr Galle of Berlin 
in 1838, while several observers have at different times seen, 
or imagined they saw, one or more lines or markings on the 
outer ring. A notice by Captain Kater of such appearance, 
accompanied by drawings, is to be found in vol. iv. of the 
Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. But these ob- 



204 Captain W. S. Jacob on the 

scrvations or discoveries do not seem to have gained much 
attention or credit at the time, or to have been followed up in 
any way, and the memory of them had almost died away, until 
revived by their re-discovery in 1850, since which time they 
have been verified by a host of vigilant observers, with powerful 
instruments ; and some of them have recorded their experience 
in the form of drawings or engravings, so as not only to give 
the general public a pretty correct notion of what had been seen 
with the best instruments, accessible only to few, but also to pre- 
clude the possibility of the subject again sinking into oblivion. 
The plate here given (Plate II.) represents the planet as 
seen at Madras in the latter part of 1852, with the equatorial 
instrument constructed by Messrs Lerebours and Secretan of 
Paris, the object glass of which has an aperture of 6 \ inches, 
and a focal length of 88*6 inches, and whose defining power 
is of a high order. Other favourable circumstances were, 
the planet's proximity to the zenith, and the tranquillity 
and transparency of the atmosphere. The obscure ring 
was well brought out the first time it was looked for, and 
the fine line on the outer ring was also seen distinctly 
enough to allow of good measures being made with the filar 
micrometer, although, strange to say, its very existence is still 
questioned in some quarters, as it is not visible in some of 
the largest telescopes, such as the Poulkova Refractor; very 
neat definition, rather than a great amount of light, being re- 
quired for the purpose. The transparency of the obscure ring, 
exemplified by the planet's limb appearing through it, would 
seem to have been first noticed at Madras, being shown in a 
drawing taken on 22d September 1852, and forwarded to a 
friend in this country, in a letter dated 11th October. This 
ring, as seen across the planet, has a light umber-brown tint, 
and a filmy, smoky character ; the division between the two 
principal rings (usually represented black) had nearly the 
same tint, while its outer edge was not sharply defined, but 
shaded off, as shown in the engraving. No separation, either 
by a dark or bright line, could be discerned between the 
bright and obscure rings ; on the contrary, the impression was 
that the shading in the former was produced by the latter over- 
lapping or enveloping its edge. 




m 



& 



m 


S 


isa 


? 




•fcs 


Si 




m 


V5 


& 


s 


© 


ttj 


k 




& 


4 


© 


r« 




5J 


g. 


^ 


&*• 




o£S 


^ 



P 



Edin r New Phil. Jo urn. Vol.1. PL 3. 




~r $< 



& 
©* 



si 



m 5a i 



m 

t= ] 



N 






•8* ! 









Physical Features of Saturn and Mars. 205 

The planet was frequently examined, whenever the atmo- 
sphere was in a favourable condition, until April 1854, the 
time of the writer's departure from India, without any change 
being perceptible, except that the peculiar features above de- 
scribed had become gradually rather more conspicuous, so as 
to be discerned with lower powers. This would arise partly 
from the rings appearing at a greater inclination, or more 
open, and partly, perhaps, from the eye becoming, through 
practice, more familiar with the details. After the first scru- 
tiny, in August 1852, no difficulty was ever experienced in 
making out any of the peculiar points above described, pro- 
vided that the atmosphere was sufficiently tranquil to admit of 
using a magnifying power of 180 or upwards. The powers 
usually employed were 277 and 365. 

Mars. 
The views of Mars (Plate III.) were taken with the same in- 
strument. The lower view, though the later in point of time, yet 
precedes the upper, as regards the longitude or angular motion 
of the planet, because its period of revolution is rather longer 
than that of the earth ; the difference in longitude between the 
two is about 90°. The other faces do not present such strik- 
ing features, but are nearly blank. Former engravings of the 
planet do not show any such distinct markings ; at least the 
writer has not been fortunate enough to meet with any that 
could be recognized as likenesses. Mars will not again be in 
a favourable position for observation until 1856 ; in 1858 he 
will be nearer still ; and it is to be hoped that on these occa- 
sions still better drawings of him will be obtained. 

W. S. Jacob. 

21st Nov. 1854. 



NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. NO. II.— APRIL 1855. 



206 Captain W. S. Jacob on the 

A recent Revision of a Portion of the Catalogue of Stars 
published by the British Association in 1845. By Captain 
W. S. Jacob, H.E.I.C. Astronomer at Madras. Commu- 
nicated by Professor C. Piazzi Smyth. 

Notes by Professor C. Piazzi Smyth at the time of communication 
of this Paper to the Royal Society. 

This paper is short, but important ; yet, though important, 
it can hardly but be somewhat dry and uninteresting to those 
not immediately engaged in the pursuit of exact astronomy, 
and not conversant with the foundations on which it rests. 

With our earth turning on its axis, and revolving about the 
Sun in an orbit continually changing in every element, and 
with the Sun itself describing a similar orbit about some other 
sun or suns, there may well be difficulty in finding any truly 
fixed and immoveable objects from which our measurements of 
the moving ones may be reckoned. 

The so-called fixed stars are not fixed, and the nearer are 
sensibly displaced by the amount of the Sun's movement, as 
well as by having proper motions of their own. Hence, 
though the larger stars are a very convenient system of mile- 
stones whereupon to begin our measurement of celestial arcs, 
yet they are not to be implicitly depended on. They 
can only be looked on as intermediate, and must have their 
reputed fixity tested by comparison with the more distant 
stars, and especially with the mean of an immense multitude 
of them, whose varying aberrations may, on the whole, tend 
to balance each other, and to exhibit a constancy of which no 
single star is capable. 

To this end, accordingly, the efforts of most of our public 
and many of our private astronomers have long been directed ; 
and an exceedingly important step was taken by the British 
Association a few years ago, in the publication of their large 
Catalogue of 8377 stars. Some persons, indeed, were inclined 
to think it rather premature, as many of the stars rested on 
old and rather scanty and apocryphal observations ; but others 
contended that the publication of a catalogue so made up, and 
duly pointing out the good and the bad material, would incite 



British Association Catalogue of Stars. 207 

astronomers to additional exertions in perfecting all that was 
possible. 

This argument fortunately prevailed ; and the present paper 
is one of its expected fruits. 



On the British Association Catalogue of Stars. 

The Catalogue of Stars published by direction of this Asso- 
ciation in 1845, has long established its place as a valuable 
work of reference, and it is therefore highly important that 
any errors which it may contain should be made known and 
corrected. 

It contains the places of 8377 stars, brought up to 1850, 
from the best data available at the time ; and all possible care 
appears to have been used in collating the different authori- 
ties, so as to obviate error. The great majority of places may, 
therefore, be considered as very exact ; but to those of a con- 
siderable number, especially of the southern stars, there was 
some doubt attaching, because of their dependence on the de- 
terminations of Lacaille or Brisbane, neither of which, from 
the imperfection of the means employed, can be considered as 
coming up to the standard of accuracy expected at the present 
day. 

A thorough revision of these was therefore obviously de- 
sirable, and I had planned such a revision some time before 
my arrival at Madras in July 1849, and commenced it within 
the month of my taking charge of the Observatory. There 
was a manifest propriety in the selection of Madras as the 
place of revision, inasmuch as Taylor's observations at that 
observatory had been made the original ground-work of the 
Catalogue. 

My plan was to determine, by at least three observations 
with each instrument (5-feet transit and 4-feet mural circle), 
the place of every number between north polar distance 40° 
and 155° to which the slightest doubt attached ; in fact, all 
those within that range which had not been observed by Taylor. 
The north circumpolar stars I considered would be better fixed 
in Europe, and Mr Johnson, I knew, had taken them in hand. 
A few stars were, however, observed beyond the limits above- 

p2 



208 Captain W. S. Jacob on the 

mentioned, especially to the north, when there happened to be 
leisure for them ; but they were not specially sought after. 

The observations were very nearly completed in about three 
years, or before the end of 1852 ; but a few numbers, that 
from various causes had been missed, were observed in the 
spring of 1853. The reductions occupied about one year, and 
were completed by the middle of 1853. The results have been 
printed in the last volume of Madras Observations, which 
should now be on its way to the India House. The volume 
was not quite completed at the time of my departure from India, 
but a few extra copies of the Catalogue were struck off, and 
have been for some time in the hands of several of the Fellows 
of the Royal Astronomical Society. 

The results of the revision may be summed up as follows : — 
In all, 1503 numbers were examined; of these the under- 
mentioned 55 were missing, viz. : — 

3707 dup. of 3706, 5' 5741 

5770 dup. of 5772 

5816 ... 5815 

5849 

5923 

5928 

5241 dup. of 5247, 30s 6 542 
. 5350, 10s 6725 
6770 
6775 
6898 
6917 

7203 dup. of 7210, 1™ 
7214 ... 7225, I** 
7467 ... 7466 
7576 ... 7575,2° 
8042 



Of the above, six are accounted for by being duplicates of num- 
bers representing real stars, whose right ascension has been 
erroneously recorded by l m , 30 s , or 10 s ; errors which will 
sometimes occur in single determinations ; two more appear 
to be duplicates, with errors in polar distance of 5' and 2 s re- 
spectively ; and three more are probably duplicates, but with 
small uncertain errors. 



186 


3707 


278 


4399 


434 


4569 


534 


4983 


601 dup. of 596 


5025 


642 


5162 


931 


5241 


935 


5349 


969 


5415 


2018 


5482 


2686 


5491 


3233 


5524 


3328 dup. of 3323, 


l m 5662 


3401 


5665 


3454 


5672 


3461 


5685 


3482 


5707 


3535 


5725 


3586 


5738 



British Association Catalogue, of Stars, 209 

Twelve numbers marked as nebulae were examined, viz. : — 

2511 4485 

2766 5040 

3247 5300 

3547 5470 

3692 6201 

3944 7457 

and were found to be clusters of small stars, more or less 
dense. Of these, five contained a star sufficiently conspi- 
cuous to be identified by the two instruments, but the places 
of the remaining seven could not be accurately fixed. 

The places of 1440 numbers were recorded. Of these, by 
far the greater part were observed four times or upwards, and 
only a very few less than three times ; which arose either from 
the object being too faint for our instruments, unless under un- 
usually favourable atmospheric conditions, or else from the 
numbers following so thickly in right ascension that they 
could not all be observed so often without waiting for another 
year. 

The following thirteen numbers have companions, whose 
places have been entered in the Catalogue, viz. : — 

776 3118 5673 

1728 4513 6579 

1752 4558 6984 

2511 5111 7963 
3067 

Eighteen more have also companions, more or less distant, 
whose places have been approximately fixed, and set down in 
the notes accompanying the Catalogue, viz. : — 

13 2687 7483 

450 2738 7631 

936 6132 7810 (H. and S. 343) 

1712 6163 8101 

1752 7327 8253 

1999 7417 8272 

Four more are noted as double, but without fixing the compa- 
nions, viz. : — 

2688 which is H. and S. 88. 

4573 

6835 

7699 



210 



Captain W. S. Jacob on the 



The following 71 numbers are found to differ from the Bri- 
tish Association Catalogue by more than 2 s in right ascension, 
or 10" in polar distance, viz. : — 



15 


4968 


6212 


157 


4979 


6219 


193 


5114 


6303 


602 


5117 


6374 


728 


5288 


6578 


1412 


5372 


6818 


1790 


5389 


6928 


2048 


5459 


7017 


2121 


5540 


7055 


2190 


5564 


7163 


2284 


5570 


7180 


2610 


5612 


7268 


3008 


5722 


7307 


3067 


5879 


7347 


3139 


5897 


7594 


3:189 


5898 


7631 


3567 


5916 


7699 


3639 


5977 


7769 


3659 


6000 


8011 


3694 


6011 


8164 


4041 


6032 


8260 


4512 


6165 


8278 


4.519 


6173 


8306 


4912 


6185 





Of these, 17 are accounted for as mistakes of gross quanti- 
ties, such as l m , 30 s , or 10 s of right ascension ; and 10', 5', or 
V of polar distance. Several others may possibly be corrected 
by a reference to Lacaille's original observations, and some of 
them are probably cases of proper motion. Besides these, there 
are 29 stars from Brisbane's Catalogue, in which the difference 
of right ascension is between I s and 2 s ; some of these also 
may turn out to be cases of proper motion. 

With the above exceptions, the agreement of the observed 
places with the Catalogue is in general very close. In the cases 
of those stars whose places depend upon Groombridge remark- 
ably so ; a difference of S, 2 in right ascension, or of 2" in 
polar distance being comparatively rare ; so much so as to ren- 
der it probable that anything much exceeding that amount 
must arise from proper motion. With regard to this point, 
the proper motions assigned in the Catalogue have been in a 



British Association Catalogue of Stars. 211 

few cases confirmed, but in those of the greater number of 
southern stars, they have been either negatived or rendered 
doubtful ; these will, therefore, have to be observed after the 
lapse of a few years, in order to set the question at rest. 

I should state that only a small proportion of the observa- 
tions were made by myself, the great mass being taken by the 
native assistants, and the work may be considered as credit- 
able to them. The computations were either made in dupli- 
cate and compared, or were made by one party, and the re- 
sults examined in a different manner by another ; and nearly 
the whole of them underwent a thorough revision by myself. 
The amount of labour thus involved in the reduction of nearly 
12,000 observations will not easily be conceived, except by 
those who have been accustomed to operations of the like kind. 

At the time of undertaking the above work, I was not aware 
that my friend Mr Maclear was about the same time com- 
mencing a similar revision at the Cape Observatory. His plan 
of proceeding, however, being somewhat different from mine, 
our results, while partly confirmatory, will be in a great mea- 
sure supplementary to each other, especially as he would be 
able to fill up the circle of 25° round the south pole, which was 
beyond my range. As the northern circumpolar stars have 
been carefully gone over at Oxford, the revision of the Cata- 
logue may now be considered as pretty complete. 

W. S. Jacob. 



This state of things described by the author is, therefore, 
highly encouraging, and we seem now on the point of possess- 
ing ample materials for the construction of a far finer cata- 
logue of stars than the world has yet seen. 

The notice of ^the indications of interesting discoveries of 
proper motions of stars, as given by the Australian obser- 
vations of our venerable President (Sir Thomas M. Brisbane), 
will be read with much pleasure ; while the mention of the 
accuracy of Groombridge's Catalogue will be extensively re- 
ceived as another illustration of the never-dying character of 
good astronomical work. Mr Groombridge was past fifty be- 
fore he had leisure and means to apply himself to astronomical 
observation. When he did begin, he worked zealously and 



212 Professor How on the Ethers and 

well ; and procured, before many years were over, above 50,00(1 
observations. But the computation of these was a far longer 
work : he laboured at it and died ; his wife, the partner of 
his domestic cares and astronomical anxieties, died also ; they 
were followed by his friend and adviser, the then Astronomer 
Royal ; by his friend and helper, the then Superintendent of 
the Nautical Almanac ; and by his clerk and assistant. These 
all died before the Catalogue, passing into other hands, re- 
ceived its final correction, and was published to the world, 
wherein it has now been found to be so excellent and valuable 
a contribution to astronomy. 

One more remark presses itself upon me. The extinction 
of one star, 3000 years ago, led Hipparchus to the formation 
of the first catalogue of stars. Captain Jacob now reports 55 
as missing. Are not, then, the phenomena of our day as im- 
portant as those of any other, and should they not equally in- 
duce to the study of astronomy 1 C. P. S. 



Some Additional Experiments on the Ethers and Amides of 
Meconic and Comenic Acids. By Henry How, Professor 
of Natural History, King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. 

The following pages contain an account of some researches 
made for the purpose of rendering more complete the papers I 
have already published on meconic and comenic acids. They 
relate, in the first place, to the confirmation of some facts for- 
merly announced, but which have been since disputed ; and 
secondly, to descriptions of new methods for producing certain 
compounds already described,and finally indicate the existence 
of some entirely new substances, derived from the acid of 
opium. 

In my investigation of meconic acid,* I described an acid 
amide, which I termed meconamidic acid, and assigned to 
it a complicated formula, having no analogy with that of any 
known body. The want of simplicity and of this analogy in 
my expression, has led to its being objected to by Messrs 
Wurtz | and Gerhardt, J whose critical opinions are entitled 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. xx., Part iii. f Ann. Ch. Phys. 38, 195. 

J Chimie Organique. 



Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids. 213 

to such weight as to compel me to return to the subject, and 
endeavour either to discover the source of error, or to show 
sufficient reasons for the validity of my own assumption. 
The substance alluded to was produced by the action of am- 
monia on the monoethylated meconic acid ; a yellow salt 
being thus formed having a most peculiar non-crystalline 
structure, as it occurs in the state of transparent rounded 
grains, which completely resemble drops of oil. This is an 
ammonia salt, from which an excess of hydrochloric acid 
throws down the acid in question as a white crystalline pow- 
der or crust. 

I now recapitulate the analyses of this substance, as for- 
merly published, and add some remarks from my note-book, 
made at the time of the analyses, but not given with them in 
the paper. I do this in order to meet the objections taken to 
the conclusions drawn from these experiments, on the ground 
that the substance possibly contained ammonia, and, not 
being crystallizable, might not easily be obtained pure. The 
analytical numbers I place in juxtaposition with my own for- 
mula, and that proposed by Wurtz and Gerhardt, which is 
indeed that of the substance I was in search of, and which, 
after a similar comparison in the paper before mentioned, I 
was compelled to reject as discordant with experimental evi- 
dence. The figures are : — 

I. II. III. IV. 



7-70 



Carbon, 


39-73 


39-65 


39-50 


Hydrogen, 


3-30 


3-32 


3-26 


Oxygen, 


49-13 


48-98 




Nitrogen, 


784 


8-05 





100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 

and I find, by referring to my notes, that I. and n. were from 
materials of different preparations, in each case consisting of 
solution of the yellow granular salt in hot water, addition of 
strong hydrochloric acid in excess and the subsequent re- 
crystallization from boiling water of the substance so pre- 
cipitated. The remark noted after these results is, " ammonia 
seems to adhere to this substance," and the residue of that 
employed for analysis II. was dissolved in boiling water, some 



214 Professor How on the Ethers and 

strong hydrochloric acid was added, and the heat kept up for 
some minutes ; this process furnished the acid whose analysis 
(in.) clearly shows it to remain quite unaltered. 

Since the publication of the paper, I have again taken 
some of the yellow salt, and boiled its aqueous solution till no 
trace of ammonia was perceptible, and its colour was quite 
discharged ; muriatic acid added to it while still hot threw 
down a substance furnishing these results : — 

( 4-602 grains, dried at 212°, gave 
) 6*770 „ carbonic acid, and 
I 1-310 „ water; 



leading to a percentage of 



Carbon, 40-12 
Hydrogen, 3*16 

agreeing perfectly with the former numbers and those re- 
quired by the calculation. The mean of all these analyses is 
collated anew with the two formulae, and their values : — 

Mean Expt. H. H. W. and 0. 

Carbon, 39-75 39-84 C 84 504 4?21 C 14 si 

Hydrogen, 3-26 3-08 H 39 39 2-51 H 5 5 

Oxygen, 49-13 49-34 78 624 48-25 12 96 

Nitrogen, 7'86 7*74 N 7 98 7*08 N 14 



100-00 100-00 1265 100-00 199 

The empirical formula I assign to the meconamidic acid being 

C 84 H 39 78 N 7 *> 

and that of the proposed normal amido-meconic acid, 

C 14 H 5 12 N. 

With regard to the basicity of my compound, I stated before 
that I had only one salt from which to draw conclusions, and 
I must now mention a fact which induces me to assign to it 
another as its normal saturating power. In the description 
of the yellow salt already so often adverted to, I showed that 
it loses ammonia both in boiling water and when dry, at 212° 
Fahr. And I now find that its aqueous solution evaporated 



Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids. 215 

on the water bath to complete dryness, leaves a crystalline 
mass of colourless silky needles. An accident deprived me 
of the material destined for a combustion, but the amount 
of nitrogen was determined by the following experiment : — 

4*495 grains, dried at 212°, gave by Peligott's method 
0-645 ,, nitrogen = 14*34 per cent, 

and agrees neither with that required by a neutral nor an 
acid salt of amido-meconic acid, whose values and formulae 
are: — 

Acid Salt. 



Carbon, . 38-88 

Hydrogen, . 370 

Oxygen, . 44-46 

Nitrogen, . 12-96 



c I4 


84 
8 


o 12 

N 2 


96 
28 



tfeut 


ral Salt 




36.05 


C U 


84 


4-75 


Hn 


11 


41-18 


12 


96 


18-02 


*3 


42 



100-00 216 100-00 233 

but rather with a salt of meconamidic acid, differing from the 
yellow one in being anhydrous, and containing three atoms 
less of ammonia. The formula — 

6 NH 4 0, C 84 H 21 N 7 63 

requires 14*15 per cent, nitrogen ; the above result being 
14-34. A glance at the rational formulae I assigned to the 
yellow salt and to the acid itself on the former occasion of 
their description, 

Salt, 9 NH 4 0, C 84 H 24 N 7 63 + 3 aq. 
Acid, 9 HO, C 84 H 24 N 7 63 + 6 aq. 

will show that these cease to be tenable when the existence of 
the new salt, and its mode of formation, are taken into account. 
It seems to me that the facility with which the yellow com- 
pound loses its ammonia should cause it to be considered 
rather a super-salt or basic form of combination, and that the 
stability of the white crystalline one affords more correct data 
by which to determine the saturating power of the acid ; and 
I would now represent the three thus : — 



216 



Professor How on the Ethers and 



Meconamidic acid, 



6 HO, C 84 H 24 N 7 63 + 9HO. 



Yellow ammonia salt, 6 NH 4 0, C 84 H 24 N 7 63 + 3 NH q + 6 HO. 
White 



6NH 4 0,C 84 H 84 N 7 O e8 . 



In the present state of our experimental evidence on these 
points, therefore, I must conclude this part of the subject with 
expressing my conviction that the meconamidic acid, having 
at least the empirical constitution assigned to it by myself, is 
a stable substance, and capable of entering into two distinct 
combinations with ammonia, of widely different appearance 
and characters. If this be true, the cause of the want of 
analogy will certainly be discovered at some time, and, if not, 
my errors may enable some one else to light upon the normal 
amido-meconic acid I sought to obtain. 



Action of Ammonia on Biethylated Meconic Acid, 

Biamido-Meconic Acid. — When the second normal ether 
of meconic acid is boiled for some time with an excess of am- 
monia, it is converted into an amidogen acid, which is thrown 
down from the cooled liquid as an amorphous powder ; when 
redissolved in boiling water, the new substance again sepa- 
rates, in the cold, in an amorphous state : 



' 5-440 grains, dried at 212°, gave 

8*440 ,, carbonic acid, and 

1-590 ,, water. 

6-130 „ dried at 212°, gave, with soda-lime. 
13350 „ platinum salt of ammonia. 



Expt. 



100-00 



Calc. 



Carbon, 


42-31 


42-42 


C u 


84 


Hydrogen, . 


3-24 


3-03 


H 6 


6 


Oxygen, 




40-41 


°* 


80 


Nitrogen, 


13-67 


14-41 


N 2 


28 



100-00 



198 



The rational formula of this body, considered as a monobasic 
acid, as its origin would indicate, is 



HO,C 14 H 5 N 2 0„ 



Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids. 217 

in the air-dry state it has an additional equivalent of water, 
with which it readily parts, as is shown by this experiment. 

[ 14-710 grains, air dry, lost, at 212° 
\ 0-535 „ water, 

equal to 4*31 per cent., and 4*45 is required by the loss of 
one atom of water in the formula 

HO,C 14 H 5 N 2 9 + aq. 

The amide is clearly derived from the ether acid by the 
change of two equivalents of alcohol for two of ammonia — 

HO, 2 C 4 H 5 0, C 14 HO n + 2 NH 3 = 

Biethylomeconic acid. 

2 (C 4 H 6 2 ) + HO, 2NH 2 , C u H0 9 

^*" — „ 

Biamido-meconic acid. 

and its relation to bibasic meconate of ammonia is — 
HO,2NH 4 0,C u HO u -4HO = HO,C 14 H 5 N 2 9 . 

Biamido-meconic acid has not been observed in the crystalline 
state ; to the naked eye it presents the appearance, in the pre- 
sent form in which I have obtained it, of a grayish-white 
amorphous powder ; it is difficultly soluble in cold water and in 
dilute acids, and is readily decomposed when heated with the 
fixed caustic alkalies, It reacts strongly acid, and decomposes 
with effervescence the carbonated earths when its solution is 
heated with them, and forms, like the other acids of this group, 
basic combinations when an excess of the earthy constituent 
is employed. Although from its derivation there can be 
little doubt that it is really a monobasic acid, I have not been 
able, with the amount of material in my possession, to confirm 
this assumption, my substance being exhausted in fruitless ef- 
forts to obtain neutral salts. By solution of the acid in an ex- 
cess of ammonia and subsequent evaporation to dryness at 
212°, a salt of difficult solubility, even in hot water, is obtain- 
ed, whose solution gave with chlorides of calcium and barium 
amorphous precipitates in which the amount of base was greatly 



218 Professor How on the Ethers and 

above that of neutral salts, and yet not enough to correspond 
■with any other atomic expression. 

Triethylated Meconic Acid? — In my former paper on me- 
conic acid, I shewed that when it is distilled with absolute al- 
cohol and a small quantity of oil of vitriol, the biethylated 
meconic acid is produced. If the proportion of sulphuric acid 
be much increased in this process, none of the second ether is 
obtained ; dilution of the contents of the retort throwing down a 
black oily mass of very different characters. It is excessively 
soluble in spirit, and is again thrown down as black oil by 
water. I did not analyse this substance, but think it may 
possibly be the triethylated meconic acid. 

3C 4 H 5 ? C 14 HO u . 

Digestion with ammonia at a gentle heat converts it into a 
blackish brown powder — the corresponding amide \ 

Action of Iodide of Ethyl on Comenic Acid. 

Ethylocomenic (Comenovinic) Acid. — When comenic acid 
in fine powder is heated with spirit of wine and iodide of ethyl 
in a sealed tube, at 212°, it dissolves, though very slowly, and 
a fortnight's continued application of this heat is required to 
effect the solution of a few grains. The product of the reac- 
tion consists of two substances ; and as I found the same re- 
sult, to all appearance, to be brought about more speedily at a 
higher temperature, I at once resorted to this method. 

About 70 grains of the powdered acid were heated with a 
few fluid drachms of rectified spirit and a little iodide of ethyl, 
in a close tube, to nearly 350° Fahr. ; solution was complete 
in two hours. The vessel gave no deposit upon being then 
allowed to stand cold for twenty-four hours, but directly it was 
cut open, a slight explosion occurred, and crystals began to 
form, increasing so rapidly in quantity as speedily to render 
the whole interior solid. These crystals were in the shape of 
prismatic needles, with minute, rounded, opaque grains among 
and upon them, here and there throughout their mass. They 
were thrown upon a filter, and their mother liquor, which was 
very dark-coloured, and contained much hydriodic acid, was 



Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids. 219 

allowed to drain off. After being washed with cold water, they 
were dissolved in boiling water, and the first crop of crystals 
from the still warm fluid, which consisted merely of the needles, 
without any of the grains, was collected, and washed with 
tepid water. Upon being dried they furnished these results : 

f 4-903 grains, dried at 212°, gave 
1 9-300 ... carbonic acid, and 
{ 1-935 ... water. 

Experiment. Calculation. 

Carbon, . . . 51*73 
Hydrogen, . . 4-38 
Oxygen, 



52-17 C 1A 


96 


4-35 


H 8 


8 


43-48 


o 10 


80 



100-00 100-00 184 

which agree perfectly, as the above comparison shows, with 
those required by the comenovinic acid I formerly described, 

HO, C 4 H 5 O, C 12 H 2 8 . 
That it is one of the two basic atoms of water of comenic acid 
which is here replaced by ether is proved by the deportment 
of the new substance with ammonia. It dissolves readily in 
an alcoholic solution of this alkali, forming the beautiful yel- 
low crystalline salt I before showed to be produced by the 
union of comenic ether and ammonia. It was mentioned at 
the time, as a characteristic of this salt, that it loses all its 
base at 212°. This I find to be the case with that from the 
new compound ; I conclude, therefore, that this is the true 
comenic ether, for I conceive that had the action of C 4 H 5 1 
on comenic acid, consisted in the formation of a bibasic acid, 
in which one atom of hydrogen is replaced by ethyl, 

™JC 12 H(C 4 H 5 )0 8 

analogous in derivation to the methylosalycic acid of Cahours 
and Gerhardt, it would have possessed very different powers 
of combination with bases from .that of the feeble comenic 
ether. 

I attempted to procure an amyl compound in the same way ; 
comenic acid, chloride of amyl, and spirit of wine, being heated 
in the oil -bath, at 300° Fahr., till solution was complete, which 



220 Professor How on the Ethers and 

took place in twelve hours. Somewhat to my surprise, the 
reaction proved to be identical in products to the former ; from 
a liquid containing hydrochloric acid a deposit of needles and 
grains fell. The needles, when separated as before, gave these 
numbers : — 

r 5-667 grains, dried at 212°, gave 
< 10 720 ... carbonic acid, and 
( 2-400 ... water. 

equal to a percentage of 

Carbon, . . 51-60 

Hydrogen, . . 4 90 

which approach so nearly to the last results, as to admit of no 
doubt that they relate to the same substance, though not so 
pure as was before analysed ; the reaction, I apprehend, being 

HO j C 12 H 2 ° 8 + Cl0 Hl1 Cl + C 4 H 6 2 = C H O j 

C 12 H 2 O 8 + C 10 H 12 O 2 + HCl. 

Meconic acid, as might have been anticipated, is found to be- 
have in the same manner as comenic acid, with iodide of ethyl. 
At 212°, in four or five hours it is converted into the same 
substances, carbonic acid being produced, which causes the 
tube to open with a lively explosion on its being cut with a 
file. 

The grains alluded to above were never obtained in suffi- 
cient quantity, or in a state pure enough for analysis, but the 
tendency they had to reduce the percentage of carbon and hy- 
drogen was remarked in some unsuccessful analyses of the 
needles, not quoted on that account. They consisted of an acid 
substance which dissolved in boiling water with great ease, and 
came down upon cooling in the same peculiar granular form. 
This character separates them from comenic acid, which I at 
first supposed them to be, and reminds one of the paracomenic 
acid of Stenhouse, which has, according to this chemist, the 
same composition. The formation of the para-acid, in this 
case, would be quite analogous to that of the change under- 
gone by malic acid when heated with water. 

I attempted to ascertain whether comenic acid really under- 
goes this alteration in a heated sealed tube with water. I 



Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids. 221 

find that under these circumstances, it is readily altered, and 
the first change seems to be the increased solubility of the acid. 
In four or five hours, at 300° Fahr., a great deal of. the acid 
goes up in the water, which acquires a high colour, and, if 
then allowed to cool, deposits a granular matter. If the heat 
be continued, the contents of the vessel become in a few days 
a shining black solid, and complete decomposition seems to 
have taken place, for carbonic acid is produced in abundance. 
I have not been able to prosecute these experiments, which, 
with modifications, might lead to interesting results. 

Action of Hydrochloric acid gas upon Comenamic Acid in Alcohol. 

Hydrochlorate of Comenamic Ether (Gomenamethane). — 
When comenamic acid (HO, C 12 H 4 N0 7 ) is suspended in absolute 
alcohol, or very strong spirit, through which dry hydrochloric 
acid gas is passed, the greater part of the solid dissolves, and 
remains in solution when the liquid has been cold for some 
time. The clear fluid leaves, on evaporation to dryness at 212°, 
an oily mass which dries up, by constant stirring at this heat, 
to a white or gray solid. If water be poured upon this residue 
after it has been heated for some hours, it dissolves a certain 
quantity with the production of a very acid liquid, while a 
considerable quantity of pure comenamic acid remains behind ; 
the solution contains much hydrochloric acid, and if suffered 
to stand, deposits more comenamic acid as a crystalline powder, 
and, under some circumstances, long needles. If alcohol be 
employed instead of water, and it be added as soon as the mass 
is quite dry and has cooled, the whole dissolves readily, and 
by very cautious proceedings, a curious compound may be ob- 
tained, which is definite, though instable, and proves to be a 
combination, in fixed proportions, of comenamic ether and 
hydrochloric acid. The material used in the following analyses 
was procured by allowing an alcoholic or ethereal solution of 
the fresh residue above described to evaporate spontaneously ; 
it was dried for analysis in vacuo, with oil of vitriol and solid 
potass in the receiver. The chlorine was determined by direct 
precipitation with nitrate of silver. 

NEW SEKIES. VOL. T. NO. II.— APRIL 1855. Q 



222 Professor How on the Ethers and 

( 4*175 grains, dried in vacuo, gave 
I. < 6*182 ... carbonic acid, and 
I 1-960 ... water. 

172 ... dried in vacuo, gave 
674 . . carbonic acid, and 
240 ... water. 



ra- 
il .{ 7- 
I 2- 



4-22 grains, dried in vacuo, gave with soda lime, 
4-09 ... platinum salt of ammonia. 

3*147 ••• dried in vacuo, gave 
1-872 ... chloride of silver. 





Experiment. 
1. II. 

40-38 40-46 


Calculation. 




Carbon, 


40-42 


C i. 


96 


Hydrogen, 


5-21 


4-81 


5-05 


H 12 


12 


Oxygen, . 


.. . 




33-70 


° Ti 


80 


Nitrogen, 




6-08 


5-89 


N 


14 


Chlorine, 


14-72 




14-94 


CI 


35-5 



10000 100-00 100-00 237-5 

the rational expression of the above resolves itself, for sufficient 
reasons, into this formula : — 

C 4 H 5 O, C 12 H 4 N0 7 , 2 HO + HC1. 

for I shall presently shew, that the hydrated comenamic ether 
is readily obtained from this substance in a pure state, by re- 
moving the hydrochloric acid with which it is here combined. 

The hydrochlorate of comenamic ether dissolves with ease 
in warm water, and the solution deposits first comenamic acid, 
and finally, after long standing, some needles, which are pos- 
sibly the ether itself. It dissolves to a large extent in cold 
alcohol and ether, and these fluids leave it by spontaneous eva- 
poration, as a finely crystallized mass of long radiated silky 
needles. Alkalies also readily take it up, chloride of the base 
and the simple ether at once resulting from their contact. 

Hydriodate of Comenamic Ether. — I have obtained indica- 
tions of the existence of a compound similar to the preceding, 
with hydriodic acid. It was obtained by the action of iodide 
of ethyl on comenamic acid in absolute alcohol ; the reaction 
took place in a sealed tube in the oil-bath, heated for some 
time to about 300° F. When cold, the contents of the vessel 



Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids. 223 

separated into two liquids, one colourless, or yellowish, floating 
on the surface of a deep brown thick fluid. The upper stratum 
proved to be pure sulphuric ether, the lower one contained 
much hydriodic acid, and when evaporated to dryness at 212°, 
left a gummy residue, which solidified into a mass of yellow 
striated needles. After these had been dried in vacuo, they 
afforded evidence of free iodine, and contained much hydriodic 
acid ; when dissolved in water, the addition of a little ammonia 
caused a deposit of crystals after some time. I made a deter- 
mination of the iodine as precipitated from the aqueous solu- 
tion of this substance by nitrate of silver, to obtain an idea 
how far it corresponded with the compound above described ; 
it gave 46*97 per cent, of iodine in this way, approximating 
roughly to an hydriodate of comenamic ether, which requires 
42*77. Of course, this experiment and the conclusion I draw, 
are only given as a rough confirmation of the existence of com- 
pounds, corresponding to the hydrochlorate. 

Comenamic Ether {Cornena methane). — The pure ether is 
readily obtained from the hydrochlorate, or the residue left 
at 212°, as before described, by addition of oxide of silver, or, 
as I prefer, of ammonia, to its hot aqueous solution. The 
alkali is added in such quantity that the reaction remains 
feebly acid, and then the ether is at once precipitated in the 
form of colourless prismatic needles. After a little washing 
with cold water, one resolution in the same menstruum, boil- 
ing, is sufficient to render them perfectly pure. Their ana- 
lysis was as follows : 

{5-012 grains, dried at 212°, gave 
9-625 ... carbonic acid, and 
2-377 ... water. 

Experiment. Calculation. 



Carbon, 52-37 


52-45 


O i6 


96 


Hydrogen, 5*26 


4-91 


H 9 


9 


Nitrogen, 


7-64 


N 


14 


Oxygen, 


3500 


o 8 


64 



100-00 100-00 183 

These results correspond in the most complete manner with 
the formula, 

C 4 H 5 0, C 12 H 4 N0 7 , 

Q2 



224 Professor How on the Ethers and 

which represents the ether of comenamic acid, a substance 
analogous to the ether of oxamic acid, the oxamethane of 
Dumas. On the same principle of nomenclature, the new 
compound may be called comenamethane ; in the crystallized 
state, it has two equivalents of water, which it readily loses in 
the water- bath : 

| 19-780 grains, air-dry, lost at 212 c , 
{ 1-790 ... water, 

giving a percentage of 9-04; and 8*95 is the number required 
by a loss of two atoms of water from the formula ; 

C, H 6 0, 6 U H 4 NO. + 2 aq. 

Comenamethane is perfectly neutral to test-paper. It dis- 
solves completely, but by no means easily, in boiling water 
and is deposited on cooling in groups of colourless prismatic 
crystals ; it is very sparingly soluble in water at the ordinary 
temperature. Rectified spirit also takes it up in the heat to 
some extent, but absolute alcohol dissolves it sparingly in its 
hydrated state, and scarcely at all when dried. All the mi- 
neral acids dissolve it at once with extreme ease, nitric acid 
converting it after some time into acid oxalate of ammonia, 
which crystallizes out in beautiful rhombs. It fuses at a tem- 
perature above 400° Fahr. into a yellowish liquid, which con- 
cretes to a crystalline mass, or sometimes remains a pellucid 
solid when cold. It is unaltered by ammonia in the cold, and 
undergoes no change if it be heated, deprived of its own water 
of crystallization, with a solution of the dry gas in absolute 
alcohol, in a sealed tube, for four hours in the water-bath. I 
hoped, in this manner, to obtain a neutral amide, but found 
that the ether is unchanged under these circumstances ; if 
water be present, the reaction results in the production of 
comenamate of ammonia, a substance easily identified by its 
reactions. 

It may be remarked as a characteristic of comenic acid, that 
all attempts have failed to produce with it neutral salts of the 
fixed alkalies or ammonia, and also that no neutral ether and 
corresponding amide can be formed, as is the case, on the con- 
trary, with many bibasic acids. At least, I have resorted to 



Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids. 225 

the most feasible methods I could devise for bringing about 
these results in the present instance without success. 

The preceding investigation was pursued in the laboratory 
of Professor Anderson of Glasgow, and I cannot refrain from 
expressing my grateful sense of the assistance and animation 
I have experienced from his valuable advice, and the interest 
he has always taken in the progress of my researches. 

In conclusion, I append a tabular statement of the sub- 
stances whose composition is substantiated in this paper. 

Meconamidic acid, dried 1 « tta n tt -ma a tta 

at 212°, . j 6 H0 > C ** H *4 N 7 °63 + 9 H0 

Meconamidate of am- | 

monia, white salt, I 6 NH^O, C Si H >4 N„ 63 

dried at 212°, . J 

Meconamidate of am- "| 

monia, yellow salt, I 6 NH 4 0, C o4 K Zi N 7 63 + 3NH 3 + 6 HO 

dried in vacuo, J 

Biamidomeconic acid, 1 ^^ n TT , T ~ 

dried at 212°, . ) H0 ' ?« H * N ° 

Biamidomeconic acid, 1 u^. ^ TT , T A 

. j ' > HO, C M H s N 9 o + aq. 

air-dry, . . J ' u 5 2 9 ' i 

Comenovinic acid, dried 1 nA n tt a n TT A 
at 212°, . . j HO C 4 H 5 0> C i2 H 2 8 

Comenamethane, dried! n tt r\ n u ma 
at 212°, . . | G i H 5 ' ii H ^ 

c ^Xe m d: thane? . crys " } °* H * °> <V H ^ N °' + 2 H ° 

Hydrochlorate of Co- "j 

menamethane, dried I C 4 H. O, C u H 4 NO., 2 HO + II CI. 
in vacuo, . I 



226 P. L. Sclater on the 



A Draft Arrangement of the Genus Thamnophilus, Vieilloi. 
By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F.Z.S. 

The bush-shrikes of South America, forming the genus 
Thamnophilus of Vieillot, have been much neglected by mo- 
dern ornithologists, and are at present in a sad state of con- 
fusion. Mr George Gray, in his Genera of Birds, gives a list 
of more than fifty species of the genus, while the Prince 
Charles Bonaparte in his Conspectus, under the three heads 
Cymbilaimus , Thamnophilus, and Dysithamnus (which to- 
gether correspond to Mr Gray's Thamnophilus), reduces the 
number to sixteen. Excluding the four or five Dysithamni, 
which I think are fairly entitled to generic separation, I am 
acquainted with about thirty-six distinct members of the genus 
Thamnophilus. Three others, which I have not yet seen, 
raise the total number included in the following list to thirty- 
nine. These I believe to be all truly existing species ; others 
which have been placed by different authors in the genus, but 
which I do not believe to be valid species, are the following : 

1. T. palliatus, Lesson. Rev. Z., 1839, p. 104 ; Gray's Gen., 
i. p. 298, sp. 25. " Ater ; pallio, pteromatibus, duabus lineis 
super alas niveis ; cauda rotunda." — Brazil. Perhaps Pyriglena 
domicella (Licht.) 

2. T, cristatellus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet., xxxv. p. 201 ; Enc, 
p. 750; Gray's Gen., sp. 36. 

3. T. rubicus, Vieill. N. D., iii. 316 ; Enc, p. 747 ; Gray's 
Gen., sp. 40. 

4. T. guttatuSjVieill N. D., iii. 315 ; Enc, p. 746; Gray's 
Gen., sp. 42. 

5. T. longicaudatus, Vieill. N. D., iii. 315; Enc, p. 746; 
Gray's Gen., sp. 44. 

6. T. viridis, Vieill. N. D., iii. 318 ; Enc, p. 749, sp. 26; 
Gray's Gen., sp. 45. 

7. T. viridis, Vieill. Enc, p. 750, sp. 33 ; Gray, sp. 46. 

8. T. virescens, Vieill. N. D., iii. p. 319; Enc, p. 749; 
Gray, sp. 37. 

9. T. cyanocephalus, Vieill. N. D., iii. 318, ex " Batara 
obscuro y negro? Azara, No. 217 ; Enc, p. 748 ; Gray, sp. 39. 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 227 

10. T. chloropterus, Vieill. N. D., iii. 310 ; Enc, p. 742 ; 
Gray, sp. 43. 

I do not think it is worth while to reprint Vieillot's charac- 
ters for these nine species, his descriptions are generally so 
very inaccurate. The first six of them are said to be in the 
Paris Museum. Perhaps Dr Pucheran could succeed in re- 
cognising these as he has already so many other lost types of 
Vieillot and Lesson. 

11. Lanius ruber, Gm., i. 308. Thamnophilus ruber, 
Gray's Gen., sp. 47, " body bright red !" a PyrangaU 

12. Lanius varius, Gm., i. 307. Thamnophilus varius, 
Vieill. N. D., iii. p. 318; Gray's Gen., sp. 48. 

13. Lanius niger, Gm., i. p. 301. Thamnophilus niger, 
Gray's Gen., sp. 50, is a Tityra, as observed by Mr Gray in 
his Appendix. I consider it the same as Tityra leuconota, 
Gray's Gen., pi. 63. Pachyramphus nigrescens, Cab. Orn. 
Notiz. Wiegm. Archiv., 1847, p. 241, and Pachyrhynchus 
aterrimus, Lafr. R. Z., 1846, p. 320. 

14. Lanius durantius, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. 79. Tham. sp. 49 
Gray's Gen., — is, I have little doubt, Lanio atrieapillus, (Gm.) 

Many of the ant-thrushes have been likewise called Thamno- 
phili by various authors. It is indeed difficult to see how these 
birds can be placed in two different families, and I agree with 
the late Mr Strickland,* that " the genus Thamnophilus 
cannot possibly be separated from the American ant-thrushes 
in any natural arrangement." M. d'Orbigny, who has had the 
advantage of observing these birds in their native wilds, is en- 
tirely of the same opinion, and was, I believe, the first to pro- 
pose this union. He gives, in his Voyage dans l'Amerique 
Meridionale, Oiseaux, p. 465, a very interesting account of 
the general habits of the genus Thamnophilus. ii The bush- 
shrikes," says this author, " are in America the representa- 
tives of our shrikes, with this important difference in their 
habits, that instead of being seen always on the bushes they 
keep within them, and rarely come to the outside. They are 
bush-birds par excellence, living in all places where dense 
thickets present themselves, whether that be in the neighbour- 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., 1844, p. 415. 



228 P. L. Sclater on the 

hood of dwelling-houses, or in deserted fields in the middle of the 
forests, or more often in the small woods somewhat elevate and 
full of thorns, called " Chaparrales" by the Spaniards, which 
are characteristic of certain parts of South America. They 
generally go alone or in pairs, and are quite familiar, approach- 
ing inhabited places, keeping in perpetual movement among the 
lower branches of the bushes, and traversing them in every 
direction in search of insects, larvse, and ants, rarely descend- 
ing to the ground, and then indeed only to seize their prey, to 
devour which they return to the lower branches of the trees. 
They appeared to us to be sedentary in the countries where 
they live, but to be always passing from one place to another. 
"What traveller in the midst of the savage wilds, so common in 
America, has not, particularly in the spring-time, listened with 
wonder to the noisy cries of the bush-shrikes, to the sonorous 
strains which the males pour forth, especially in the pairing- 
time \ Their whole body trembles with joy — their crest is 
raised, they open their wings, and shew every symptom of plea- 
sure, while the female hastens to answer to their transports, 
though in less energetic strains. These conversations often 
strike the ear, but in vain one seeks what produces them, the 
birds being almost always hidden in thickets so dense that even 
the sun's rays hardly penetrate them. It is there, also, that 
they build their nests, some feet above the level of the earth, 
formed outside of sticks, and sometimes lined with horsehair 
within. Their eggs have much resemblance to those of our 
shrikes, that is to say, they are whitish, spotted with violet-red." 
The geographical range of the genus Thamnophilus is some- 
what confined, one species only, as far as I am aware, having 
passed the isthmus of Panama, and M. d'Orbigny says he 
never saw them farther south than 32° south latitude, nor on 
the western side of the Andes. Dr Tschudi also observes that 
they are not found in Transandean Peru, but in Ecuador they 
certainly appear on both sides of the great range, there being 
several specimens of two species (which I have lately described 
as new) in the British Museum, from the shores of the Gulf of 
Guayaquil. M. d'Orbingy also states that their vertical range is 
confined to 6000 feet above the sea-level, and we accordingly 
find the species most abundant near the coasts of Brazil and 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 229 

Guiana, and in the valley of the Amazons, where the elevations 
are not great. 

There is in my opinion no sufficient difference in the struc- 
ture of the 39 birds described in the present paper, to necessi- 
tate their separation into smaller groups, and I have therefore 
merely placed the subgeneric names that have been proposed 
at the head of the several sections, and retained Thamnophilus 
as a generic name throughout. 

The measurements of each species are given in inches and 
decimal parts. I have been particular in obtaining as many 
accurate localities as possible for each species, an important 
point this, which has been too much neglected in ornithology, 
and have always added the authorities for the localities. 

Div. A. BATABA, Lesson. Maximi : caudd longd : rostro 

fortiore. 

1. Thamnophilus cikereus, Vieill. 
ThamnopJiilus cinereus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'H.N. xxxv. p. 200. 

($) 1819. Th. rufus, Vieill. ib. (?). Th. undulatus, Gray's 

Gen., i. p. 297 ; Bp. Consp., p. 197. Th. vigorsi, Such. Zool. 

Journ., i. p. 557, pi. 7 (£), 8 ($), 1825. Th. gigas, Sw. Class. 

Birds, ii. p. 220. Th. procerus, Licht. 
Lanius undulatus, Mikan. Del. Fl. et Faun. Bras., pi. 2. 1820. 

L. procerus, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 
Vanga striata, Q. and G. Voy. de l'Uran. Ois., i. p. 98. pi. 

18 (5), 19 (?). 1824. 
Batara striata, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 347. 

J cinereus ; pileo cristato nigro ; dorso, alis caudaque nigris, 
albo trans-fasciatis. 

$ pileo antice castaneo ; fasciis ferrugineis neque albis ; 
subtus albo-cinerea, ventre brunnescente. 

Long, tota 14*0, alae 5-0, caudse 7 # 0. 

Hab. South-east Brazil, San Joan del Rey, and S. Paolo 
(Mus. Berol.) ; Minas Geraes (Such.) ; Bio Grande do Sul 
(Plant.) 

I regret we have no information of the habits of this spe- 
cies, the finest and largest of the whole group. It appears 
to have been one of the many novelties discovered in Brazil 



230 P. L. Sclater on the 

by Delalande, and to have received its first published name 
from his specimens in the Paris Museum. The measurements 
given by Vieillot are not quite correct, but there seems no 
doubt that this was the bird intended by his description of 
Thamnophilus cinereus. 

There is a difference of authorities as to the respective 
colouring of the sexes of this bird. I have taken the slate- 
coloured one as the male, and the brown as the female, which, 
judging by analogy, must be correct, though the contrary is 
not unfrequently stated to be the case. 

2. Thamnophilus severus, Licht. 
Thamnophilus lineatus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'H. N., iii. p. 316 

($ "?). Th. severus, Gray's Gen., i. p. 297. Th. niger, Such. 

Zooi. Journ., i. p. 589 (J). 1825 ; Jard. and Selby, 111. Orn. 

pi. 21. Th. Swainsoni, Such. Zool. Journ., p. 556, pi. suppl. 

5 (?). Th. othello, Less. Cent. Zool., p. 65, pi. 19. 
Lanius severus, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl. p. 45. 1823. 
Batara othello, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 347. 

$ niger unicolor, cristatus. 

2 pileo castaneo ; corpore nigro et ferrugineo confertim trans- 
fasciato ; cauda nigra, obsolete trans-fasciata. 

Long, tota 8-5, alse 3*5, caudse 4-5. 

Hab. South-east Brazil, San Paolo, (Licht.) ; Minas Geraes 
(Such.) 

3. Thamnophilus Leachi, Such. 
Thamnophilus Leaehi, Such. Zool. Journ., i. p. 588 ($) ; Jard. 

and Selby, 111. Orn., pi. 41; Gray's Gen., i. p. 298; Bp. 

Consp., p. 198. Th. ruficeps, Such. Zool. Journ., i. p. 589 

($). Th. variolosus, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 

$ ater ; supra albo ocellata ; ventris pennis albido stricter 
marginatis ; cauda nigra. 

$ niger ; ferrugineo ocellata ; pileo ferrugineo striato. 

Long, tota 105, alae 3-5, caudse 5-0. 

Hab. South-east Brazil, Minas Geraes (Such.) ; Rio Grande 
do Sul (Plant.) ; Monte Video (Mus. Berol.) 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 231 

4. Thamnophilus meleager, Licht. 
Lanius meleager, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl., p. 46. 1823. 
Thamnophilus guttatus, Spix, ii. p. 25, pi. 35, fig. 1 ($). 1824 ; 

Max. Beit, et Nat., iii. p. 1019. Th. maculatus, Such. Zool. 

Journ., i. p. 557. pi. suppl. 6. 1825. Th. meleagris, Gray's 

Gen., i. p. 297. 

$ niger, guttis magnis albis aspersus ; alis caudaque albo 
trans-fasciatis ; subtus albus ; pectoris lateribus nigris albo 
guttatis. 

$ guttis et fasciis fulvidis abdomine pallide ochraceo. 

Long, tota 9-0, alse 3*5, caudse 4-0. 

Hab. South-east Brazil, Espirito Santo, Bahia and Minas 
Geraes (Max.) ; S. Paolo (Licht.) 

This beautiful species may be distinguished at once by the 
fine tear-like spots on the black upper plumage, which extends 
round to the sides of the breast. Prince Maximilian says it 
lives singly, or in pairs and families, and is a lazy, quiet bird. 
He observed it always in the great woods. Its food consists 
of insects. 

Div. B. CYMBILAIMUS, G. R. Gray: rostro latiore : 
mandibula inferiore turgidd. 

5. Thamnophilus lineatus, Leach. 
Lanius lineatus, Leach, Zool. Misc., pi. 6. 
Thamnophilus lineatus, Gray's Gen., i. p. 298. 
Cymbilaimus lineatus, Gray's List of G. 1842, p. 49; Bp. 

Consp., p. 197. 

$ supra niger, anguste albo trans-fasciatus ; pileo nigro ; sub- 
tus albo-cinereus regulariter nigro trans-fasciatus. 

$ pileo rufo, fasciis corporis superi fulvidis ; infra fulvescens 
fasciis minus distinctis nigris. 

Long, tota 6-5, alse 3*0, caudse 3*0. 

Hab. Cayenne, Ecuador, prov. Quixos (Gould). 

This is by no means an uncommon bird in collections from 
Cayenne. There were also several examples in Mr Gould's 
collection from Quixos, of which I gave a list in the Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society for 1854 (May 9th), so it would 
seem to have a considerable range. 



232 P. L. Sclater on the 

6. Thamnophilus lunulatus, Less. 
Lanius lunulatus, Cuv. , in Mus. Paris. — Less. Tr. d'Orn., 

p. 375, pi. 45, fig. 2. 

$ cristatus ; supra rufus ; subtus albo nigroque trans-fas- 
ciatus ; cauda nigra, albescenfce trans-fasciata. 

Long, tota 8*5, alse 3*7, caudse 3*0. 

Hab. Cayenne (Poiteau in Mus. Paris). 

Of this bird I have as yet seen but one sex, which is, I 
rather expect, the male, and of this only the two examples in 
the Paris and British Museums. In the formation of the bill 
it approaches the preceding species, and would perhaps form a 
second Cymbilahnus for those who separate that as a genus 
from Thamnophilus. 

As no accurate description of this bird has been published, 
I add my notes of the British Museum specimen. Crest, nape, 
whole back and wings, bright rufous ; lores, sides of the neck, 
and underparts densely lineated transversely with black and 
white, tail dull black, outer feathers barred with whitish. 



Div. C. — TAR ABA, Lesson : medii ; rostro modico : caudd 

breviore. 

7. Thamnophilus major, Vieill. 

Batara el major, Azara Apunt., No. 218, unde. 
Thamnophilus major, Vieill. Nouv. Diet., iii. 313 ; Enc. Meth., 

p. 744; d'Orb. Voy., p. 166; Schomb. Reise., iii. p. 607; 

Bp. Consp., p. 198; Th. stagurus, Max. Beit., iii. 990; 

Gray's Gen., p. 297 ; Th. albiventer, Spix, ii. p. 23, pi. 

32 ($ and $) ; Th. bicolor, Sw. Zool. Journ., ii. 86 (£) ; Orn. 

Dr., pi. 60 ; Gray's Gen., i. p. 297 (?) ; Th. cinnamomeus, 

Sw. Zool. Journ., ii. p. 87 (?) ; Gray's Gen., p. 297 ; Th. 

magnus, Wied. Less. Tr. d'Orn., p. 375. 
Lanius stagurus, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl., p. 46. 

$ Supra niger ; subtus albus ; remigibus rectricibusque ; 
nigris albo trans-guttatis. 

2 Supra cinnamomea ; subtus alba ; tectricibus alaribus apice 
cinerascentibus. 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 233 

Long, tota 7, alae 3-7, caudse 3*0. 

Hab. Trinidad, Guiana (Schomb.) ; Brazil, Para (Wallace) ; 
Pernambuco (Spix) ; Bahia (Licht.) ; Rio Belmonte (Max.) ; 
Bolivia, Yungas Cochabamba, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and 
Chiquitos (d'Orb.) ; Paraguay (Az.) ; Argentine Rep., Santa 
Fe, and Corrientes (d'Orb.) 

8. Thamnophilus melanurus, Gould. 
Thamnophilus major, Tsch. Av. Consp. in Weigm. Archiv., 

1844, p. 277, et F. P., p. 170. 

J supra niger subtus albus ; tectricibus alaribus apice albis ; 
Cauda nigra. 

2 supra castaneo-cinnamomea ; loris et regione auriculari 
nigricantibus ; subtus alba. 

Long, tota 8 5, alse 3-7. caudae 3*3. 

Hab. New Granada, Bogota ; East Peru, river Ucayali 
(Gould). 

Mr Gould's collection contains examples of this bird, which 
differs from the preceding, in the want of the white bars on the 
rectrices. Bogota skins and the Ucayali specimens agree in 
this respect, though Tschudi describes his Peruvian " major" 
as having some white spots upon the outer barb of the external 
tail-feather. 

9. Thamnophilus transandeanus, Sclater. 
Thamnophilus transandeanus, Sclater, Pr. Z. S., 1855 (Jan. 

23). 

$ supra niger ; subtus albus ; tectricibus alarum superiori- 
bus et caudse inferioribus nigris albo terminatis ; cauda nigra, 
rectricibus duabus utrinque extimis macula parva terminali 
alba. 

Long, tota 8*1, alae 3*7, cauda? 3*2. 

Hab. Guayaquil in Ecuador (Barclay). 

A specimen of this apparently distinct species in the British 
Museum was brought by Mr Barclay from Guayaquil, where 
it is found in the thickets. It resembles T. major in general 
appearance, but has the under tail-coverts black, with the ends 
terminated with white, and wants the medial spots on the rec- 
trices, the two outer of which only have white tips. 



231 T. L. Sclater on the 

10. TlIAMNOPHILUS LUCTUOSUS, Licht. 

Lanius luctuosus, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl., p. 47. 
Thamnophilus luctuosus, Tsch. F. P., p. 172 ; Gray's Gen., i. 

p. 297; Bp. Consp., 298 (excl. synon.) Th. melas, Cuv., in 

Mus. Paris. 

$ niger cristatus, tectricibus alarum minoribus, superioribus, 
inferioribus et cauda apice albis. 

$ aut juv. cinerascentior et crista rubra. 

Long, tota 6*7, alae 3*2, caudse 2*5. 

Hab. Para (Licht.) ; Eastern wood region of Peru, between 
12°. and 14°. S. lat. (Tsch.) 

I have seen specimens of this bird in the Berlin, British 
and Paris museums. It has been confounded by some authors 
with T. severus, from which it is, however, quite distinct. 

11. Thamnophilus corvinus, Gould. 

$ ater ; axillis summis niveis ; rostro producto valido. 

Long, tota 7*5, alae 35, caudae 2-7. 

Hab. Eastern Peru, Eiv. Ucayali (Gould.) 

The only example I have seen of this bird is in Mr Gould's 
collection from the Ucayali. It was obtained in June 1852, 
and is marked " male, irides brown." Lafresnaye's Th. im- 
maculatus agrees with the present species in general colour- 
ing, but is of much slighter form, and has a weaker bill. 

12, Thamnophilus fuliginosus, Gould. 
Thamnophilus fuliginosus, Gould, Pr. Z. S., 1837, p. 80 ; 

Gray's Gen., i. p. 298. 

$ cinereus ; gutture et capite cristato nigris ; cauda obso- 
lete trans-faciata ; rostro nigro, valido, adunco. 

Long. 7*5, alee 3*5, caudae 3 # 0. 

$ summo capite, dorso alisque castaneo-fuscis ; loris linea 
super oculos, plumis auricularibus, colli lateribus, gutture, cor- 
pore subtus et cauda intense cineraceo-coeruleis ; plumis singu- 
lis lineis cinerascenti-albis fasciatis ; pogoniis internis rectri- 
cum albis lineis fasciatis ; rostro pedibusque nigro-brunneis. 

Hab. British Guiana. 

I have seen but one specimen of this bird, a male, in the 
Derby Museum at Liverpool. I have therefore taken Mr 
Gould's characters for the female. 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 235 

13. Thamnophilus hyperythrus, Gould. 

9 T. supra schistaceus ; alis caudaque nigris, tectricibus ala- 
ribus albo guttatis ; subtus rubro-ferrugineus ; rostro nigro. 

Long, tota 7 # 0, alae 3-2, caudae 2*3. 

Hab. Chamicurros, on the Peruvian Amazon. Mr Gould's 
bird is marked " female, irides brown." It is the only indi- 
vidual I have seen of the sort. Chamicurros I take to be the 
place marked Camucheros in the Society's Atlas, on the right 
bank of the Amazon above Tabatinga. 

Div. D. THAMNOPHILUS, Vieill. : minores : rostro 
modico. Sub.-div. A. Radiati. 

14. Thamnophilus doliatus, Linn. 
Lanius doliatus, Linn. S. N., i. 136. L. rubiginosus, Lath. 

Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. 18 ($). Piegrieche rayee de Cayenne, 

Buff. PI. Enl. 297. he Rousset, Le Vail. Ois. d'Afric, ii. 

pi. 77, fig. 2, unde. Thamnophilus doliatus, Gray's Gen., 

i. p. 297 (partim) ; Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 687. 

J niger, albo trans-fasciatus ; vertice cristato nigro, medio 
albo; rectricibuso mnibuset in pogonio externo albo maculatis. 

Long, tota 6-0, alse 2-9, caudse 2-5. 

2 supra rubiginosa, pileo castaneo ; subtus valde delutior, 
cinnamomea ; striis quibusdam in lateribus capitis et gutture 
nigris. 

Hab. British Guiana (Schomb.) ; Cayenne (Buff.) ; Trini- 
dad (S.), Nicaragua and Guatemala (Bp.) 

Specimens of this bird from Cayenne, Guiana, and Trini- 
dad agree well, and must be taken for the true " doliatus " 
of Linnseus. Nor can I discover any great points of difference 
between these and the examples I have seen from Central 
America, and must therefore conclude that the range of this 
species extends beyond the Isthmus of Panama, though seve- 
ral corresponding forms represent it in the intervening coun- 
tries, where this bird does not appear to exist. Schomburgk 
says it is one of the commonest birds of the coast of British 
Guiana. Its favourite resort is the thick Avicennia bush and 
damp underwood. It is an active bird, always in motion, and 
slips quickly through the thick bush. The male and female 



236 P. L. Sclater on the 

are always found in company. When excited they raise their 
crests. In the interior they are much scarcer. 

15. Thamnophilus albicans, Lafr. 
Thamnophilus albicans, Lafr. Rev. Z. 1844, p. 82 ; Gray's 

Gen., i. p. 297. 

" Affinis statura et pictura Thamnophilo doliato, a quo differt 
praecipue crista longiore et intense nigra, non basi albida ut in 
doliato ; gastro albicante ; gutture quibusdam striis minutis, 
pectore maculis triangularibus, ventre vittis transversis parcis 
et distantibus notato; abdomine medio albo. Long. 17 cent." * 

1 cannot quite make out this species. The describer says 
nothing of the coloration of the tail, whether identical with 
that of Th. doliatus or not. 

16. Thamnophilus capistratus, Lesson. 
Thamnophilus radiatus, Spix, Av. Bras., ii. p. 24, pi. 35, 

fig. 2 (J), 38, fig. 1 (?), nee. (Vieill.) Th. doliatus, Max. 

Beit. ,iii. 995, nee. (Linn.); $ Gray's Gen., i. p. 297 (partim) ; 

Th. capistratus, Less. Rev. Z., 1840, p. 226 ; Gray's Gen., i. 

p. 298. 

$ niger, albo trans-fasciatus ; fasciis corporis inferi minus 
constipatis ; ventre medio albo ; rectricibus lateralibus nigris, 
maculis solum in pogonio exteriore albis ; rectricibus duabus 
mediis in pogonio utroque albo maculatis. 

2 capite, dorso, alis caudaque ferrugineis ; subtus pallide 
flavido-rufescens ; pectore obscurius nigro transvittato ; ventre 
crissoque albidis. (Pr. Max.) 

Hab. South-east Brazil, Minas Geraes (Max.) 

This bird is certainly distinct from the doliatus of Cayenne, 
and I think also from the true radiatus of Vieillot, ex Azara. 

It is hardly likely to be the same as any of the New Grana- 
dian species described by M. de Lafresnaye, the localities 
being so distant. 

I have not yet seen the female, which, to judge by Prince 
Maximilian of Neuwied's description and Spix's figure, must 
be quite different from the female of doliatus. The male bird 
may be at once distinguished from the latter species by the 

* Lafresnaye, /. c. 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 237 

black cap, and the want of white spots on the inner barbs of 
the rectrices, except in the middle pair. I confess M. Lesson's 
description of his T. capistratus is somewhat too brief to en- 
able one to assert, without fear of contradiction, that he in- 
tended this species and no other ; but it is accurate enough as 
far as it goes, and I think it better, therefore, to use his name 
than to coin a new one. 

17. Thamnophilus radiatus, Vieill. 

Batara listado, Azara, No. 212. v. i., p. 196, unde. 
Thamnophilus radiatus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet., iii. 315. Th. 

doliatus, d'Orb. Voy., p. 168; Gray's Gen., i.p. 297, (partim) ; 

Hartlaub. Ind. Az., p. 14. 

$ pileo cristato nigro ; supra niger albo trans-fasciatus ; 
infra albus fasciis angustis magis distantibus, in ventre fere 
evanescentibus, nigris ; gutture et crisso irregulariter albo 
punctatis ; rectricibus omnibus et in utroque pogonio albo macu- 
latis. Long, tota 6*3, alae 2*9, caudse 2*6. 

2 supra ferruginea, pileo intensiore ; infra pallide ochracea, 
gutture et ventre medio albis : lateribus capitis et nucha 
nigro dense striatis. 

Hab. Paraguay (Azara), Bolivia, Yungas, Santa Cruz de la 
Sierra, Chiquitos and Moxos (d'Orb.) 

The preceding characters are taken from a pair of birds in 
my collection, received from Bolivia. In comparing them 
with the true "doHatus,^ we find the following differences: 
Above, the crest is black, and wants the medial white vertical 
band of the " doliatus," and the hinder part of the neck is 
rather more mixed with white. Below, the plumage is much 
whiter, the sides of head are striated with black, and there are 
black points on the throat ; the black bands on the breast are 
much narrower and wider apart, and grow obsolete on the belly, 
the middle of which is almost white. The white spots on each 
web of the tail-feathers are situated as in doliatus, but are 
broader and squarer in form. In the female, the plumage 
above agrees with doliatus $ ; below there are no striae on the 
throat, but this and the middle of the belly are white ; the 
breast and sides being pale creamy buff. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. IT. APRIL 1855. R 



2SQ P. L. Sclater on the 

18. Thamnophilus brevirostris, Lafr. 

Thamnophilus brevirostris, Lafr. Rev. Z., 1844, p. 82 ; Gray's 

Gen., i. p. 298. 

" Nigro et late cristatus ; crista a basi tota nigra ; supra et 
subtus nigro alboque striatus, sed striis albis dorsalibus fere 
squamoeformibus, undulatis, striisque nigris pectoralibus dis- 
tantibus ; abdomine medio albo ; cauda punctis minutis striata. 
Long, tota 16 J cent. Hab. in Nova Grenada, Bogota." 

I can only give the Baron de Lafresnaye's description of this 
species, which I have not yet seen. He adds, that it is closely 
allied to Th. albicans and multistriatus, as well as doliatus, 
but is distinguished by its beak being shorter and more ele- 
vated at the base, by its dorsal bands being more undulated, 
and its tail being nearly black, traversed only by lines of very 
small white points. 

19. Thamnophilus tenuepunctatus, Lafr. 
Thamnophilus tenuepunctatus, Lafr. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 

1853, p. 339. 

" T. cristatus, crista nigra ; supra totus ater maculis minimis 
vel potius punctis albis quasi aspersus ; remigibus atris, vexillo 
interno tantum maculis triangularibus latioribus albis mar- 
ginato ; rectricibus totis nigris acutissime limbo externo albo 
punctatis ; subtus totus nigro alboque fasciatus, colli antici 
pectorisque fasciis nigris paulo latioribus quasi squamseformi- 
bus ; rostro nigro, tomiis apiceque albescentibus. Long, tota 
14 cent. Habitat Anolaima in Nova Grenada." (Lafr.) 

20. Thamnophilus multistriatus, Lafr. 
Thamnophilus multistriatus, Lafr. Rev. Z. 1844, p. 82; Gray's 

Gen., i. p. 298. 

$ supra niger, confertim albo trans-fasciatus, subtus albo 
nigroque alterne vittatus, gutture magis striato. 

$ supra rufo-castanea ; subtus et in colli lateribus albo 
nigroque crcbro trans-fasciata ; cauda rufa. Long, tota 4-8, 
aloe 2-8, caudae 2*5. Hab. Santa Fe di Bogota. (Lafr.) 

My characters for this species are taken from specimens 
which agree in all essential points with M. de Lafresnaye's 
descriptions. The male has no crest, and the head and whole 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 239 

upper surface are regularly barred across with black and white. 
The female, or the bird I take to be such on M. de Lafresnaye's 
authority, resembles the female of Thamnophilus palliatus, 
but has the bill rather smaller, and the plumage beneath much 
more white. 

21. Thamnophilus palliatus, Licht. 
Lanius palliatus, Licht. Verz. d. Doubl., p. 46, 1823 ; L. 

vestitus, Cuv. in Mus. Paris. 
Thamnophilus lineatus, Spix. A. Bras., ii. p. 42, pi. 33, fig. 

1 (3), 2 ($), 1825 ; Tsch. F. P. p. 171. Th. fasciatus, Sw. 

Zool. Journ., ii. 88, 1825 ; Gray's Gen., i. p. 297. Th. 

badius, Sw. Orn. Draw., pi. 65, ($) 61, ($). Th. palliatus, 

Max. Beit., iii. 1010 ; d'Orb. Voy., p. 174; Gray's Gen., i. 

p. 297 ; Bp. Consp., p. 197. 

J supra castaneus ; pileo nigro ; subtus niger, albo crebro 
trans-fasciatus. 

$ pileo castaneo. 

Hab. South East Brazil, Bahia, (Licht.) ; Eastern wood 
region of Peru, (Tsch.) ; Bolivia, Guarayos and Chiquitos, 
(d'Orb.) 

Prince Maximilian of Neuwied gives an interesting account 
of this bird in his Beitrage. He says it has a very peculiar 
voice, beginning high and descending through the octave in 
quickly succeeding tones. 

22. Thamnophilus torquatus, Swains. 
Batara acanelado, Azara. No. 215. unde. 
Thamnophilus ruficapillus, Yieill. Nouv. Dict.,*iii. p. 318 (?) ? 

Th. torquatus, Sw. Zool. Journ., ii. p. 89,1826; Gray's Gen., 

i. p. 298. 
T. scalaris, Licht. in Mus. Berol.. unde. Th. scalaris, Max. 

Beit., iii. 999, 1831. Th. atropileus, Lafr. and d'Orb. Syn. 

Av. in Mag. de Zool., 1837, p. 117; d'Orb. Voy., p. 173; 

Gray's Gen., i. p. 298. Th. pectoralis, Sw. Am. in Men., 

p. 283 ; Gray's Gen., i. p. 298. 

$ cinereus ; pileo nigro ; alis rufis ; subtus albidus ; pectore 
nigro trans-fasciato ; cauda albo nigroque trans-fasciata. 

$ pileo rufo ; alis fusco-rufo limbatis ; subtus mari similis ; 
rectricibus fuscis albo notatis. 

r2 



240 P. L. Sclater on the 

Long, tota 5-5, alae 2*4, caudas 2-2. 
Hab. Brazil, Bahia (Sw.) ; Bolivia, Chiquitos (d'Orb.) 
Collections from Bahia not unfrequently contain examples of 
this species ; which, though so well marked, has been furnish- 
ed with four or five different names by modern ornithologists. 

Subdiv. B. CRISTATI. 

23. Thamnophilus atricapillus, VieilL 
Piegrieche hupee de Canada, Buff. PI. Enl. 479, fig. 2, unde. 
Lanius canadensis, Lin. S. N., i. 134 ($) certe. L. atricapillus, 

Gm. S. N., i. 303. 
Le Fourmillier huppe, Buff. H. N., iv. p. 476, unde. Turdus 

cirrhatus, Gm. S. N., i. p. 826. L. pileatus, Lath. Ind. 

Orn., i. p. 76. 
Tyrannus atricapillus, VieilL Ois. de l'Am. Sept., pi. 48, p. 

78 ($), et. Tyr. canadensis, ib. p. 79, pi. 49 ($). 
Thamnophilus cristatus, Max. Beit., iii. p. 1002. Th. 

cirrhatus, Schomb. Reise., iii. p. 687. 

£ cinereus ; dorso medio rufescenti-brunneo ; capite cristato, 
toto cum gutture et pectore antico nigris ; alis caudaque nigris 
albo limbatis. Long, tota 6-5, alse 2*9, caudae 2-5. 

$ crista rufa ; subtus ochraceo-alba ; gutture nigro striato ; 
ventre medio albo. 

Hab. Trinidad (Sc.) ; British Guiana (Schomb.) ; Cayenne 
(Sc.) ; South East Brazil, Bahia (Max.) 

The female of this well-known bush-shrike is certainly the 
Lanius canadensis of Linne, a name which cannot be adopt- 
ed on account of the error in locality. Whether Gmelin's 
synonyms really refer to this species is a more doubtful mat- 
ter ; Mr G. B. Gray applies one of them, which is used by 
Cabanis as a name for this bird, to a species of Formicarius ; 
and I have therefore thought it better to employ Vieillot's 
(perhaps Gmelin's X) " atricapillus" as the first-given unobjec- 
tionable name for this bird. It appears to range along the 
eastern shores of South America, from Trinidad to South Brazil. 
The next following species probably takes it place in the in- 
terior of the continent on the upper branches of the Amazon, 
while the Thamnophilus albinuchalis represents it on the op- 
posite side of the Andes. 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 2-41 

24. Thamnophilus leuchauchen, Sclater. 

Thamnophilus leuchauchen, Sclater, Pr. Zool. Soc. 1855, 

Jan. 23. 

$ pileo cristato cum lateribus capitis et gutture antico ad 
medium pectus nigris ; nucha cervice laterali et corpore subtus 
albis ; dorso murino-brunneo ; alis caudaque nigris albo lim- 
batis ; rectrice una utrinque extima in pogonio externo medio 
et omnibus apice albo maculatis; rostro et pedibus nigris. Long, 
tota 6*4, alse 2-8, caudse 2-5. 

$ crista ferruginea ; subtus ocbracea, gutture nigro striato, 
lateribus capitis et nucha ochraceis albo mixtis. 

Hab. Eastern Peru, Camuchurros (Gould.) 

My specimens of this Thamnophilus were purchased of 
Parzadaki of Paris, and are marked " Rio Nigro." Mr Gould's 
collection contains a female example from Camuchurros. It 
may be distinguished from the preceding species by the slightly 
inferior size, and weaker bill, by the bright white sides of the 
neck and under-parts, which are ash-coloured in the Th. 
atricapillus, the more chestnut-coloured tinge of the brown 
back, and the termination of the black below upon the breast 
instead of reaching down to the middle of the belly. 

25. Thamnophilus albinuchalis, Sclater. 

Thamnophilbus albinuchalis, Sclater, Pr. Z. S., 1855, Jan. 

23. 

$ supra murino-brunneus ; nucha alba; dorso medio albo 
mixto ; capite summo cristato nigro ; alis fuscis, tectricibus 
albo limbatis ; cauda nigra, rectricum omnium apicibus et 
unse utrinque extimae margine externo albis ; subtus albus ; 
gutture et pectore antico nigris ; capitis lateribus albo mixtis. 
Long, tota 6'5, alse 3*2, cauda? 2-5. 

2 supra brunnescentior capite et cauda tota rufo-ferrugineis ; 
nucha et corpore infra ochraceis. 

Hab. Guayaquil (Capt. Kellett in Mus. Brit.); island of Puna 
(Barclay in Mus. Brit.). 

The British Museum contains the only examples I have 
seen of this Thamnophilus, which seems to take the place of 
the preceding species on the shores of the Pacific. It may be 



242 P. L. Sclater on the 

distinguished from both of them by its broad white nape, and 
the mixture of white feathers in the interscapularies. 

26. Thamnophilus melanonotus, Sclater. 

Thamnophilus melanonotus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1855,. 

Jan. 23. 

$ Niger ; interscapularibus albo mixtis ; dorso postico 
cinereo ; abdomine cinerascenti albo ; alis nigris albo mar- 
ginatis ; Cauda nigra, rectricibus omnibus apice et extima 
utrinque laterali etiam pogonio externo medio albo-maculatis ; 
rostro et pedibus nigris. Long, tota 6'5, alae 3*0, caudse 25. 

Hab. Santa Martha, on the north coast of New Grenada 
(Verreaux). 

A single specimen of this species in my collection was sent 
by the MM. Verreaux's collector from Santa Martha. It is 
closely allied to the three preceding, but may be at once dis- 
tinguished by its black back. 

27. Thamnophilus aspersiventer, Lafr. et d'Orb. 
Thamnophilus aspersiventer, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Av. in Mag. 

de Zool., 1837, p. 10; d'Orb. Voy., p. 171, pi. 4. fig. 1 (J), 

fig. 2 (<j>), (err. sub nom. Th. schistacei) ; Lafr. Rev. Zool. 

1844, p. 83; Gray's Gen., i. p. 298. 

$ niger ; dorso cinerascente ; ventre toto cinereo nigroque 
asperso ; alis eaudaque et dorso medio albo notatis. 

$ abdomine et caudse tectricibus inferioribus rufis. 

Long, tota 6*5, alse 3*0. 

Hab. in Bolivia, Yungas, Sicasica, et Ayupaya (d'Orb.) ; 
Nova Grenada (Lafr.) 

Subdiv. NJEVL 

28. Thamnophilus n^evius, Gm. 
Spotted Shrike, Lath. Syn., i. pt. 1, p. 190, unde\ 
Lanius nozvius, Gm. S. N., i. p. 308 ; Leach, Zool. Misc., 1. 17. 

L. punctatus, Shaw, G. Z., viii. pt. 2, p. 327. 
Le Tachet Le Vail, Ois. d'Afr., ii. pi. 77, fig. 1, unde. 
Thamnophilus nozvius, Sw. Orn. Dr., pi. 59; Schomb. Reise., iii. 

p. 687. Th. albonotatus, Spix. Av. Bras., ii. p. 27, pi. 37, 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 243 

fig. 2 (J). 38, fig. 2 ($). Th. casrulescens, Lafr. R. Z., 1853, 

p. 338. 

$ cinereus ; pileo summo et dorso medio nigris, hoc albo 
mixto ; alis nigris albo limbatis ; cauda nigra, rectrice una 
utrinque extima macula pogonii exterioris mediali et omnibus 
macula apicali albis, 

$ pallide viridescenti-rufa, subtus valde dilutior, ventre al- 
bicantiore ; pileo ferrugineo ; remigibus nigricantibus externe 
brunneo limbatis ; rectricibus brunneis ; his et alarum tectri- 
cibus et secondariis, sicut in mari, albo notatis. 

Long, tota 5*5, alse 2*7, caudse 2-1. 

Hab. Cayenne (Sc), British Guiana (Schomb.) ; North Bra- 
zil, Para (M. B.) ; Bogota (Sc.) ? 

The Lanius ncevius of Gmelin is founded upon Latham's 
" Spotted Shrike." The describer says of this, — " The tail 
is black, all the feathers tipped with white, and on each of the 
outer feathers is a spot of white on the outer web about the 
middle of each feather." These characters and the habitat 
clearly indicate the present bird, in contradistinction to the 
South-east Brazilian T. ambiguus, which the Baron de La- 
fresnaye, in a recent article in the Revue et Magazin de Zoolo- 
gie has considered as the true " ncevius" His discovery of the 
distinctness of that bird from the present is by no means no- 
vel, the same having been clearly set forth in the Zoological 
Journal for 1827 by Mr Swainson, and he has, besides, assigned 
names to the two species that cannot be retained, the present 
bird not being, as I believe, the ccerulescens of Vieillot, and 
the T, ambiguus not identical, as I have before observed, with 
the true ncevius of Gmelin. 

Besides my Cayenne examples, I have seen many North 
Brazilian specimens which I refer to this species. They differ, 
however, from the Cayenne birds, as well as from one another, 
in the amount of white edgings on the secondaries, and spots 
on the upper tail-coverts ; as also in the belly being darker 
cinereous, and in some (which I consider younger birds) obso- 
letely barred across, but agree always in the markings of the 
tail. 

Nor do I venture at present to separate the Bogota variety 
as a distinct species, though, in the specimens I have seen from 



244 P. L. Sclater on the 

that locality, the bill is stronger, the black head extends far- 
ther down the nape, and the under plumage of a much darker 
tinge. 

29. Thamnophilus CjERUlescens, Vieill. 
Batara negro y aplomado, Azar. No. 213; ii. p. 199, unde. 

Bat. pardo dorado, Azar. ii. p. 202, No. 214 ($), unde. 
Thamnophilus cwrulescens, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. iii. 311 (J). 

Th. auratus, Vieill. 1. c. p. 312 ($). Th. ncevius, Gray's 
Gen., i. p. 297 (pars.), d'Orb. Voy., p. 170 \ 

Hab. Paraguay (Azara) ; Bolivia, Chiquitos (d'Orb.) 

The account given by Azara of this bird seems to agree best 
with the true " nazvius." As, however, we have here several 
closely allied species, to all of which a loose description is 
equally applicable, I am unwilling at present to attach this to 
any of them, and propose to leave it by itself until the exami- 
nation of specimens from Paraguay and Bolivia shall afford 
the means of clearing up the doubt. 

30. Thamnophilus ventralis, Sclater. 

T. cinereus ; fronte, pileo, nucha et dorso medio nigris, hujus 
pennis interne niveis ; alis nigro-brunneis, primariis stricte 
albo limbatis ; tectricibus alaribus nigris albo terminatis ; rec- 
tricibus nigris, duabus mediis exceptis, albo terminatis ; unae 
utrinque extimse pogonii externi dimidio apicali alba, macula 
ovali subapicali nigra; subtus albo-cinereus, ventre medio 
crissoque albis lateribus subcinerascentioribus ; mandibula su- 
periore pedibusque nigris, inferiore plumbescente. 

Long, tota 6*2, alse 2*8, caudse 2*6. 

Hab. South Brazil. 

The greater amount of black upon the head, and whiteness 
of the middle of the belly and crissum, as also the want of 
white edgings to the secondaries, distinguish the bird above 
described, of which I possess one specimen, from Th. naivius 
and ambiguus ; but the chief peculiarity which I rely upon for 
its being undoubtedly separable from those birds consists in the 
colouring of the outer pair of tail-feathers. The white spot 
on the outer web of these, instead of being confined to a small, 
nearly square space, as in the two other species, here reaches 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 245 

down to where the black terminates on the inner barb, leaving 
only a small, oval, black spot between it and the broad white 
termination of the feather. 

31. Thamnophilus pileatus, Swainson. 
Thamnophilus pileatus, Sw. Zool. Journ., ii. p. 91. 

" T. supra cinereus, infra pallidior, enropygio pectorisque la- 
teribus fulvis ; vertice nigra ; remigum fuscarum margine tes- 
taceo ; rectricum acutarum apicibus lineaque marginali albis. 

Long, tota 6*0, alse 2-7, caudse 2-5." (Swains.) 

Hab. Brazil, Catinga woods of Bahia. 

Mr Swainson compares this species with T. ambiguus, from 
which it seems to differ in the markings of the tail-feathers. 
As to these being pointed at the extremities, to which fact Mr 
Swainson appears to attribute much importance, I do not think 
that can always be relied on as a valid distinctive character. 
I have as yet seen no bird I could recognize as this species. 

32. Thamnophilus ambiguus, Swains. 
Thamnophilus ncevius, Vieill. N. D., iii. 316 ; et Ene. Meth. 
p. 747 ; Lafr. Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1853, p. 338. Th. ambi- 
guus, Sw. Zool. Journ., ii. p. 91 ; Gray's Gen., i. p. 298. 
Th. nigricans, Max. Beit., iii. 1006 ; Gray's Gen., i. p. 218. 
Th. ferrugineus, Sw. Zool. Journ., ii. p. 91 ($) \ Gray's Gen., 
i. p. 298. 

J cinereus ; subtus albescentior ; pileo dorsoque medio ni- 
gris, hujus pennis interne albis ; tectricibus alarum caudse- 
que superioribus et rectricibus nigris albo terminatis, his om- 
nibus prseterea in utroque pogonio medialiter albo notatis ; 
primariis anguste, secondariis latins extus albo limbatis. 

$ virescenti-cinerea, subtus pallide fulva ; pileo rufo ; tec- 
tricibus alaribus et secondariis nigris, horum margine externa, 
illarum apice albis ; primariorum marginibus et rectricibus 
brunneis, his albo terminatis. 

Long, tota 5*7, alee 2-8, caudse 2*3. 
Hab. South-east Brazil (Max.) ; Minas Geraes (Such.) 
Vieillot's T. nmvius appears to be intended for this species, 
though he professes to copy his characters from Latham. Mr 
Swainson, however, has clearly put forward the distinctions 



240 P. L. Sclater on the 

between the true ncevius and the present bird ; and the Prince 
Maximilian of Neuwied has described it with his usual accu- 
racy under the title of nigricans, and gives a lively account 
of its habits. He says it is one of the commonest of the whole 
family in Brazil. 

33. Thamnophilus nigrocinereus, Sclater. 

Thamnophilus nigrocinereus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1855, 

Jan. 23. 

J cinereus, capite toto, cum dorso summo et gutture nigris ; 
interscapularibus basi albis ; alis caudaque nigricantibus, albo 
limbatis ; rectrice utrinque extima media albo notata rostro et 
pedibus nigris. 

Long, tota 5-75, alee 3*8, caudae 2*4. 

$ rufo-brunnea ; gula et ventre medio albescentioribus ; ala- 
rum tectricibus secondares et cauda sicut in mari albo notatis. 

Hab. North Brazil, Para (Mus. Brit.) 

A pair of birds of this species in the British Museum were 
received from Para, and I have a male in my own collection 
which I believe to be from the same locality. It differs from 
the Th. ncevius and its near affinities in the much larger size, 
stouter bill, and black throat. The quills are brownish-black, 
narrowly margined exteriorly with white. The upper and un- 
der tail-coverts are partly tipped with white. 

34. Thamnophilus maculatus, Lafr. et d'Orb. 
Thamnophilus maculatus, Lafr. et d'Orb. Syn. Mag. de Zool., 

1837, p. 11; d'Orb. Voy., p. 172; Lafr. Rev. et Mag. de 

Zool. 1853, p. 339. 

$ supra griseo-ardesiacus ; pileo summo nigro ; inter- 
scapuliis albo mixtis ; tectricibus alaribus et caudae rectri- 
cibus nigris albo terminatis ; harum una utrinque extima 
etiam pogonio externo medio albo notata ; capitis lateribus, 
gutture et pectore pallide griseo-cserulescentibus ; ventre cris- 
soque rufescentibus. 

2 supra grisescenti-olivacea ; pileo summo et uropygio 
rufescentibus ; subtus magis rufescens ; alis caudaque nigri- 
canti-brunneis rufescente limbatis. 

Long, tota 6-0, alae 2-8, caudae 2*5. 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vioillot. 24.7 

Hab. Corrientes, in the Argentine Rep. (d'Orb.) 
I have one specimen, which I believe to be an immature 
male of this species, in my own collection, and have seen 
others. It may be distinguished, as M. d'Orbigny observes, 
from Thamnophilus ncevius, which it resembles in the mark- 
ings of the tail feathers, by the want of white edgings to the 
secondaries, and its rufous belly. In his characters for this 
species in the Rev. et Mag. de Zool. for 1853, p. 339, the 
Baron de Lafresnaye omits all notice of this last very dis- 
tinctive character ; indeed he says " colore subtus intensius 
ardesiaco;" and I cannot help thinking, therefore, that he 
was referring to some other bird, possibly to the true " cceru- 
lescens" of Vieillot. 

35. Thamnophilus ruficollis, Spix. 
ThamnopMlus ruficollis, Spix. Av. Bras., ii. p. 27, pi. 37, 

fig. 1 ; Schomb. Reise., iii. p. 687. 

Mediocris ; fuliginoso-cinereus ; corpore subtus, capite col- 
loque rufis ; tectricibus alarum caudseque apice albo-margi- 
natis (Spix). 

Hab. Brazil (Spix), British Guiana, lower bush of the coast 
woods (Schomb.) 

The only bird I have seen likely to belong to this species, 
described by Spix and recognized by Schomburgk, is one in 
Mr Gould's collection from Chamicurros, which may be cha- 
racterized as follows : — 

Yirescenti-cinereus ; capite toto cum corpore subtus rufis, 
ventre dilutiore ; alis nigris, tectricibus omnibus et secondariis 
albo late limbatis ; primariis externo margine brunneis ; alis 
subtus ochraceis ; cauda nigra, rectricibus omnibus apice et 
una utrinque extima pogonio externo medio albo notatis ; in- 
terscapuliis quibusdam albo mixtis. 

Long, tota 5*7, alae 2*7, caudse 2*3. 

36. Thamnophilus maculipennis, Sclater. 
Thamnophilus stellaris, Spix, Av. Bras., ii. p. 27, pi. xxxvi. fig. 
2\ ; Sclater, Pr. Z. S., 1854, P. (May 9, certe) ; Th. ma- 
culipennis, Sclater, M.S. 
$ plumbeus subtus clarior ; pileo dorsoque medio nigris ; 



248 P. L. Sclater on the 

interscapuliis subtus niveis ; tectricibus alarum apice albo 
guttulatis ; Cauda brevi ; rostro plumbeo. 

Long, tota 5-5, aloa 3-0, caudae 1*8. 

$ subrufescenti-grisea ; alis runs ; fronte capitis lateribus 
et corpore subtus pallide rufescenti-brunneis ; gutture clariore ; 
lateribus griseo mixtis. 

Hab. Quixos in Cisandean Ecuador and Chamicurros, on 
the Peruvian Amazon (Gould). 

I have seen several examples of this bird, of both sexes, 
from the upper Peruvian Amazon and adjoining countries. 
In the Paris Museum are specimens collected in those parts 
by Messrs Castelnau and Deville in 1847 (No. 1121, Voy. 
863). I have usually taken it to be the Thamnophilus stel- 
laris of Spix, and used that appellation for it in my list of the 
birds in Mr Gould's Rio Napo collection. Other authors, 
however, have united Spix's name to the bird called Myiofhera 
plumbea by Prince Maximilian of Neuwied, which belongs to 
the genus Dysithamnus. Spix's somewhat loose description 
and imperfect figure are nearly as applicable to one bird as 
the other. His locality, Para, does not suit the present spe- 
cies. I have thought it better, therefore, to avoid confusion 
by giving this bird a new name. An examination of Spix's 
type specimen in the Munich Museum, if still existing, will 
decide whether I am right in doing so or not. 

Subdiv. D. OBSCURI. 

37. Thamnophilus (lesius, Sclater. 
Lanius ccesius, Cuv., in Mus. Paris. Thamnophilus cwsius, 

Sclater, Pr. Z. S. 1855, (Jan. 23). 

$ nigro-plumbeus ; pileo cristato gulaque nigris ; tectricibus 
alarum anguste albo limbatis ; cauda nigricante unicolore ; 
rostro pedibusque nigris. 

$ grisescenti-brunnea, crista nigricante ; capitis lateribus, 
tectricum alarum marginibus et corpore subtus runs ; rostro 
nigro, mandibula inferiore basi et pedibus pallidis. 

Long, tota 5*5, alee 3-25, caudae 2-25. 

Hab. British Guiana. 

Two specimens of this bird in my possession were selected 



Genus Thamnophilus, Vieillot. 249 

from 'a large collection of birds from British Guiana which 
contained many similar. The examples in the Paris Museum, 
the only other place where I have met with this species, are 
marked Lanius ccesius, Cuv., which is, I believe, merely a MS. 
name. 

38. Thamnophilus schistaceus, d'Orb. 
Thamnophilus fuliginosus, Lafr. et d'Orb., Syn. Av. in Mag. 

de Zool., 1837, p. 10 ; d'Orb, Voy., pi. 5, fig. 1. Th. schis- 
taceus, d'Orb. Voy., p. 170. 
$ " totus schistaceus, obscurus ; subtus pallidior ; rectricibus 

lateralibus albescente limbatis ; rostro pedibusque cseruleis." 
" Long. 6 poll" (Lafr.) 

Hab. Bolivia, Cochabamba (d'Orb.) ; New Grenada (Lafr.) 
One specimen of a bird which I refer to this species is in 

the British Museum. 

39. Thamnophilus immaculatus, Lafr. 
Thamnophilus immaculatus, Lafr. Rev. Z. 1845, p. 340. Th. 

campterii, Gray's Gen., iii. ; App. p. 14. 

J ater ; summi pennis quibusdam niveis. 

Long, tota 6*5, alse 3-3, caudse 3*0. 

$ brunneo-cinnamomea ; fronte loris gutture genis cau- 
daque tota nigro ardesiacis ; rostro pedibusque nigris man- 
dibula albicante (Lafr.) 

I have a male specimen of this bird sent to me by the MM. 
Verreaux. M. de Lafresnaye does not mention the white 
feathers at the upper end of the carpal joint ; but the wings 
in Bogota skins are so squeezed up into the body that this 
slight white patch is very likely to escape notice, and I have 
little doubt that the birds are identical. 



250 Robert Warington on the 

On the Production of Boracic Acid and Ammonia by Vol- 
canic Action. By Robert Warington, F.C.S. 

The simultaneous occurrence of boracic acid and ammonia 
in the neighbourhood of volcanoes has been frequently ob- 
served, and its cause has given rise to a good deal of specula- 
tion, although no very definite conclusions have as yet been 
arrived at. Some information and specimens I have received 
from a friend who visited the Island of Vulcano, which is si- 
tuated about 12 miles north of Sicily, have enabled me to 
make a few experiments, which, though not so complete as I 
could have wished, appear to throw some light upon this point. 
My friend supplies the following information : — " The height 
of the volcanic mountain is estimated at about 2000 feet, and its 
crater is about 700 feet deep. The area at the bottom, which 
may be about 10 acres in extent, is covered with small, loose 
pieces of limestone, just as though it had been macadamized, 
and the ground is so hot as rapidly to destroy the leather of 
the shoes. On thrusting a thermometer between the stones, 
it indicated, at different points, temperatures varying from 
250° to 500° Fahr. On looking over this area from the top 
of the crater, one side of it appeared as if covered over with 
beautifully-white drifted snow. On reaching the spot, how- 
ever, this white appearance was found to be caused by a de- 
posit of finely-crystallized boracic acid. On removing this 
incrustation, which formed a layer of about an inch in thick- 
ness, and digging with a pick-axe, there spumed up a mass of 
red-hot fused lava, similar in appearance to the slag of a 
glass-house ; this consists of fused saline matters in cohesion 
with volcanic debris. In other parts of the crater there are 
holes like foxes' holes, from which blue jets of volcanic flame 
are issuing continually, and a deposition of sulphur occurs all 
around. 

" The boracic acid rises in vapour, and condenses on the 
surface of the ground at the bottom of the crater like a light 
drifted snow ; and when gathered up, the surface becomes co- 
vered again with sublimed acid in two or three days. To 
ascertain this point more decidedly, some hogshead casks, 



Production of Boracic Acid and Ammonia. 251 

having their heads removed, were filled with broom-plants and 
twigs, and were placed over parts of the area from which the 
boracic acid had been carefully cleared away. In a few days 
the acid had been vaporized into them, and had deposited in 
crystals like hoar-frost all over the twigs. On digging down 
for about eight inches, wherever this boracic acid occurs on 
the surface, a red-hot mass of sal-ammoniac is always found ; 
sulphur comes up also with these. 

" This volcano is said to realize to the proprietors about 
£1000 per annnm. The products are sulphur, from fusing 
the stone ; sal-ammoniac, from the lixiviation of the scoria or 
lava ; and boracic acid, large quantities of which are reported 
to be obtained annually from this source. The sides of the 
volcano are of sulphur-stone, and brimstone is dug up all 
around for miles. The mountains produce also alum, which 
exists in the schistose rocks ; and there are likewise large beds 
of lignite ; but nowhere do we find sal-ammoniac or boracic 
acid, either at Vulcano or in Tuscany, separate from one 
another. Had they done so, we should certainly have found 
traces of it somewhere, but, so far as I know, this has never 
been observed ; and it is certain that, at Vulcano, whenever 
the acid lying on the surface is removed, the melted matter 
underneath is found to contain salts of ammonia. It follows, 
therefore, that they must both be produced from one and the 
same stratum, in which they occur in some form of combina- 
tion, from which they are separated by heat. In what sub- 
stance can they exist together?" 

These observations of my/riend were accompanied by speci- 
mens of the sublimate scraped from the surface of the crater, 
and of sal-ammoniac, which have enabled me to do something 
towards the solution of the question with which he terminates 
his letter. The ammoniacal salt was not a portion of the 
fused mass mentioned above, but had been obtained by its lixi- 
viation and subsequent crystallization. I did not, therefore, 
attempt to make any experiments with it. The boracic acid, 
however, was in the state in which it was found, and had the 
form of white glistening scales of a nacreous lustre, tinged 
in parts with traces of adherent sulphur, and possessing a greasy 
talcose feel. It was, in the first instance, boiled with diluted 



252 On the Production of Boracic Acid and Ammonia. 

hydrochloric acid, allowed to become clear by subsidence, and 
the solution decanted from the undissolved portion. The latter 
was washed, to remove the adhering acid, and boiled with a 
weak solution of caustic potash, without the least trace of am- 
monia being liberated. The residue was collected, washed 
with distilled water, and dried. Some caustic potash was next 
fused in a tube of hard glass, and, while in this state, was found 
to yield no evidence of ammoniacal gas. A fragment of the 
dried, white, insoluble residue was then dropped into the pot- 
ash, and the fusion repeated. Strong evidence of the forma- 
tion and liberation of ammonia was at once indicated. It was 
obvious, from this experiment, that the ammonia could not 
have been really formed in this substance, but must have been 
produced by some decomposition effected by the potash. These 
phenomena at once recalled to my mind the interesting com- 
pound of boron and nitrogen, discovered in the year 1842, by 
Mr Balmain, who applied to it the name of Ethogen, and which 
has since been examined by Professor Wohler. This com- 
pound is produced by heating borax and ferrocyanide of po- 
tassium, in their anhydrous states, to a full red-heat in a covered 
crucible. The white, infusible, porous mass, which results 
from this action is washed with a large quantity of boiling 
water, acidulated with hydrochloric acid. 

The nitride of boron so obtained is insoluble in water and 
acids, even when concentrated, but when fused with caustic 
potash, ammonia is copiously evolved, and if heated in a current 
of steam to a moderate red heat, it is entirely converted into 
boracic acid and ammonia. These characters correspond with 
those of the white compound I have examined, as far as the 
evolution of ammonia is concerned, but owing to the small quan- 
tity at my disposal, I was unable to determine the presence of 
boracic acid, or rather of boron, except by its peculiar phos- 
phorescence before the blowpipe flame. The existence of this 
compound in active volcanoes would also explain, in a satisfac- 
tory manner, the simultaneous presence of boracic acid and 
ammonia. I am in hopes of obtaining some of the fused mass 
which lies below the surface of the crater, and should I do so, 
I may be able to establish some additional facts, which may 
form the subject of a future communication. 



( 253 ) 



On the Principal Depressions on the Surface of the Globe. 
By Dr George Buist, Bombay.* 

In the following admirable digest, extracted from the Bom- 
bay Times (Sept. 28th 1854), it is apparently merely for the 
sake of simplicity, and for a convenient starting point, that 
the author supposes that " the earth assumed its present cha- 
racter and conformation," either by having " risen directly," 
or " through a long series of elevations," so that the streams 
that drain its surface, and the waters in its inland hollows, are 
the result of one or of a series of actions of upheaval, accom- 
panied, however, by " stupendous disturbances and frightful 
distortions amongst the rocky beds ;" which " must have oc- 
curred at the time of their elevation," these being followed by 
" change and commotion" on a minor scale, examples of which 
occasionally occur, even down to the present day. 

Since the revival of the doctrines of Hutton, geologists have 
been gradually abandoning the idea of vast disturbances and 
changes, caused by the exercise of forces more sudden and 
stupendous than those of which we have experience ; and it is 
held by many, that the surface configuration of existing con- 
tinents is the result of the complicated action of numerous 
gradual upheavals and depressions, and long-continued marine 
and atmospheric denudations ; during which, through the va- 
rious epochs of geological time, the same mountain chains 
were formed by repeated disturbances, strong, though slow in 
their operation. Hence, some of them in their earlier stages, 
formed the nuclei of existing continents, while other ancient 
ranges and tracts of land of continental extent, now form at 
least part of the bed of the ocean. The existing drainage of the 
world is therefore not simply the result of recent great changes 
of the outlines of the terrestrial surface ; but the origin of 
many of our systems of drainage, and perhaps even in some 
cases of individual rivers, must be sought for in disturbances 
connected with geological epochs, often far removed. The 
same is true in a minor degree of areas of depression. 

* Read to the Bombay Geographical Society, Sept. 14, 1854. 
NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II AriUL 1855. 8 



254 Dr George Buisc on the 

When the crust of the whole earth, or any portion thereof, first as- 
sumed its present character and conformation, it must necessarily have 
been devoid of rivers until a sufficiency of rain fell to moisten its surface, 
fill up its hollows, and occasion an overflow; the surplus water passing 
off in the form of rivulets, brooks, streams, or rivers, to the nearest lower 
level, and so downward till they found their way to the sea. If we assume 
the dry land all at one time to have been submerged, and all to have risen 
directly, either at once or through a long succession of elevations, to its 
present level, such of the spaces as were depressed below the surrounding 
country at the time of their emergence, and that so continued, would of 
course be filled with salt water ; and would probably thus remain, either 
until evaporation converted it into a mass of solid salt, or until, washed 
down to the sea by the rains, its place came to be occupied by pure water. 
In many places, as will presently be seen, fragments of the primeval ocean 
remain in the bosoms of our continents in nearly the condition in which 
they originally appeared. Though the most stupendous disturbances and 
frightful distortion amongst the rocky beds must have occurred at the 
time of their elevation, there can be no doubt that change and commotion 
continued long after this, and that ridges, hills, and mountains rose, 
chasms were split open, and valleys sunk everywhere in multitudes 
throughout the whole lapse of intervening time ; examples of such things 
occasionally occurring in volcanic countries down to our own day. 

Just 280 years before Christ, the great fresh-water lake of Oitr in Japan 
was formed in one night by a prodigious sinking of the ground, at the 
same time that one of the highest and most active volcanoes in the island 
rose into existence. The volcanic peak of Jurullo, on the table-land of 
Mexico, 70 miles from the Pacific, rose on the night of the :29th Septem- 
ber 1759, 1683 feet above the plain, and is the highest of six mountains 
that have been thrown up on the table-land since the middle of last cen- 
tury. In July 1757 a volcanic island arose off Pondicherry, near Madras, 
and, after remaining for several days above the water, throwing out smoke 
and flame, disappeared. About the same time Chedooba, and the islands 
along the shores of Arracan, were suddenly raised about ten feet, having 
twice before, at intervals, as is supposed, of half a century, sustained 
similar upheavals. In 1762, during a violent earthquake, a mountain 
sank and disappeared near Chittagong, in the upper part of the Bay of 
Bengal; another descended till the summit alone remained visible, while 
60 square miles of sea shore were permanently submerged. In 1831 a 
volcano called Graham's Island rose on the coast of Sicily to the height of 
800 feet, and, after continuing in active conflagration for three months, 
sank down and vanished beneath the waters ;* and in June 1819, the 
Runn of Cutch, in our own neighbourhood, sank down, and became a salt- 
water marsh — a vast mound, called the Ulla Bund, rising in its neighbour- 
hood, and cutting off from the sea one of the mouths of the Indus. The 
island of .Bombay and plains of the Deccan must at one time have been on 
the same level with each other. 

So soon as rain began to fall, all the hollows would be filled up, and 
transformed into lakes, either with rivers running into them, or out of 
them, or both. Our great river systems now first make their appearance, 
and connect in long reaches of nearly stagnant water the original hollows, 
now transformed into lakes united together by rapids and cataracts. In 
process of time the more shallow and inconsiderable of these pools would 
become filled up with mud or gravel, assisted by the hitches and upheavals 
to which the crust of the earth from the first seems to have been periodi- 

* This volcanic cone was formed principally of ashes and scoriae. There is 
no proof that it sunk ; but when the further supply of material ceased, the 
loose matter was quickly washed away by the waves. — (Edit. Phil. Jour.) 



Principal Depressions on the Surface of the Globe. 255 



cally subjected, forming our haughs, carses, and holms ; the only depres- 
sions remaining permanently as lakes being those near the sources of 
rivers, where the feeders that supplied them, being inconsiderable in size, 
brought comparatively little solid matter along with them, rendering the 
process of filling up infinitely slow. All our lakes, however, are in pro- 
cess of gradual obliteration, more solid matter being carried into them 
than finds its way out ; and all that is required is a sufficient lapse of time 
to accomplish their extinction, when those at the sources of our streams will 
undergo the transformation into plains and levels which their predecessors 
along their tracks have already undergone. The depth of many of our 
lakes is very great indeed, the bottom of their basins being often very far 
below the level of the sea ; so that, were their supplies of water dimi- 
nished, or the evaporation from their surfaces increased, we should have 
examples presented us, wherever this prevailed, parallel to that with the 
lakes of Asphaltites, Assal, Tiberias, the Caspian Sea, and many others, 
of a pool of entirely salt water at the bottom of a hollow lower than the 
level of the sea ; and to this class of hollows only do we give the name of 
depressions. 

The bottom of Loch Ness, and of some of the other lakes along the line 
of the Caledonian Canal, are not only below the level of the surface of the 
German Ocean, but beneath that of its bed anywhere in the line of their 
axis across to the shores of Norway. 

Were the Straits of Babelmandel closed, the Hed Sea would be all but 
dried up in a moderate lapse of years, presenting us with a huge chasm, 
in some places half a mile in depth, with a long, narrow bitter lake, mar- 
gined with rock-salt at the bottom. 

The following are some of the dimensions of the most notable of our 
lakes : — 



Names. 


Area. 


Elevation 
of surface. 


Depth. 


Bottom 
below Sea. 




Sq. Wiles. 

240 

32,000 

2,225 

50 

185 

140,000 


T eet. 

1,230 

672 

279 

12,846 

*— 329 

—1,312 

—82 


feet. 

1,012 
932 
547 
720 
165 

1,300 


Feet. 

300 
268 

494 

2,612 

82 


Superior ,... 




Titicaca 


Tiberias 


Dead Sea 


Caspian Sea 





I shall turn next to the great continental river basins, or valleys of no 
outlet, where the rivers on all sides flow towards some central lake or 
lakes, and the whole of their waters are carried oiT by evaporation. 
These may be classed under two divisions — those above, and those be- 
neath, the level of the ocean ; and the first we must note of the first class 
are those of America— the most notable being that of the Great Salt Lake 

* Mrs Somerville says, in a note on these depressions, that the level of 
Tiberias as given by actual measurement of Symonds is not to be relied upon, 
as it falls short by above 100 feet of that determined barometrically by three 
different observers — Berton, Russerger, and Von YYildenbruch, who give the 
mean at 755 ; the mean assigned to the Dead Sea by the traveller is 1423-5. 
With great deference to so distinguished an authority as Mrs Somerville, I 
should certainly prefer the most ordinary levelling over so moderate a distance 
to the best barometric measurements where there could be no good barometer 
of reference to fall back upon. The hour of the day might make all this differ- 
ence — the barometer read at 10 or 4, without a corresponding reading at the 
same level at exactly the same hour, would give an error of 100 feet. 

s2 



2^)6 Dr George Buist on the 

of the Rocky Mountains, which, as will by-and-by be seen, in many 
points closely resembles the Dead Sea. The Great Salt Lake, until then 
chiefly familiar to us by name from the Mormon settlement on its borders, 
was first explored by the American Government in 1847, by an expedi- 
tion under Fremont, which seems to have been mainly one of general 
inspection. A second expedition, under Captain Stansbury, U. S. En- 
gineers,* laid down a base of six miles near the lake, and made an ela- 
borate and careful trigonometrical survey of the whole district. It is 
situated betwixt the 42d and 43d parallels, — about the 115th western 
meridian, — in the bosom of the Rocky Mountains, betwixt the Missouri 
and the Pacific. Vast inhospitable tracts of country prevail to the north 
and south of it ; on the east, for the space of nearly 1000 miles, are the 
trackless and barren steppes of the Rocky Mountains — a similar extent 
of salt desert bordering it to the west. The place where the Mormons 
have taken up their abode is one of the most isolated and extraordinary 
the world contains, remarkable for its beauty and fertility on the very 
borders of the most unspeakable desolation. The Valley of the Salt Lake 
is about 4000 feet above the level of the sea, and is about 500 miles either 
way in extent. This space, which is enclosed by a circle of rugged pre- 
cipices and majestic mountains, consists of great stretches of salt desert, 
perfectly smooth and level, bearing all the marks of marine origin. Some 
of these are from 60 to 70 miles across ; and they are separated from each 
other by precipitous rocky eminences of great elevation. On the slopes 
which bound the plain are a series of thirteen distinct terraces or beaches , 
the highest of them being about 200 feet above the valley, and to all ap- 
pearance the margins of a former sea which had subsided by intervals, 
and left behind it the marks where it had for a time remained at rest. 
There are many valleys and recesses amongst the Rocky Mountains with 
terraced slopes similar to those just described, having all the appearance 
of the basins of former seas. Within the basin, but at a much higher 
level, besides the Great Salt Lake itself, is the fresh-water lake Utah, 
from which flows a stream of considerable magnitude, on which the name 
of the Jordan has been bestowed, and which, after passing the Mormon 
settlement, discharges itself into the Salt Lake. The Salt Lake itself is 
nearly 300 miles in circuit, including all its indentations, and is about 70 
miles in length and 20 in breadth. It is studded with mountain islands, 
springing up abruptly from the surface of the water to altitudes of from 
500 to 1000 feet, Antelope Island rising to the height of 3000 feet ; emi- 
nences of similar form and size, which had been islands before the waters 
shrunk within their present dimensions, being scattered about over the ad- 
joining plains. The waters of the lake contain 22 per cent, of saline matter, 
or about the same quantity as the Dead Sea. Of this, 20 per cent, is pure 
chloride of sodium or sea salt. It is said to throw down in summer muri- 
ate of soda, and in winter sulphate of soda or glauber salts — a circumstance 
that seems so strange that better evidence than we possess is requisite 
before the fact can be accepted as established. They are so acrid as to be 
dangerous to animal life, and even so affect and corrugate the throat when 
swallowed that a mouthful would be fatal. They are so heavy that the 
body floats on them without effort, about a sixth of its mass remaining 
above the surface. The lake itself is singularly shallow ; its greatest 
depth is 33 feet, and in some places a stiff breeze blows the water alto- 

* I have not b :en able to refer to the American works themselves (they are 
in none of our libraries), but take my information at second hand from the 
Athenccum, Oct. 1852 ; Jameson s Journal, 1852; and Chambers's Journal, 1853. 
A good outline o c the Salt Lake is reserved for future works on physical geo- 
graphy. 



Principal Depressions on the Surface of the Globe. 257 

gether to one side, and leaves large expanses of the bottom bare. At no 
distant period the lake seems to have been many times its present size, 
and to have covered the low lands around with its waters. It seems still 
diminishing in size, the balance betwixt fall and evaporation not having 
as yet been attained in a climate where little rain falls, and the atmo- 
sphere is intensely dry. Amidst all its stern grandeur, the scene around 
is one of dreary and oppressive desolation. There is no tree or plant to 
relieve the eye ; the atmosphere feels hot and suffocating, and the slug- 
gish waves scarcely ripple before the breeze. Along one side of the lake 
the surface of the earth is covered with a sheet of solid salt of the most 
dazzling whiteness ; this is converted into a muddy marsh by every shower 
of rain. Various streams of fresh water flow into the lake from the neigh- 
bouring mountains — the Jordan, Bear River, and Weber, being all of 
considerable size ; and the banks of these before they enter the salt region 
are covered with the richest vegetation. Hot springs and salt in masses 
abound in the neighbourhood of the lake. Around its margin is a band 
of soft, foetid, slimy mud, consisting entirely of the larvae of insects, or 
other animal matter, emitting smells the most offensive that can be ima- 
gined. All around are evidences of volcanic action, and thick cakes of 
mud, six or eight inches in diameter, charged with sulphur, and erupted 
in a semi-liquid form from small spiracles beneath, are found scattered 
about. In the plain, at no great distance from the lake,* is a group of 
volcanic cones and apertures covering several acres of ground, with steam 
and mud issuing from at least half a dozen chimneys. The cones are 
from four to six feet in elevation, terminating in a spiracle or vent, some 
of which are hardened, and lined with crystals of sulphur and other sub- 
stances. From one of these steam and water are thrown from ten to 
fifteen feet into the air ; they rush out with a noise resembling the escape 
of a steam engine; the water is hot and cold by turns, and is strongly 
impregnated with sal-ammoniac. Some of the cauldrons are from teu 
to twenty feet in diameter, filled to within three or four feet of the top 
with boiling mud, which occasionally runs over. Besides the numerous 
mud cones, there is one of lava, in the midst of a mass of volcanic rocks 
within the valley. It is about 50 feet in height ; sheets of salt, strongly 
impregnated with sal-ammoniac, surrounding its base. In the mountains, 
not far off, are wells of petroleum and naphtha. 

If I have bestowed more space on the Great Salt Lake than I ought to 
have done, or than time will allow to devote to other depressions of equal 
interest, it is because it has but lately become known to us ; and I am not 
aware of any single paper or work in which all the information that has 
been collected regarding it is to be found in moderate compass. As already 
mentioned, the latest of our physical atlases and physical geographies 
fail to bring our information down to this point. I have no doubt it will 
be treated with his usual care and ability by my friend Mr Keith John- 
ston, in the new edition of his great work now preparing for the press. 

There are, besides the valley of the Great Salt Lake, whose mere mag- 
nitude is the point of least interest about it, two depressions, or conti- 
nental river basins of no discharge north of Mexico, on the highlands 
betwixt the Gulf of California and Rio del Norte ; one of about 200 by 50 
miles, betwixt the 29th and 33d parallels ; another about four times this 
size, nearly under the tropics. Both contain salt lakes of some magnitude, 
with fresh-water streams flowing into them. Beyond this, little is known 
regarding them. The Rio Grande, about 300 miles in length, is the 
largest river in this quarter swallowed up by evaporation ; and but for 

* American Annual of Scientific Discovery for 1852 ; Jameson's Journal, 
No. 105, p. 180. 



258 Dr George Buist on the 

those continental streams the country would be doomed to a state of per- 
petual sterility — a few showers occurring in September being all the rain 
that ever fulls in the neighbourhood. 

In the great Andes plateau in South America, stretching from the 
Tropic of Cancer northwards for the space of 1200 miles, with a mean 
breadth of 200, is a depression with a surface area equal to about that of 
the Red Sea. This basin is about 12,000 feet above the level of the ocean, 
the principal lake being that of Titicaca, occurring at an altitude equal to 
that of Teneriife. It is about 26,000 square miles in area, and 700 feet 
in depth. The scenery and verdure around seem in the highest degree rich 
and beautiful, and the climate delightful. 

There are no continental river basins or valleys of any extent in any 
part of Europe, the rains being sufficiently abundant, and evaporation 
moderate enough, to enable the moisture which falls to accumulate in the 
valleys till it forms lakes which discharge their waters into rivers, all 
finding their way to the sea ; and the only depressions at all resembling 
those under consideration, and of the same character, though of inconsi- 
derable depth, and due, doubtless, to the same causes, are those in Hol- 
land — the Lake Harlaem and the Zuyder Zee. 

We know so little of Central Africa that we are unable to speak of its 
characteristic features with anything like certainty. From the magnitude 
of some of the lakes known to exist, and the streams made mention of, 
compared to the scantiness of the discharge of fresh water into the sea, 
there is reason to believe in continental river basins great in number and 
vast in size. The only depressions well known to us are those of the lake 
Mareotis, on the Mediterranean shore, close by Alexandria, of the Bitter 
Lakes in the Isthmus of Suez, like Mareotis, and the Natron Lakes, all 
in Lower Egypt, and Lake Assal, off the shores of the Gulf of Aden, a 
short way into Abyssinia. The first of these depressions has probably 
been seen by most of those who have made the journey overland. It seems 
to have been formed by a sinking of the Delta up to close upon the shore, 
where a barrier was left ; it is at its lowest some six or eight feet below 
the Mediterranean, and occupies an area of about 5000 square miles, being 
about 30 across and 150 in length. It seems to have been a fresh water 
marsh in Pliny's time, when the Nile was admitted to it by canal, and it 
was transformed into a lake. By the end of last century it had become 
nearly dried up, and its ancient bed, remarkable for its fertility, was irri- 
gated by canals from the Nile. In 1801, during the siege of Alexandria, 
then held by the French against the English, a letter was found on the 
body of General Roitz, expressing alarm lest the sea should be admitted 
to the lake Mareotis, and the town deprived of fresh water. The hint 
was taken by the British General, and the barrier cut across. The vast 
plain was immediately submerged, the sites of 300 villages were flooded, 
and one of the most fertile and profitable portions of Egypt — the very 
garden of the Nile — reduced to sterility. For 10 or 15 miles the railway 
skirts or traverses the margin of the lake, so as to bring it within the view 
of overland passengers betwixt Europe and the East. Near the period 
of low Nile the waters of the lake are concentrated by evaporation up close 
to the point of saturation, and vast sheets of salt of dazzling whiteness, 
the reflection of which is seen in the sky far out at sea, spread over the 
shallows round its borders, to be redissolved when the waters of the Nile 
are admitted during the inundation. A benevolent government or enter- 
prising people would speedily pump out the brine by steam, and restore 
the soil to its wonted fertility by repeated washings from the Nile. As 
matters at present stand it is likely to remain forages, until the Nile silts 
it up to the level of the sea, a monument of the cruelties wars of aggres- 
sions inflict or compel, and of the apathy and indifference of an admini- 



Principal Depressions on the Surface of the Globe. 259 

stration which makes no attempt to heal the wounds after they have been 
inflicted. 

The Bitter Lakes occupy a series of hollows about 30 miles in length, 
10 in breadth, and 50 feet in depth, under high water mark in the narrow 
neck of land intervening betwixt the Red and Mediterranean Seas. They 
seem at one time to have formed the upper portion of the Gulf of Suez, 
which was cut off from them by the rising of the desert barrier of about 
13 miles, which now divides them. The water now found in them is ex- 
tremely salt and bitter — the result of concentration. The isthmus, which 
is only 70 miles from sea to sea, seems within the last 4000 years to have 
been subjected to frequent elevations and depressions, the latest of which 
in all likelihood occurred a considerable time after the Exodus. 

The Natron Lakes, in the upper part of the Delta, are also completely 
isolated, and occupy a depression of considerable but uncertain depth. In 
summer they are nearly saturated with salt, the muriate and subcarbonate 
of soda, or the sea-salt and soda of commerce. In winter they rise, and 
become freshed, from the percolation of the waters of the Nile, which ap- 
pear to take about three months to force a passage through the porous 
soil beneath. 

Before noticing Palestine, close by the locality just described, we 
shall close the account of the known depressions in Africa with a notice of 
the lake of Assal, on the Somali shore opposite Aden. The lake was, I 
believe, first surveyed by the party of Sir W. Harris, in 1841 ; it is de- 
scribed by him, as well as by Dr Kirk and Captain Barker, who took its 
level and dimensions. It is in lat. 11° 33' 12" N., long. 42° 3<y 6" E. 
It is about 7 miles in length, 16 in circumference ; and its surface is 570 
feet beneath the level of the sea. No stream or rivulet enters it, or flows 
from it ; scarcely any rain ever falls in its neighbourhood ; its waters 
dried up and concentrated by evaporation, have nearly reached the point 
of saturation, and about one-third of the lake is at certain seasons covered 
with a sheet of solid salt. It is separated from the outer sea, of which it 
at one time formed a part, by a barrier of lava, cracked and rent in all 
directions, the whole being obviously the result of recent volcanic agency, 
accomplished, probably, when the vast group of cones extending from 
Aden 500 miles into Abyssinia, and at least 300 up the Red Sea, were in 
a state of conflagration. Under operations so violent and extensive as 
may then be supposed to have been in progress, the upheaval of a barrier 
a few dozens of miles across, and severation from the sea of a lake about 
the size of the island of Bombay, would appear a very trifling affair. 

Turning from Assal I shall take up the depressions in India, few and 
inconsiderable as they are, before dealing with those of Western and 
Central Asia. The most noticeable are the Liunn of Cutch, the Boke, the 
Null, and Lake Loonar. The remarkable thing about the first of these 
is that it has obviously been subjected to a variety of descents and up- 
heavals within the human or probably historic period. Any one who 
reads the Periplus with care, will, I think, come to the conclusion that a 
vast space from the Indus eastward which is now dry land was in the time 
of Alexander covered by the waves. There is a Hindoo tradition that 
the sea in days of yore swept over the present Runn and extended for 
many miles beyond it, and a line of positions along the old sea margin 
indicate by their names the ports, custom-houses, and other chief points 
along the shore. A saint offended with the wickedness of the people cursed 
the land, and ordered the sea to retire, an event believed by Colonel Grant 
to have occurred in the eleventh century. The ruins of the city of Bhali- 
bapoora near Bhownuggur are now found from 10 to 15 feet below the 
surface of the soil ; but the houses it is clear must have been constructed 
on dry land, and sunk beneath the waves for at least the distance just 



260 Dr George Buist on the 

named, when a fresh upheaval brought the whole up to its present posi- 
tion. The Runn of Cutch now vastly circumscribed in its area from the 
time of the holy man's malediction, was to a considerable extent submerged 
by the earthquake of the 16th of June 1819, of which sufficient mention 
has already been made, and now forms in part a lake, in part a salt water 
marsh. Considerably to the north of this in the Collectorate of Ahmeda- 
bad are two remarkable hollows some way from each other, called the Null 
and the B^ke. They both appear the results of volcanic agency, the water 
they contain is salt, they receive supplies from rivulets but give oifnone. 
The only other hollow in India of any note is the basin of Lake 
Loonar, a depression situated among the Shiel Hills in the centre of the 
Deccan. It is about 500 feet below the level of the surrounding country, 
and seems to be the crater of an extinct volcano, lava being in abundance 
at no great distance. The water it contains is nearly saturated with 
subcarbonate of soda, the Natron of the lakes of Egypt. 

We now come to the consideration of the largest and most wonderful 
depression in the world, — that of the north-east of Asia, — not including 
that of the Dead Sea, an account of which will be given last. From the 
borders of the Gulf of Finland and the Black Sea to those of the Yellow 
Sea, extending all across Central Asia, there is a space nearly 4000 miles 
from east to west, and at its western extremity nearly half as much from 
north to south, comprising in all an area of above three millions of square 
miles> containing lakes and rivers numberless, but which send not one 
drop of water to the ocean, evaporation subliming into the air all the 
moisture that appears on the ground. In the western portion of this the 
ground sinks in some places above 80 feet beneath the level of the ocean, 
affording a vast space of from 760,000 to 800,000 square miles in area, 
or larger than the Mediterranean, to all appearance the basin of an old 
inland sea, at no time more than slightly connected with the Northern 
Ocean. This depression comprehends the whole of Trans Ox~onia, includ- 
ing the basins near its lowest part, of the Aral and Caspian, the surface 
of the latter being 83 feet beneath the Mediterranean. From his obser- 
vations on these points Humboldt arrives at the following wonderful but 
far from improbable conclusions : — 

"1. That before the times which we call historic, at epochs very near 
in point of time to the latest revolutions on the surface of the globe, the 
lake Aral may have been entirely comprehended in the basin of the Cas- 
pian Sea, and that then the great depression of Asia (the concavity of 
Tauran), may have formed a vast interior sea, which may have commu- 
nicated on one side with the Euxine, and on the other side, by means of 
cracks more or less wide, with the Icy Sea, and the lakes Telegoul, Talas, 
and Balkhache. 

" 2. That even in the historic times, we must not admit too generally 
that the soil has followed the successive changes which seem to be indi- 
cated by the chronological series of opinions emitted by ancient historians 
and geographers. These authors seldom represent the geography of their 
epoch : — they choose between preceding opinions, and their absolute silence 
respecting certain facts or natural phenomena is no argument against the 
xistence of these phenomena. 

" 3. That very probably from the time of Herodotus, as at the epoch 
of the Macedonian expedition, the Aral formed but a lateral appendage 
of the Oxus, and that it communicated with the Caspian only by the arm 
which the Scythian Gulf of that sea extends so far to the coast, and re- 
ceives the river Oxus. 

" 4. That either by the simple phenomenon of the increase of growth 
(the preponderance of evaporation over aqueous supply,) or by plutonic 
crevices or elevations, the Scythian Gulf (the Karabogas) has been pro- 



Principal Depressions on the Surface of the Globe. 261 

gressively contracted in its narrowest dimensions, and that by the retreat 
of the gulf the bifurcation of the Oxus has been developed — that is, has 
become more and more manifest. One portion of the waters of the Oxus 
has preserved its course towards the Caspian by a river bed which modern 
travellers (posterior to the middle of the 16th century) have found dried 
up. What was at first but an enlarged appendage of a lake, which com- 
municated laterally with the Oxus, has become the limit of the inferior 
course of this river. It is thus that Nature on a great scale has repeated 
the phenomenon, which the hydraulic systems of the Yaryakchi exhibit 
to the E. and N. E. of the Aral, of the Tchoui, and Talas, terminating, 
after a course of 130 or 160 leagues, in the lakes of Telegoul, Kaban- 
koulak, and Talasgol." 

By far the most profound and striking, if not the most extensive de- 
pression on the surface of the globe is that of the Lake of Asphalt ites or 
Dead Sea in Palestine. The most remarkable characteristics of this lake 
were well known to the ancients, and it is described by Deodorus, Pliny, 
Strabo, and Josephus, and though never surveyed with anything like 
tolerable care it has for long formed a favourite resort for travellers. 
Lieutenant Symonds, of the Royal Engineers, in 1843, measured its de- 
pression by actual levelling, and found the surface of its waters to be 1312 
feet below those of the Mediterranean. Lieutenant Lynch, of the United 
States Navy, crossed and recrossed it repeatedly in 1847, taking sound- 
ings as he went. He confirms the researches of Symonds, and he speaks 
of having made astronomical and barometrical observations, but gives us 
no results ; and wonderful to relate, while we organise expeditions to 
examine the icy seas at an expense of hundreds of thousands of pounds, — 
send parties into Central Africa to search for we know not what, — mount 
the fearful table-lands of the Andes, and survey with philosophic care the 
sacred lakes of the Hindoos, hid deep in the bosom of the Himalayas, — 
permit officers to assume all sorts of disguises, and practise every variety 
of questionable deception to be enabled to violate the sanctity of the great 
Mohammedan shrine, and to inspect that which it is deemed sacrilege for 
the unbeliever to behold, and is not worth describing even if it could be 
legitimately seen, — we are content with merely looking at a spot of earth 
which has more claims on our curiosity as Christians, as well as geogra- 
phers and philosophers, than any point on the surface of the globe. 
There is not — to our shame be it spoken — up to this moment anything 
like a decent or even a creditable account of the physical geography of 
Palestine in print ! and the vague and general account of it now about to 
be given, gleaned from all the best authors on the subject, meagre and 
unsatisfactory as it is, is half guess-work. This most discreditable want 
it was my purpose next spring to have endeavoured to some extent to 
have remedied, by taking the levels from Akaba down to the Dead Sea, 
and so up again by the Valley of the Jordan, and to the sea level, and 
surveying then all round by the old sea margin by a circuit of probably 
some 400 or 500 miles. The fulfilment of this purpose, not unlikely to 
be deferred for the present by another and a very different variety of 
geographical operations, will, I trust, be resumed should I ever be per- 
mitted to revisit my native country. 

The Dead Sea is supposed at one time to have united with the eastern 
limb of the Red Sea, known by the name of the Gulf of Akaba. A slop- 
ing valley of unknown elevation, called the Wadi Araba, the highest part 
of which forming the barrier which separates the two, is somewhere be- 
twixt 60 and 495 feet above high-water mark, and this is supposed to be 
within 25 or 30 miles of Akaba, the total distance betwixt the two seas 
being 106 miles. The fact of the Dead Sea being very much below the 
Mediterranean, as well as the existence of an enormous depression, en- 



262 Dr George Buist on the 

closing and surrounding it, was known to the ancients, who conferred on 
the name of Hollow Syria. One of the first surmises of its enormous depth 
was given in 1841 by Sir David Wilkie, who made it 1200 feet by baro- 
metrical observation — probably the extent to which his barometer was cut. 
Two years afterwards Lieutenant Symonds made it, by levelling, 1320*2 
feet, and this is now the admitted depression. Lieutenant Lynch, in 
JL847, fathomed water to the depth of 1300, so that the hollow is in all 
2620 feet below the surface of the sea. The bottom of the sea consists of 
two submerged plains, one 13 feet and the other 1300 feet, at an average, 
below the surface. The area and upper borders of the hollow, indicated 
in all likelihood by an old sea margin, and to which the waters would again 
rise were a canal, as has been proposed, cut into it from the Mediterranean 
on the one side, and Red Sea on the other, are unknown to us. Along 
the axis of the lake and valley of the Jordan, from the water-shed in the 
AVadi Araba to Cesarea and Philippi, is probably 19 ) miles, with a bifur- 
cation of about 210 miles to the eastward, terminating about Mount Her- 
mon, where the streams run in opposite directions. Its greatest breadth 
appears to be about 30 to 45 miles, and the area of the whole depression, 
which is very irregular in form, perhaps somewhere about 7000 square 
miles. The lake itself is about 40 miles by 9, with a probable area of 185 
square miles ; its circuit, including all its indentations, seems about 420. 
The rocks around on the west side seem to be mainly of the chalk forma- 
tion, mixed with old volcanic basalt, and occasionally to all appearance 
with recent lavas. Close by the lake, about one-third along from the 
northern shore, are masses of yellowish limestone, with great beds or pil- 
lars of rock salt ; and the whole soil, and bottom of the lake, are covered 
with saline incrustations, petroleum oozing from the beach, and spreading 
itself in many places in films over the surface. Pieces of sulphur lie scat - 
tered around — whether the products of a volcano, or the results of the 
decomposition of the salt does not appear. Near the mouth of the Jordan 
hot springs abound. Around the northern shore, and especially mani- 
fest in the basin of the Jordan, are horizontal lines or terraces of alluvial 
matter on the mountains, terminating in abrupt declivities of sand, which 
lead again to lower terraces or beaches closely resembling those of the 
ocean, with here and there conical hills, with flat horizontal tops, all ob- 
viously the result of aqueous action. From these and other circumstances 
it is inferred that the Dead Sea was depressed to its present level, not by 
simple evaporation, but by the sudden sinking of its bottom sufficiently 
indicated by the abrupt breaks down in the bed of the Jordan. If the 
original theory be correct that the Dead Sea was at one time connected 
with the Gulf of Akaba, it is very probable that the ridge of the Wadi 
Araba may have risen when some of the convulsions occasioning or deep- 
ening the depression occurred, just as the Ulla Bund arose when the vil- 
lage of Sin dree, and the portion of the Runn of Cutch around descended 
in June 1819. There is not the slightest reason to associate any of these 
convulsions, which must have been on a scale vast enough to destroy all 
animal life, with the destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, 
and the surface of the country in the days of the patriarchs was probably 
not dissimilar to what it is at the present day. 

Dr Graves enumerates a number of points in which the Great Salt Lake 
of America and the Dead Sea resemble each other. They are both situ- 
ated in deep valleys, the mountains surrounding them being marked with 
terraces or old sea margins — proofs of a succession of sudden sinkings in 
the earth beneath. The shores of both abound with deposits of salt, 
with petroleum, and with sulphur ; near both are hot springs, and other 
volcanic phenomena. In the valleys of both are fresh-water lakes — 
Tiberias in the one and Utah in the other, through which flow the 



Principal Depressions on the Surface of the Globe. 2G3 



rivers Jordan, in both cases losing themselves in the salt-water lakes. 
They closely resemble each other both in area of surface and dimensions 
of basin. The waters of the two are almost equally heavy, and equally 
salt, though they differ entirely in the nature of their saline contents, as 
will be seen below ; and they are most unlike each other in matter of 
depth. 



Dead Sea.* 
sp. gr. 
1-22 



In 1000 grains of water. 



Great Salt Lake, 
sp. gr. 
1-17 



Common Sea Water, 
sp. gr. 
1-027 



Chloride of Magnesium, 145-8 

„ Calcium, 31 

„ Sodium, 78 

„ Potassium 6 

Other Salts 6 



200 
20 



25 
5 



266-8 220 30 

It will thus be seen, that though in all likelihood the great American 
lake owes its saltness to the rivers washing away the salt from the rocks 
around, and carrying it down to be concentrated as in a great salt pan, a 
like explanation by no means suffices for the saltness of the Dead Sea, 
whose ingredients are wholly different from those composing rock or com- 
mon rock or sea salt. 

Depths of the Sea. — I have confined my observations to the depres- 
sions on the surface of the dry land, chiefly dealing with those which were 
either beneath the level of the adjoining countries, and not filled up with 
water, or those receding far beneath the surface of the ocean both embo- 

* We have retained in the text the analyses given by Dr Buist, though they 
are very imperfect. We append more complete analyses of sea water, of 
the waters of the Dead Sea, and of that of the Elton Lake, described by Gustav 
Rose, in his " lleise nach dem Ural." This lake, and the numerous brine 
pools which exist in the neighbourhood of the Caspian, complete the analogy of 
that district, with that of the Dead Sea, and the Great Salt Lake referred to in 
the preceding paragraph. 





Sea Water. 


Sea Water. 


Elton Lake. 


Chloride of sodium, . . 


65-77 


26-72 


131-24 


magnesium, . 
calcium, . . 


. 105-43 
28-94 


3-23 


105-42 


potassium, 
aluminum, 


13-98 
0-18 


1-28 


2-22 


Bromide of magnesium, . 

sodium, . . . 


2-51 


0-51 


07 


Sulphate of lime, . . . 

magnesia, 
Silica, 


0-88 
0-03 


1-62 
1-97 


16-65 


Water, ...... 


. 782-27 


964-67 


744-40 



1000-00 



100000 



1000-00 



It is worthy of observation, that the Dead Sea water and that of the Elton 
Lake closely resemble in composition the mother liquor which is obtained 
when sea water is evaporated, so as to separate the greater proportion of its 
common salt. That the Dead Sea is such a mother liquor, seems to be indicated 
by the abundance of rock-salt which is found in the neighbourhood. If, there- 
fore, the explanation of the saltness of the Great Salt Lake given by Dr Buist 
is correct, the whole difference between the two is, that in the case of the Dead 
Sea, the concentration is further advanced. — Edit. Phil. Journal. 



264 On Depressions on the Surface of the Globe. 

soming lakes in their depths, both receiving supplies of river water, but 
yielding none. The channel of the ocean in the structure and in the di- 
versity of its surface seems in all respects closely to resemble that of the 
dry land, which has itself, indeed, at no distant period occupied its depths, 
and still bears on its surface loads of marine remains. Our lesser islands 
are but the summits of mountains whose bases rest on the valleys or table- 
lands far down in the main, presenting at times slopes as smooth and 
gentle, and precipices and cliffs as lofty, rugged, and abrupt as any of 
those made visible to the eye of man. The sounding-line discloses hills, 
mountains and valleys, with chasms and recesses as diversified and re- 
markable as any which the regions exposed to the upper air supply, 
covered with a dense and varied vegetation, and thickly peopled with 
numberless races of stirring inhabitants, to some of which in point of size 
the giants of the superterrene animal kingdom — the elephant, the giraffe, 
the rhinoceros, and the hippopotamus — are but pigmies. The mean level 
of the whole solid land above that of the sea is 1000 feet — that is, were 
our mountain masses smoothed down, and our valleys and sea margins 
brought up to one general table-land, its surface would be 1000 feet above 
that of the ocean. The mean level of Asia is 1150 feet, of that of Africa 
we know nothing, that of Europe 670, and that of America 930 feet, 
North America being 750, and South America, 1130. The mean 
depth of the ocean, again — that is, of its basin, were this scooped out, 
and smoothed in the floor till it resembled a tank or cistern, is about 
22,000 feet or four miles. It has been measured to the depth of nearly 
seven miles, or about 36,000 feet, and it covers three-fourths of the sur- 
face of the globe. Were the solid part of the earth, therefore, to be 
removed, and thrown into the sea, the highest mountains would fall 
short by 10,000 feet of filling up its deepest recesses, and the whole mass 
would be submerged to the depth of a mile at least. 

Vast as these inequalities are when represented in figures, the relation 
they bear to the diameter of the earth is insignificant. On that magnifi- 
cent three- feet globe now before you, on which the hand might cover the 
whole space anj'thing like tolerably known to us, the highest of theHima- 
layas would be represented by a grain of sand, and the enormous-look- 
ing depressions just described, by a scratch which would little more than 
penetrate the varnish — so very small a way beneath the surface does our 
knowledge extend, and our research penetrate. Yet this thin film in space 
furnishes the habitation of all the vegetable and animal tribes that have 
been formed, and the examination of the minutest portions of it taxes 
to the uttermost the intellect, and occupies and exhausts the energies of 
man. 



On Gallic and Tannic Acids in Dyeing. 265 

On the Action of Gallic and Tannic Acids in Dyeing. By 
F. Crace Calvert, F.C.S., M.RA. of Turin, Professor of 
Chemistry at the Royal Institution, Manchester. 

Persoz, in his Traite de Vimpression des Tissus (vol. i. 
page 262), remarks, that " It is desirable, as much for the in- 
terest of the manufacturer as for that of science, that we 
should know positively whether it is gallic or tannic acid which 
plays the most important part in dyeing with gall-nuts." This 
statement of Persoz, together with the knowledge of the fact 
that the manufacturers of extracts of colouring matters, were 
prevented from preparing extracts of tannin masses, by the 
rapid change which these extracts undergo, induced me to 
make the following researches, with the hope of throwing some 
light on the subject. 

The first experiments were made with the view of ascertain- 
ing the action of gallic and tannic acids in the dyebeck. For 
this purpose, I dipped 100 square inches of iron-mordanted 
cloth into baths composed of 20 grains of these acids, and 1J 
pint of water ; and the dyeing was allowed to go on in the cold 
for 24 hours. It was found that the gallic acid rapidly dyed 
the iron mordant, but the colour soon disappeared, whilst with 
the tannic acid, although the black was slower in forming, it 
remained permanent. Similar trials were then repeated, but 
gradually raising the temperature of the bath during 1J hours 
to 180° Fahr., and then for half an hour to 212°. The general 
results were similar, the only difference being, that the black 
at first formed with the gallic acid, more rapidly and com- 
pletely disappeared than in the experiments done at natural 
temperature. 

These facts led me to believe that the gallic acid acted as a 
reducing agent on the hydrate of peroxide of iron fixed in the 
cloth as a mordant. To substantiate this view, I took a por- 
tion of the liquor from the bath in which the dyeing process 
had been conducted, and on examination found it to contain a 
large quantity of protoxide of iron in solution ; whilst in the 
case of the tannic acid liquor, no reduction of the oxide of iron 
had taken place. I also added a small quantity of hypochlo- 



2G6 Crace Calvert on the 

rite of lime to the above solution of gallate of protoxide of 
iron, which not only precipitated a certain quantity of the 
black gallate of iron, but the liquor gave a permanent black 
on a fresh piece of iron-mordanted calico, leaving no doubt 
that the hypochlorite had maintained the iron of the mordant 
in the state of peroxide. A very important question now pre- 
sented itself, viz., will the presence of a free acid increase the 
reducing power of gallic acid? To determine this point, a 
weak solution of persulphate of iron was mixed with some 
gallic acid, and it was found that in proportion to the excess 
of acid, so did the blue precipitate first formed rapidly disap- 
pear, leaving in the glass vessel a brown-tinted liquor, con- 
taining a salt of proto and peroxide of iron. It was also ascer- 
tained that the addition of a small quantity of weak hydro- 
chloric, sulphuric, or oxalic acids, greatly increased the redu- 
cing action. If, on the contrary, an excess of pure hydrate of 
peroxide of iron was added to a solution of gallic acid, even 
after several days, the dark-blue precipitate at first produced 
remained permanent, and no protoxide of iron was produced 
in the solution. If heat, however, was applied to the mixture, 
protoxide of iron might be detected in the liquor. 

These facts clearly show, that gallic acid cannot be em- 
ployed as a dye when used in excess, or in presence of any 
other acid. Whilst tannic acid placed in similar circum- 
stances to the above described with gallic acid, does not reduce 
the peroxide of iron, either at natural temperatures, or under 
the influence of heat. The only circumstances in which the 
conversion of the hydrate of peroxide of iron into protoxide 
was remarked, were on the addition of large excesses of hy- 
drochloric, sulphuric, or oxalic acids. I am inclined, therefore, 
to believe, that, under the influence of a great excess of mine- 
ral acid, the tannic acid splits up into sugar and gallic acid, 
and the latter substance produces the reducing effect above de- 
scribed. 

These results seem to afford an explanation of the fact observed 
some years ago by M. J. Girardin of Rouen, that, to obtain 
good blacks, a calcareous water is advantageous, a result 
which is probably due to the lime of the carbonate neutralizing 
the gallic acid existing in the tanning matter, and so prevent- 



Action of Gallic and Tannic Acids in Dyeing. 267 

ing it from exerting its reducing action on the iron mordant, 
which would interfere with the dyeing properties of its tannic 
acid. 

I was also anxious to ascertain the difference of the action 
of gallic and tannic acids on alumina. I accordingly took two 
pieces of calico, of 100 square inches each, previously mordanted 
with alumina, aged and dunged, and placed them in separate 
baths, one of which contained 20 grains of gallic acid, and the 
other 20 grains of tannic acid ; and during 2 J hours gradually 
carried the whole to the boiling point. These pieces were then 
taken out, washed in distilled water, and subsequently dyed 
with madder. It was found that the piece which had been in 
the gallic acid bath was almost colourless ; while that from 
the tannic acid had acquired a deep red tint. The same re- 
sults were obtained on dyeing a piece of calico mordanted with 
alumina, in a bath, composed of 1J pint water, 12 grains peach- 
wood, and 8 grains garancine, together with 20 grains tannic, 
or 20 grains of gallic acid. To leave no doubt as to the true 
action of these acids on alumina, I introduced into two tubes 
pure hydrate of alumina, with a solution of each of them ; and 
after a few days' contact, I found, on examining the supernatant 
fluids, that the gallic acid alone had dissolved alumina, the 
tannic acid not having acted at all, so that the latter may be 
considered, if not a neutral substance, at all events a very 
feeble acid. 

I also attempted to obtain reds and blacks, with an extract of 
sumach, which had been kept some time, but failed, owing no 
doubt to the transformation of its tannin into gallic acid; as 
the results obtained were identical to those furnished by the 
above free acids. This rapid transformation of tannin into 
gallic acid in the extract of sumach, is remarkable, when it is 
remembered that it takes only a few weeks or months in the 
case of the extract, whilst it requires years when the tannin is 
confined in the plant. These differences are no doubt due to 
the presence of water, which facilitates chemical actions. This 
rapid deterioration of tanning matters in the form of extract is 
the reason why their substitution for the solid substances them- 
selves has not been adopted by the silk dyers or tanners. I 
therefore deemed it advisable to make a series of experiments, 



268 Crace Calvert on the 

in the hope of discovering a substance, which would act as an 
antiseptic to this peculiar fermentation, for the researches of 
Messrs Delaroque and Robiquet junior have clearly shown that 
tannin is transformed into gallic acid, and a substance resem- 
bling sugar, under the influence of a peculiar ferment called 
pectase. 

My investigations led me to discover three substances, which 
possess the property of preserving from fermentation, tan- 
ning extracts having a specific gravity 1*250, and as I trust 
that the employment of these substances will facilitate manu- 
factures and cheapen production, I do not hesitate to publish 
them. They are chloride of lime, bichloride of mercury, but 
especially carbolic acid, and to show the efficiency of this acid, 
I may add, that I have an extract of sumach, which was mixed, 
twelve months since, with a few per cent, of this acid, and 
which is as sound as when mixed. The first two substances 
answer very well, but the last has the great advantage of not 
interfering with the general applications of the extract of tan- 
ning matters. 

The remarkable power of dissolving the hydrates of oxides of 
iron and aluminum possessed by gallic acid, induced me to try 
its action, as well as that of tannic, on metallic iron. For this 
purpose, 1000 grains water, 25 grains acid, and 100 grains 
iron-wire were introduced into tubes, so arranged as to convey 
the gases evolved to the pneumatic trough, care being taken 
to exclude all air. After a few days, it was found that several 
cubic inches of gas had been given off from the gallic acid 
tube, which, on testing, proved to be nearly pure hydrogen, 
whilst the liquor remained colourless, and only assumed a 
slight blackish-blue tint, when exposed to the air. The iron 
on being taken out, was carefully dried and weighed, and 
found to have lost 1-4 grains. Therefore, gallic acid has the 
property of dissolving iron. It was also observed, that in the 
case of the tannic acid, no gas was evolved, neither was iron 
dissolved ; although the solution had assumed a slight purple 
tinge, which I attributed to some trace of oxide produced on 
the bright surface of the wire, during its weighing. I also 
tried a similar series of experiments, substituting for the 1000 
grains water, 1000 grains of a solution of sugar, having a spe- 



Action of Gallic and Tannic Acids in Dyeing. 269 

cifie gravity of 1*090 ; and observed, that although gallic acid 
acted in the way above described, tannic acid on the contrary, 
under the influence of the sugar, attacked the iron and gave a 
bulky dirty purple precipitate. I regret that I had not time 
to examine the nature of this action, neither the peculiar com- 
pound formed by the oxidation of the gallic acid, when brought 
in contact with an acid persalt of iron ; but if circumstances 
permit, I propose to return to this subject. 

In conclusion, from the facts contained in this paper, there 
can be no doubt, that tannic acid is the constituent of tanning 
substances, which produces blacks with iron mordants. Second- 
ly, That the reason why gallic acid produces no black dye is, 
that it reduces the peroxide of iron of the mordant, forming a 
colourless and soluble gallate of protoxide of iron. Thirdly, 
That gallic acid has the property of dissolving hydrate of alu- 
mina, and also of separating alumina mordant, from the cloth 
on which it is fixed. Fourthly, That the reason why extracts 
of tanning matters lose their dyeing properties is, that the 
tannin is transformed into gallic acid. Fifthly, That gallic 
acid possesses the property of dissolving iron, and thus lays 
claim to the character of a true acid, whilst tannin not having 
this action, appears to me to be in reality a neutral substance. 
Sixthly, That carbolic acid possesses the property of prevent- 
ing the tannin-fermentation, or the conversion of tannin into 
gallic acid and sugar, or a similar substance, under the influ- 
ence of a peculiar ferment called pectase. 



On the Geologic Range of the Pterygotus problematicus. 
By the Rev. W. S. Symonds, F.G.S. 

" One of the strangest organisms of the formation," says Mr 
Hugh Miller, in " The Old Red Sandstone," " is a fossil lob- 
ster of such huge proportions that one of the average-sized 
lobsters, common in our markets, might stretch its entire 
length across the continuous tail flap in which the creature 
terminated.'' 

This crustacean is the " Seraphim" of the Forfarshire 
quarrymen, and was for a long time supposed by Agassiz to 
be a " fish." Mr Hugh Miller gives an interesting account of 

NEW SERIES. VOL. T. NO. IT. APRIL 1855. T 



270 Geologic range of the Pterygotus problematicus. 

the restoration of the " lobster' 1 by the great ichthyologist 
himself. 

Nearly allied to the Scotch fossil and the recent Limulus of 
the West Indies, is the Pterygotus problematicus of the Silu- 
rian rocks of England, and the object of this paper is to draw 
the attention of geologists to the remarkable range of that 
crustacean, and the association of a highly-organized Ento- 
mastracan with groups of fossils so widely separated as are 
the trilobites and mollusks of the " Caradoc conglomerate" 
from the ichthyolites of the " Old Red Sandstone." 

In the collection of the Malvern Natural History Field 
Club is a portion of one of the " thoracic feet," discovered by 
Mr John Barrow, in the Caradoc conglomerate of Eastnor 
Park. This fossil is alluded to by Sir R. Murchison (Siluria, 
p. 237), to whom the circumstance of its detection was com- 
municated by the late Mr Hugh E. Strickland. It is associ- 
ated with Lingula crumena, Lingula attenuata, Area Eastnori, 
and Pterinea orbicularis. 

Another "thoracic foot" was found by the writer of this 
notice at the base of the Upper Ludlow shales at Gorstley 
Common, Newent, Gloucestershire, and was examined and 
named by Mr J. W. Salter. Rhynconella Wilsoni occurs in 
the same rock ! 

The fine specimen of the limbs of this Palaeozoic crustacean 
in the cabinet of the late Mr H. E. Strickland, has been fully 
described (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Nov. 1852, vol. viii.) 
by Mr J. W. Salter. The locale of this fossil was in close 
proximity to the Upper Ludlow "bone bed" of Hagley Park, 
near Hereford ; and it was discovered associated with Avicula 
retroflexa, Orthis lunata, and Orbicula rugata by the late 
Mr Mackay Scobie. 

A few weeks ago I examined a fine collection of the remains 
of Pterygotus in the cabinet of Mr R. Banks of Kingston, from 
the ■• tilestones" of Bradnor Hill. One of the claws of this 
animal is superior to the fossil of Hagley Park, while thoracic 
feet, spines, and the plates figured (Sil. System, PI. IV., 4 a), 
occur in great abundance. The only fossil hitherto detected 
in the " tilestones," with the remains of Pterygotus, is Lingula 
cornea. The " Arbroath paving-stones" of the Old Red Sand- 
stone contain numerous fossils of the same crustacean (Siluria, 



On Shoals of Dead Fish. 271 

247). Thus we have a range for the Pterygotus from the 
Caradoc conglomerate to the Devonian rock of Arbroath 
inclusive — a range even greater than that of the long-lived 
Calymene Blumenbachii. 



Notice of Shoals of Dead Fish observed on the passage 
between Mirimachi, Nevj Brunswick, and the port of 
Gloucester. Communicated by the Rev. W. S. Symonds. 
With some Bemarks by Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 

The following is an extract from a letter received from the 
Rev. W. S. Symonds of Pendock Rectory, Gloucestershire. 
The particulars were communicated to that gentleman by John 
Jones, Esq., Vice-Consul at the port of Gloucester to his 
Majesty the Emperor of Austria : — 

"Enclosed in a little box is a dried specimen of a small 
* gar fish," 1 and a paper containing notes from the log-book of 
Captain Parsons, of the ship Harbinger, of the track and dates 
in which the fish was found on the passage between Miri- 
machi, New Brunswick, and the port of Gloucester. It was 
impossible, in the great distance through which he sailed, to 
pull up a ship's bucket without four or five dead gar fish. It 
appears the fish were most numerous in that latitude through 
which the volcanic band of Iceland, the Azores, the Canaries 
and Madeira just strikes, and I believe, therefore, that the 
immense shoals must have been destroyed by submarine vol- 
canic action, and we may thus learn a lesson of the manner 
in which some of our fish-beds have been formed, and even of 
the destruction of genera and species. " 

The above short extract is of very great interest. The 
specimen of the fish itself, as nearly as can be made out from 
the state in which it was dried, is the Sygnathus anguineus — 
a species inhabiting the British seas, but having a consider- 
able extent of range southward. Mr Yarrell informs me, 
he has seen specimens from the latitude of Madeira ; and this 
fact is of some importance, as it renders it more probable that 
the destruction was caused by submarine disturbance taking 
place within the zone to which Mr Symonds alludes. 

t2 



272 On Shoals of Dead Fish. 

In the notice of the insular Volcano, Hotham island, which 
was raised in the Mediterranean, near the coast of Sicily, in 
1831, " a great quantity of dead fish was observed floating in 
the sea the day before the island itself was discovered ;" and 
any similar convulsion which tears open the bottom of the 
deep, and goes through all the phases of an active volcano, 
only submerged from human sight, must be fatal to all animal 
life in the vicinity ; but the extent acted upon need not neces- 
sarily be so great, and the deadly bounds of the convulsion 
may take place within the limits of a few, and more especially 
within the particular habitat of some one species. That these 
submarine volcanic actions have been the cause of death to the 
species which form many of our fossil fish-beds is most likely, 
but it does not follow that these always took place in the vici- 
nity of the present locality of the bed. Wherever the primary 
destruction of the Sygnathus occurred, it is not at all probable 
that it extended over nearly the whole range where they were 
seen by the captain of the Harbinger — it is much more likely 
that they were then being carried away by currents from the 
scene of the eruption, and we can easily conceive them so carried 
or drifted into some bay, or eddied into some hollow, and there 
deposited in mass ; and the same causes would, ere long, cover 
them with a layer of sand or muddy silt, and place them in a 
modern fish-bed, far from the place of their destruction, and 
remote from the locality where the species was known to exist. 
Or if some shallow estuary happened to be the locality to 
which they were carried, and if they were left there during 
the ebb of one single tide, exposed to the sun and winds, the 
upper layer, at least, would be dried, bent, and crooked in 
every shape, their mouths open and their fins distended, and 
in such forms would they be sanded and silted over. We are 
not, therefore, in the case of fossil fishes, to consider that they 
always inhabited the localities in which they are now disco- 
vered. The Sygnathus was drifting over a range of many 
miles ; its comparatively hard covering would permit it to 
stand immersion without decomposition for some time, and the 
state of its preservation, wherever it happened to rest or be 
laid, would be perfect, just according to the time of its expo- 
sure. It is remarkable that no other species was observed by 









~~ «. 




,- 


/' /''Y Y "^. Y 




' / -•' ,' ' "■-—«. -V s \ 


■£ /- +■ „ '' ' ^„ i-5 \ X, 


f f / ^ —^-^ ^r "^ ^ X — *; 


/ / / / / ,-?~ ~--^ _ n x \ 




/ / / / Y/V" — ^\ : \ N N \ 


\ \ 


/ s ""v \ \ •, 












\ \ \\ \ \ 1 1! ' ', ! * 


\ \ \ < \\ \ v v / i li I 




\ \\ YY.Y f / 


\ \ \ \ \ -^ .^ 






\ ^ N ^ ^-^ ^ -/— 




\ s* / 










'--, ..___-- — _. '-' 






On the Illumination of small Arcs of the Horizon. 273 

€aptain Parsons, either dead or dying, through the long track 
in which he observed the " gar fish ;" which we would account 
for either from the peculiar floating properties that would be 
possessed by a hard-skinned Sygnathus, or by the limitation 
of the range of the destroying agent ; but although we cannot 
distinctly account for this circumstance, the fact is of inte- 
rest as showing the occurrence of apparently similar causes in 
the destruction of the individuals forming the ancient fish- 
beds, which are sometimes filled almost with one species only. 
The accompanying figures, taken from Captain Parsons' log, 
point out the track of the Harbinger in which the fish were seen. 



Lat 


K", 


Long. W. 


Lat. N. 


Long. "W. 






39° 


0' 


45° 56' 


22° 0' 


46° 


49' 


34 


10 


46 32 


20 30 


46 


24 


31 


45 


47 40 


19 35 


46 


22 


29 





47 56 


19 10 


46 


16 


27 


10 


48 34 


17 49 


46 


10 


26 





49 14 


15 47 


45 


59 


23 


46 


49 36 


13 17 



On a Simple Method of distributing naturally Diverging 
Rays of Light over any azimuthal angle, with descrip- 
tion of proposed Spherico-Cylindric and Double-Cylindric 
Lenses, for use in Lighthouse Illumination. By Thomas 
Stevenson, F.R.S.E., Civil Engineer. (With a Plate.) 

The diacatoptric apparatus of M. Augustin Fresnel is ad- 
mirably adapted for the use of such fixed lights as require to 
be constantly visible in every azimuth. There are, however, 
many situations where only a small portion of the horizon re- 
quires to be constantly illuminated, and yet that portion may still 
be too great to admit of being lighted up by a single parabolic 
reflector, the divergence of which does not exceed 15°. In such 
cases the engineer has hitherto been contented, for want of more 
perfect apparatus, either to employ a segment of M. Fresnel's 
diacatoptric arrangement for fixed lights already referred to, 
or to have recourse to several parabolic reflectors, each of which 
requires its own separate lamp. When half the azimuth re- 
quires to be illuminated, the use of one half of the diacatoptric 
apparatus, having a spherical mirror behind, is perfectly legi- 
timate, but where the arc to be illuminated is small, much light 
would obviously be lost. A better effect would probably result 



274 Thomas Stevenson on the 

from using several parabolic reflectors, but these at first are 
costly, and, what is worse, the annual expense of maintaining 
so many independent burners is very great. 

In order to supply this deficiency, I have already, in my 
description of the Holophotal system of illumination, published 
in the Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts 
for 1850, proposed a method of distributing all the diverging 
rays which proceed from a flame over 90° of the horizon. It 
is, however, often desirable to illuminate both larger and 
smaller arcs than the quadrant, and I now proceed to explain 
a simple method of attaining this end. 

The whole diverging sphere of rays proceeding from the 
lamp is, in the first place, collected into one beam of parallel 
rays by means of a holophotal apparatus, and the rays so 
united are afterwards subjected to a second action, by' which 
any desired amount of divergence may be produced. 

In figure 1 (Plate IV.), a represents a parabolic conoid, 
truncated at its parameter ; b is a hemispherical mirror ; and I, 
a lens which, when placed at its proper focal distance from 
the flame, subtends the same angle from it as the outer lips of 
the paraboloid. The hemispherical reflector occupies the place 
of the parabolic conoid which has been cut off behind the para- 
meter, and the flame is at once in the centre of the hemisphe- 
rical mirror and in the common focus of the lens and paraboloid. 
Such an arrangement of optical agents constitutes a holopho- 
tal apparatus ; for if we suppose the whole sphere of rays 
emanating from the flame to be divided into two portions, 
namely, the hemisphere of front rays and the hemisphere of 
back rays, it is obvious that part of the exterior or front hemi- 
sphere will be intercepted by the lens, and made parallel by 
its action, while the remainder will be intercepted and ren- 
dered parallel by the paraboloid. The rays forming the 
posterior hemisphere, and which fall upon the hemispherical 
reflector, will be sent back through the focus in the same lines, 
but in opposite directions to those in which they came, whence, 
passing onwards, they will be in part refracted in a parallel 
direction by the lens, and the rest will be reflected in a parallel 
direction by the paraboloid. The back rays thus finally emerge 
horizontally in union with the rays from the anterior hemisphere. 



Illumination of small Arcs of the Horizon. 275 

This instrument, therefore, fulfils the condition of collecting 
the entire sphere of diverging rays into one parallel beam. 
Let c c, figs. 1 and 2, represent a series of straight prisms 
placed vertically and in front of the apparatus just described, 
and suppose their horizontal cross sections to be similar to 
those of the lens I, and their length to be equal to the greatest 
diameter of the paraboloid. It is obvious that the parallel 
rays impinging upon these prisms will be refracted in the 
horizontal, but will suffer no deviation in the vertical plane. 
The horizontal refraction will be similar to what takes place 
at the lens I, but will lie in the opposite direction, so that the 
rays will converge to a focus, /, in front, and will again 
diverge from that focus in the same angle in which they were 
made to converge towards it. An observer at any point in the 
azimuthal angle, G, /', H, will therefore have the benefit of a 
vertical strip of light whose height will be equal to the diame- 
ter of the paraboloid, a a, and whose width will be propor- 
tioned to the breadth of the flame employed. The principal 
objection to this arrangement is the inequality which must 
obviously exist in the intensity of the light as the observer 
passes from the middle of the azimuthal angle where the light 
will be brightest, towards the limits of that angle on either side 
where it will be weakest ; for the lateral prisms do not inter- 
cept so large a portion of light as those which are nearer the 
centre of the beam of parallel rays. 

In order to remove this objection, as well as to reduce the 
loss of light caused by absorption, I propose to use several 
sets of straight prisms, instead of having a single large one 
embracing the whole width of the holophotal apparatus. Such 
an arrangement is shown in figs. 3 and 4, in which is also re- 
presented the most perfect form of holophotal apparatus, in 
which totally reflecting prisms p and b are substituted for 
metallic reflection. The loss by absorption, which in metallic 
reflection amounts to about one-half of the whole incident 
light, is thus saved. It is unnecessary here to give a detailed 
description of this apparatus, as I have published it in th 
Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, vol. iv., 
and as I have already in this paper fully described the nature 
of the holophotal action in the case where metallic reflection 
is employed. 



276 Thomas Stevenson on the 

Let us suppose, then, that the parallel rays proceeding from 
this apparatus are required to be deflected through a larger 
horizontal angle than in the former case, and that it is farther 
desirable to spread the rays more uniformly over the arc to be 
illuminated. Instead of one set of the straight refractors which 
are used in the former case, let there be four sets of such refrac- 
tors, c c, figs. 3 and 4, each having two totally reflecting 
straight prisms, whose horizontal cross section is similar to 
that of the totally reflecting prisms pp, which are used in the 
holophotal apparatus of glass. Each set of refracting and 
totally reflecting straight prisms will have its own focus /' 
in front, from which the rays will diverge through the azi- 
muthal angle due to the number of the prisms in each set, so 
that the denser, as well as the weaker portions of the light, 
will thus be destributed with sufficient uniformity over the 
whole arc. The same principle will also be found very useful 
for Apparent lights,* where the light near the confines of the 
illuminated arc has been found to become faint. 

In order to save the loss of light due to the absorption and 
superficial reflection resulting from the use of two optical 
agents, I propose, in certain cases, to substitute for the lens 
commonly employed one on a new principle, having one side 
ground into the form of the straight refracting prisms c, c, c, c, 
shown at figs 5, 6, 7, while the other side remains convex, but 
of different radius. Fig. 5 shows the elevation of the outer sur- 
face of a lens on this principle, while fig. 6 shows the elevation 
of its inner surface, and fig. 7 its middle horizontal cross section. 
In the lens which I have represented in the figures, the rays con- 
tained in the larger conical angle a?, /, x, are spread over the 
smaller horizontal angle x f x . The want of divergence which 
has often been complained of in the large polyzonal lenses in 
our revolving lights might easily be remedied by adopting this 
principle of construction. The convexity of the straight 
prisms in the horizontal plane would of course in such a case 
be very small. The bull's eye lenses used in hand lanterns, 
or in railway signal lights, might also with advantage be made 
on a similar principle. 

* Vide, Description of the Stornoway Apparent light, erected on a sunk rock 
in Stornoway Bay, the illumination of which is derived from a distant lamp 
situated on the shore. — Trans. Roy. Scott. Soc. of Arts for 1854. 



Illumination of small Arcs of the Horizon. 277 

It would, however, be better to grind one of the surfaces of 
the lens above described into concave cylindric grooves instead 
of convex cylindric prisms, thus making the lens of a meniscal 
section with one surface spherical, and the other cylindric, as 
shown in fig. 8.* A meniscus lens, having its different rings 
cut out, or stepped on both sides, would also be preferable to 
the plane convex form which is used in lighthouses, whether 
for fixed or revolving lights, as the thickness of the glass 
would be much decreased. My friend, Mr James M. Balfour, 
has suggested to me that good curves might also be ob- 
tained by placing the straight prisms horizontally on the 
outer face, thus making the horizontal section plano-convex, 
with such a curvature as to reduce the divergence to the re- 
quired angle, while the vertical sections would be double con- 
vex, the outer curve being such as to render parallel the 
diverging rays as altered by the inner face. 

A like effect might also be produced by making double 
cylindric a portion of one-half of the refractor which forms 
the middle compartment of Fresnel's fixed apparatus. Let 
us suppose a middle sector of this hoop of glass of such a num- 
ber of degrees as the case may require, to be flanked on each 
side by the supplementary sectors, having their convex sur- 
faces next the flame, and their outer surfaces ground into 
straight refracting and totally reflecting vertical prisms simi- 
lar to those which I have already described for the outer face 
of the annular lens. The inner face of this refracting hoop 
will parallelize the rays in the vertical plane only, while the 
outer surface will produce either such an amount of direct 
divergence, or such an amount of convergence as will cause 
them ultimately to diverge through the desired angle. The 
same principle might be applied to the totally reflecting prisms 
when they form part of the apparatus, but the construction 
would probably be attended with too great difficulty, t 

Edinburgh, Feb. 12, 1855. 

* Mr Adie has lately made for me lenses of the forms shown at figs. 7 and 8. 

t The double cylindric refractor might be found serviceable for diminishing 
the divergence of the light in the Davy lamp, as well as for use in lighthouses. 
The effect would be increased by a back reflector of glazed earthenware or 
zinc, both of which materials I have found give a good light, and require 
almost no cleaning. 



278 Professor Harkness on 



On Annelid Tracks in the Equivalents of the Millstone Grits 
in the South-west of the County of Clare. By Robert 
Harkness, Esq., F.R.S.E., F.G.S., Professor of Geology, 
Queen's College, Cork. (With a Plate.) 

The existence of Annelida during the palaeozoic formations 
is manifested in two conditions. In the one, we have the 
shelly envelope which invests the order Tubicola, in the form 
of serpolites ; and in the other, the tracks of the orders Abran- 
chia and Dorsi-branchiata are found impressed on deposits 
which were, at one time, in a sufficiently soft state to receive 
the impressions of the wanderings of these animals. 

Among the strata which have hitherto afforded annelid 
tracks, those which, in the county of Clare, represent a portion 
of the equivalents of the millstone grit, contain such tracks, in 
their most perfect state of preservation in great abundance ; 
and these strata also furnish evidence concerning the circum- 
stances which prevailed during their deposition. 

The locality of these strata is the neighbourhood of Kilrush, 
on the banks of the Shannon, in the southern portion of the 
county. Here the deposits consist of strata which have a 
flaggy character; these have been extensively wrought at 
Money Point, about four miles east from Kilrush, and they 
supply the flags which are commonly used in the towns of the 
south of Ireland. The beds vary somewhat in their nature, 
and with this circumstance they present different phenomena. 

The higher portion of the deposits contain flaggy beds of a 
light gray colour, having sometimes a slight green tinge. These 
flags are thin-bedded, and although devoid of annelid tracks, 
they are marked with impressions of plants, principally cala- 
mites, in compressed fragments. 

These higher flags also, in some instances, afford very beau- 
tiful ripple-markings, which are frequently so perfect as to 
enable us to judge from them of the direction of the wind 
from whence they resulted ; and this appears, for the most 
part, to have been from the south, the larger slopes of the 
ripples pointing in that direction, the more perpendicular sides 
being towards the north. 



PIAIE T, 



Efir^gKWewITnfosopTriccZJcmrnai Vol I. 




'K- 



s%, 
' : 3 











JM 



.»*** 



• "^wIsp 



TRACKS OF THE NEREITES .CARBONARI US. 



Annelid Tracks in the County of Clare. 279 

These greenish-gray flags, as they pass downwards, appear 
to lose the remains of plants, but in the place of them we have 
the annelid tracks, at first rather sparingly, but at a slight dis- 
tance below these seem to occur in considerable abundance. 
We have the greatest amount of these tracks in the lower beds 
of the quarry, and here they present a different aspect, the 
nature of the flags and their colour also varying from the 
higher portions of the strata ; and the most abundant occur- 
rence of these impressions is in the strata which have a dark 
colour, and these dark-coloured flags constitute the portion 
which is wrought for commercial purposes, the higher and 
lighter-coloured flags being rejected as rubbish. With these 
dark-coloured flags there occur intercalated beds which are 
devoid of the flaggy nature, in a great measure, not being 
easily divided along the laminae of bedding ; and these are 
regarded as building stones. The latter prevail most abun- 
dantly in the lower portion of the flaggy strata, and they gra- 
dually assume a more important position, until they form ex- 
clusively the lower portion of the more solid strata as here 
exposed. 

The inclination of the strata which form the deposits at this 
locality is towards the north, at an angle of 15°. Beds of a 
similar nature seem to form the whole south-west portion of 
the county of Clare ; and we have them well developed at Kil- 
kee, about nine miles north-west from Kilrush. Here they are 
also worked for flags and building-stones, and they present 
the same lithological features, and afford the same fragments 
of plants, as well as tracks of annelids, as occur at Money 
Point ; and in every respect they appear identical, having the 
same angle of inclination and direction of dip at the quarry 
where they are wrought. 

This, however, so far as respects the latter, appears only in 
local circumstances, since we find the same deposits, which are 
well seen in the cliffs of this coast, in the neighbourhood of 
Kilkee, having various inclinations and directions. 

Referring more particularly to the annelid tracks, these 
occur in three conditions. When they are in their most perfect 
state, in the faces of the higher greenish-gray flags, they have 
the form of meandering tracks, about half an inch across, and 



280 Professor Harkness on 

their margins crenated. A distinct raised line traverses the 
centre of these tracks, and the interval between this line and 
the crenations is marked by a succession of other lines at right 
angles to the centre one ; and these seem to have had their 
origin in the rings of the body of the annelid. This being the 
appearance usually presented by the upper side of the flags, the 
under side of which affords natural casts, the tracks appearing in 
relief. This perfect state of the tracks does not prevail to the 
exclusion of more imperfect ones, for these perfect tracks ma- 
nifest themselves only to a small extent, and can be gradually 
traced, losing their perfection, until the crenations and the cen- 
tral line disappear, the track assuming the form of a slightly 
depressed sinuous line. 

From the nature of these tracks, when most perfect, we have 
evidence of some features in the structure of the animals from 
whence they originated. The outer crenated margin resulted 
from the organs of locomotion of these animals, the cirri, and 
we may consequently infer that these annalids appertained to 
the cirrated tribe rather than to the order of Abranchia, as this 
is represented by the present genus Nais. 

The transverse lines which cover the impressions point out 
the annelid structure, and at once show that these impressions 
have not arisen from the wandering of molluscs, the tracks of 
which are sometimes seen on the surfaces of the sandstone 
strata; and the central line results from the ventral arch, 
which in this class runs along the central portion of the lower 
side. 

The nature of the tracks, as they occur in the lower dark- 
coloured flags is somewhat different. On the upper surfaces 
of these they appear also in the form of sinuous furrows, 
about the same width as the more perfect tracks of the higher 
flags. Here, however, they rarely present crenations, being 
regular on their margin, and having, in many instances, the 
impression of the ventral arch distinct. In these lower dark- 
coloured flags traces of annelids are not confined to the sur- 
faces of the strata exclusively. The inner parts of these flags 
very often furnish traces of annelids to a greater extent than 
even the surfaces of the beds themselves ; and these too are 
usually marked by such circumstances as support the infer- 



Annelid Tracks in the County of Clare. 281 

ence that they have sprung from somewhat different circum- 
stances. When these flags are divided along the laminse of 
bedding, the lower surface often presents the aspect usually 
afforded by the higher natural surfaces of these dark-coloured 
flags, having the sinuous line, with traces of the ventral arch. 
The surfaces of these sinuous lines, as they are exposed by the 
cleaving of the flags, are in general much finer, and we com- 
monly find that they are filled with the substance of the stone, 
appearing in the form of a thick worm, a transverse section of 
which has a particular shape, and on applying the split sur- 
faces to each other, it can be seen that these apparent track s 
are really the burrows of the annelids in the stone, when it was 
originally mud, and not tracks on the surface of the sea-bot- 
tom. These ancient burrows bear every evidence of having 
been lined with mucus, as are the recent burrows of this tribe 
of animals ; and into these burrows the mud has flowed, filling 
them up, and now furnishing the worm-like bodies which are 
exposed on the split surfaces of the flags. 

These worm-shaped bodies give to us the shape of the bur- 
row, which was meandering, and flattened perpendicularly. 

There is another circumstance which the surfaces of the 
higher greenish-gray flaggy strata sometimes presents, which 
consists of a small funnel-shaped cavity, forming the entrances 
into these burrows. 

The various appearances of the tracks, and the nature of 
the strata with which these are associated, furnish some im- 
portant information concerning the conditions which obtained 
when this portion of the millstone grit series was being depo- 
sited. With regard to the tracks themselves, these, from their 
various states of perfection, indicate that, in some instances, 
the mud which now constitutes these flags had been in different 
states, as concerns consolidation, at the time when it was tra- 
versed by these animals. It sometimes appears to have been 
in a state so saturated with water that it assumed a pasty 
condition, partly flowing in upon the tracks after these had im- 
pressed its surface, and obliterating the markings of the cirri. 
At other times it seems to have been sufficiently consolidated 
to afford the requisite conditions for more perfect tracks, as in 
the case of the higher greenish-gray flags. But even here, we 



282 Professor Harkness on 

often, as already stated, see these more perfect tracks becom- 
ing less distinct, leading to the inference, that while some 
portions of the bottom of the sea, occupied by this lighter mud 
were comparatively hard, others were so soft as to flow in 
and in part efface the impressions. This is a circumstance 
which occurs not only with annelid tracks, but likewise with 
the impressions of reptilian footprints, as these are seen on 
some of the faces of the Bunter sandstone strata. In this 
latter case, although the conditions under which footprints 
were formed were different, being generally the result of the 
wanderings of reptiles on a sandy shore ; still the cause of their 
partial obliteration was the same, namely, the flowing of sand 
saturated with water into the impressions after the foot had 
been removed. 

The occurrence of annelid tracks is not confined to the flag- 
stones of the county of Clare, although these possess characters 
which are the most perfect and beautiful of any which have 
hitherto been discovered. They are met with in many of the 
palaeozoic rocks, and frequently under the same conditions in 
which they occur in this locality, namely, on the surfaces of 
the flagstones. Sir Roderick Murchison, in the Silurian sys- 
tem, figures a track from the schistose building stone of Llam- 
peter, which he calls Nerites Sedgwicki, and this has a great 
resemblance to the impressions on the flags of the county of 
Clare. Markings of a similar nature also occur among the 
lower Silurians of the south of Scotland, and have been named 
Crossopodia by Professor M'Coy, and described by him in the 
account of the fossils added by Professor Sedgwick to the 
Woodwardian Museum. Tracks somewhat resembling those 
of the county of Clare, both in nature and age, are mentioned 
also by Mr Binney, as being present in the flagstones of Hut- 
ton roof, near Lancaster ; and these are described by him in 
the Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Manchester, vol. x., p. 189. This geologist also mentions an- 
nelid markings which are found in the form of holes in the 
flags of the lower portion of the Lancashire coal-field ; and the 
upper portion of these holes seem to have a great affinity to 
the funnel-shaped cavities which the entrances into the bur- 
rows of the annelids present, as they are seen on the surfaces 



Annelid Tracks in the County of Clare. 283 

of the Money Point flags, and these holes, Mr Binney re- 
gards as having resulted from the Dorsi-branchiat annelid, 
to which he applies the name of Arenicola carbonaria, con- 
sidering it as the ancient representative of the Arenicola pis- 
catorum, or lug-worm of our present sandy shores. The 
Lancashire markings do not afford the crenations which ac- 
company the tracks on the flags of the county of Clare, and the 
deposit in which they occur is of a somewhat different mineral 
nature, having more of a sandy character than the equivalents 
of the millstone grits as they are represented by the deposits 
of Money Point and Kilkee, where the beds seem to have been 
originally of a more muddy nature, and probably where a dif- 
ferent habitat prevailed. 

The animals which impressed these Irish flags appears to 
have been widely different from those which have burrowed in 
the deposits which now form the flags of the lower portion of the 
Lancashire coal-field, since, in these latter, neither the entrance 
into the burrows nor the burrows themselves, equal the annelid 
burrows of the flagstone of Clare ; the former having only 
a diameter of £th of an inch, and being apparently round, 
while the latter are \ an inch in breadth, and have their form 
flattened longitudinally, which gives to them on transverse 
section, the lenticular shape already referred to. From their 
crenulated margins, which would indicate that the cirri were 
more perfectly developed in the annelids to which we owe these 
tracks, it would seem that they are more nearly allied to those 
which have impressed the strata of the older formations, than 
to such as have left their markings on the English carbon- 
iferous deposits ; and if we adopt the generic appellation of Sir 
Roderick Murchison, they might be considered as the car- 
boniferous type of the ancient Nerites, and be designated 
Nerites carbonarius. 

Nerites carbonarius (Harkness), Plate V. 

Tracks, when in their most perfect state, sinuous, about \ an 
inch in breadth, and having a central line running along them, the 
result of the ventral arch. The sides of the tracks crenulated, 
the effect of the cirri which seem to have been largely developed. 
Where the burrows are seen, these appear in the form of sinuous 
hollows which have been filled up with mud, and these hollows 



284 Andrew Murray's Description 

which were originally lined with mucus, present, on transverse 
section, a lenticular form, and also show on their lower side the 
raised central line produced by the ventral arch. 

Locality. — Occur in great abundance, and in a very perfect state, 
in the flaggy equivalents of the millstone grits at Money Point, and 
at Kilkce in the south-west of the county of Clare. 



Description of New Coniferous Trees from California. By 
Andrew Murray, W.S. 

The expedition, in the course of which the trees now to be 
described were found, was undertaken by my brother, Mr 
William Murray, last autumn. He was joined by Mr A. F. 
Beardsley, a gentleman from whose energy and knowledge of 
the mode of life in the regions they traversed, he derived much 
assistance. They left San Francisco in the month of Septem- 
ber, and directed their course northwards and eastwards, so 
as to explore the country lying between the coast range and 
the Rocky Mountains. For a great distance their researches 
were not rewarded by the discovery of anything of much in- 
terest or novelty, and they were almost despairing of success, 
when they came upon one of those patches of country so cha- 
racteristic of North-western America, in which were crowded 
together a number of totally new species, as well as several of 
the rarest of those which have been already described or intro- 
duced into this country. 

Among the pines they found and procured seeds of Abies 
nobilis and grandis, Pinus Jeffreyi, monticola, Benthamiana, 
tuberculata, Lambertiana, &c. Whilst camped amongst 
these their attention was a good deal directed to their growth 
and habits, and some of the information which they acquired 
regarding them might be practically useful to the cultivators 
of them in this country. For instance, the difficulty of procur- 
ing sound seed of Abies nobilis and Abies grandis is well 
known. No collector who has met with it (and a number have 
gone expressly to secure it) has omitted to send it home ; but 
(with the exception perhaps of the seed sent by Douglas) I be- 
lieve it has invariably arrived so bored and worm-eaten by 
maggots, that it has germinated only in rare instances. The 



PI AT I vr. 



IA'n2rurgh¥ewPMlnsoph/>aZ JournjiL Vol I 







V.Bccaiisli 



7/7 



i l*et Seulp. 



PIA1E VH. EduutmrglvWmFJdbsoplacaL Journal Vol I. 




Tig. 5. 




Fu?3. 



P .CrcLigcuria 






MATE Tffi. 



^clMiUTfflvFmPhihsopJamLJourrwl Vol L 



Jfy.3. 




Jfyl. 



Iy.2. 



P. lieiuthjcuiizaniL 

I Copied Iron, //,,, /, VlW 



AMu,T,,,,.s, ,,h 



PLATE IX. 



TdvQ^jrg%J[ewTh£bsop7dcal Journal Yol I. 



Tvq.ll. 




Tiff.23. 




\ 



Tig.14. 



FigJl. 

ii", 

V 

Tig.25. 



I 



Wj 



Fig.16. 
Tigl7. 

*A. Hookcrmna 






Tig. 8. 



FiglO. 



G 

Trg. 9. 



Tig. J. 





Tvg.Z. 

Fig.l 

Hg± Tig. 5. 

o 



J^.7. 



.^. 0/Z^<2 . 



Tig. 6. 



*A. Tattanuina. 



AMiAi-raij. deL^ e* sculpt 



PLATE IX. 



XaMurgk New JPJulosopkh. 1 1 




A.Murra.y, llth. 



CUPRESSUS LAWSONIANA 



P I AT E 3Z Saviburdh NewBdhosopldcaL Joit -rial Vol I . 








00 


Fi g 4 


Fi«3 


F.g2 



Figl 



RK.Greville del* 



A.Murray . Sculpt et Lftfcl 



CUPRESSUS MACNABIANA 



of Neiv Coniferous Trees from California. 285 

supply of these trees, therefore, continues to be dependent upon 
grafts and cuttings, of course at a high price. Various causes 
have been alleged as the ground of these failures, the most 
common suggestion being the carelessness of the collector in 
not selecting perfectly sound seed, and want of care and atten- 
tion in packing. My brother's observations have satisfied him 
that to neither of these can previous failures be justly attri- 
buted. They are entirely owing to the cones of the trees being 
so universally attacked by an insect that it is matter of the 
greatest difficulty to find an untouched cone. It was only after 
examining the produce of hundreds that my brother was able 
to secure a very few intolerable condition. At no period of 
their growth did he find the cones free from it. The insect 
appears to lay its egg in the seed while the cone is still in its 
green and tender state. Probably it could not penetrate the 
bard husk of the seed in its mature state, and in the majority 
of cones almost every seed will be found with a maggot in the 
kernel while it is still unripe. What species of insect it is, we 
cannot yet tell. The grub is obviously the larva of a coleop- 
terous insect, and I hope shortly to know more, as I am at 
present in process of attempting to breed some living speci- 
mens which my brother brought home. He found no perfect 
insect in or among the cones, with the exception of a single 
specimen of an Agathidium, which he shook out of a heap of 
cones. Neither the larva of this minute beetle nor its habits 
are yet known, so that we cannot say positively whether it is 
the culprit here or not ; but so far as an inference may 
be drawn from the known habits of the perfect insect, which 
frequents decaying vegetable matter, I should say it is not. 
From the appearance of the larva I think it is more likely 
to be an AnoMum, in partial confirmation of which I may 
mention that in one of the consignments sent home by 
Jeffrey, there was found among the debris a considerable num- 
ber of living specimens of an AnoMum closely allied to our 
Anobium molle and A Metis, both of which feed upon some 
portion of our fir-trees. I cannot charge my memory whether 
these specimens came in the consignment of which seeds of 
the A. noMlis formed a part or not. Whatever be the species, 
it is obvious that it must be found in immense numbers at the 

KE.W SKKIES. VOL* I. NO. II.— APRIL 1855. U 



286 Andrew Murray's Description 

season when the perfect insect is eclosecl. It also appears to 
be widely distributed, having been found so universally, from 
whatever locality the seed may have been taken ; so that, un- 
less some fortunate season occurs unfavourable to the existence 
of this pest, it appears probable that these magnificent and 
beautiful species are likely to continue scarce and valuable in 
this country, the small quantity of good seed likely to be pro- 
cured by a collector not being sufficient to repay the labour 
and expense of procuring it. 

But the discussion of such points relating to trees already 
established in this country is foreign to our present purpose, 
which is simply to describe one or two new species which were 
found associated with these pines. 

The first of these is a species of Pinus, which we have 
named Beardsleyi, in honour of Mr Beardsley. 

Pinus BeardsleyL Plate VI. 

P. foliis ternis, longis; vaginis curtis, corrugatis ; strobilis, 
oblongis equilateri-ovatifr, aggregatis ; squamis apice quad- 
rangulis, umbilico mediocri ; elevato mucronatis ; mucrone 
tenui versus basim deflexo ; spermodermate maculato. 

Habitat in California in montibus interioribus circa lat. 
41° Bor. ; altitudine 5000-6000 ped. 

Leaves in threes, about six inches long, firm, numerous, 
roughened by projecting points along the midrib and, edges, 
the points directed to the tip of the leaf. Sheath short, about 
an eighth of an inch in length, coarse and corrugated. Cones 
growing on a short thick peduncle, aggregated round the 
branch, generally from 3 to 5 ; 3 inches long, and 1J across, 
or nearly 5 in circumference at the broadest part, of a some- 
what prolonged elliptical shape ; and the difference in the 
appearance of the scales on the outer and inner side of the 
cone is trifling. Scales an inch long, with a not very pro- 
minent apophysis. The medial line, crossing the exposed part 
of the scale, generally runs nearly across the middle. A thin 
small sharp hooked prickle, nearly a line in length, points 
towards the base of the cone. Seeds winged with a speckled 



of New Coniferous Trees from California. 287 

spermoderm, about 1J lines in length, wing 7-8ths of an inch 
in length, pale brown, semitransparent, darker at the tip, and 
with brown streaks running longitudinally. 

The tree is of great beauty and size ; one which was cut 
down measured 123 feet in height, and 44 inches in diameter 
at the stump. Another tree near it measured 17 feet 4 inches 
in circumference at three feet from the ground. The stem 
was a very handsome column about 30 feet to the first branch ; 
timber good and clear. It was found on the top of a moun- 
tain, in lat. 41° N., at the same altitude as Pinus Jeffreyi and 
monticola, and Abies grandis, and higher than P. Bentha- 
miana and Lambertiana. 

This and the following species (Craigana) seem to have 
more affinity with P. Bentliamiana than any other described 
species. But the present species has the points of the umbo 
of the scale pointing towards the base of the cone, while in 
Bentliamiana they point to the tip ; the cone of Benthamiana 
is 5 inches long, while Beardsleyi is only 3 inches. The 
leaves are 11 inches in length, while in Beardsleyi they are 
only 6. The sheath of the leaf in Bentliamiana is an inch 
long, while in Beardsleyi it is only an eighth of an inch. 
The wing of the seed of Bentliamiana is much larger and 
longer than that of Beardsleyi. The timber of Beardsleyi 
is homogeneous all through. The heart of Bentliamiana is 
redder than the sap wood, and the sap wood occupies a great 
breadth of the stem. Beardsleyi grows much further up the 
mountains than Bentliamiana. The distinction between the 
cones of these trees will be sufficiently seen from the rough 
etchings which I have given. The figure of the cone of Ben- 
thamiana is copied from that given by Hartweg. Like all 
that gentleman's figures and descriptions, it is very charac- 
teristic of the cone as it is generally found, but it is inaccurate 
as a representation of the cone in its complete state, in so far 
that it represents the hooked umbo as pointing to the base. In 
point of fact it does take a bend in that direction, but the 
prickle which terminates the umbo takes a sudden turn back- 
wards, and points to the tip like the following species {Craig- 
ana). The prickle in the specimen, from which Hartweg's 
figure has been taken, has obviously been rubbed off, which 

U 2 



288 Andrew Murray's Description 

gives a false impression of the direction of the umbo. There 
can be no doubt about this, because my brother found all 
Hartweg's localities so strictly correct that he could recognise 
the very patches of different trees that he describes having 
met ; and he took his observations on the cones, &c. of Ben- 
thamiana from the very clump of that tree described by 
Hartweg, as found by him near Santa Cruz. There was n# 
other tree, or clump of trees, for a great distance, with which 
it could be confounded. 

There is also some resemblance between this Pine (Beards- 
leyi) and P. ponderosa, as was well suggested to me by Dr 
Lindley ; but the shape of the cone, and the size and shape of 
the seed and wing sufficiently distinguish it. In P.ponderosa 
the cone tapers to both ends, while in this it tapers to the 
point. Its seed does not appear to be speckled in any figure 1 
have seen (I have not seen any specimen of the seed itself), 
while this is. The sheath of the leaf in P. ponderosa is smooth 
longish, fine, and tightly fitting, whereas in this it is short, 
corrugated and rough ; and the leaf of ponderosa is nearly 
twice as long, being 9 to 11 inches in length, in place of 6 
inches. Its leaf also wants (or nearly so) the projecting points 
which roughen that of Beardsleyi, so that the leaves can be 
distinguished by the feel, or drawing them forwards between 
the fingers, 

Pinus Graigana. Plate VII. 

P.foliis ternis, delicatis ; vaginis longis teneris ; strobilis 
fere equilateri-ovatis pedunculatis aggregatis ; squamis apice 
quadrangulis, umbilico rnediocri elevato mucronatis, mu* 
crone versus apicem spectante, spermodermate maculato. 

Habitat in California, circa lat. 41° Bor., altitudine 
4000-5000 ped. 

Leaves in threes, 4J inches long, thin and fine. Sheath 
-J-d inch long, fine, smooth, and tightly fitting. Cones 
light brown, 3 to 3£ inches long, and nearly 2 inches across, 
and about 6 inches in circumference at the broadest part ; ob- 
long elliptical. There is a little difference between the scales 
on the outer and inner side, those on the outer being rather 
more developed, but it is not very marked. Scales an inch 



of New Coniferous Trees from California, 289 

long, with a strongly- marked apophysis. The medial line 
crosses the exposed part of the scale within a third of the top. 
A pretty strong short-hooked umbo, after making a short curve 
towards the base, points to the tip of the cone. Seeds winged, 
Jth of an inch in length. Spermoderm speckled. Wing ■§ ths of 
an inch in length, and nearly f ths of an inch across, pale fawn- 
coloured, darker at the tip, and with purplish-brown streaks 
running longitudinally. There is a small, rounded, purple-tipped 
bract, £th of an inch in length, at the base and back of the scale. 

It differs from the preceding species (P. Beardsleyi) in 
having the prickle of the scale pointing towards the tip in- 
stead of the base. The prickle, too, is strong and firm in Craig- 
ana ; in Beardsleyi it is small and weak. The apophysis, 
or excrescence on the exposed part of the scale, is smaller in 
point of space, but more prominent in Craigana than in 
Beardsleyi, which has the exposed part somewhat flat, while 
in Craigana the upper part projects over the lower. The 
wing of the seed of Craigana is shorter, and relatively broad- 
er. The seed is nearly twice the size of that of Beardsleyi, 
although the cones are about the same size. The leaf of 
Craigana is finer than that of Beardsleyi, and not so long. 
The sheath of the leaf is finer, and considerably longer. 

Craigana was found on the same mountains as Beardsleyi, 
but growing lower down, and below it again appeared Ben- 
tliamiana. It spreads its branches, wider from the stem than 
Benthamiana, and sheds its seed a month later. 

My brother and I have dedicated this handsome pine to 
Sir William Gibson-Craig, Bart., whose enthusiasm has done 
so much to promote the cultivation and introduction of new 
pine trees, and who, in particular, was one of those who chiefly 
conduced to my brother undertaking the expedition, of which 
this pine forms part of the fruits. 

Abies Hookeriana. Plate VIIL 
A.foliis curtis, utrinque concoloribus ; strobilis cylindricis, 
pallide-fulvis, bracteolis tenuibus minutis ad basim squama- 
rum stride applicatis ; squamis concavis et non crenulatis. 
Habitat in California, in iisdem montibus quam precedens, 
sed majore altitudine. 



290 Andrew Murray's Description 

Leaves slightly curved, with a rib in the middle, both above 
and below, and sometimes depressed above, so as to give the 
leaf a triangular or boat-shaped form ; from \ to Jths of an 
inch long, not silvery beneath. They are closely but irregu- 
larly set along the young branches, chiefly on the upper side 
of the branch, except at the extreme shoot, where they closely 
surround the whole twig. The general appearance of the fo- 
liage is crowded. Cones cylindrical, oblong, from If to 2 
inches long, and Jth of an inch broad, pale fawn-coloured. 
Scales somewhat concave or saucer-shaped, dull and opaque, 
more especially where they have been covered by the other 
scales, slightly thickened at the exposed edge, not crenulated, 
but gently impressed with two or three faint raised lines ; these 
lines, irregular and evanescent, generally running straight 
down the exposed part of the scale, or only sloping slightly 
towards the centre. Sides of the scale cut out unequally on 
the opposite sides, and ending with a tooth curving inwardly 
at each side of the root. A small bract is situated at the 
bottom of each scale, fastened firmly to the back, and ad- 
pressed upon the scale. It is nearly two lines long. There is 
a yellowish tooth in the middle, which is a mere prolongation 
of the nerve by which it is attached to the scale, and which is so 
firmly fixed that the scale may be torn off, leaving the greater 
part of the nerve sticking like .a, thread to the scale. The 
top, on each side of this scale, is purple. At about one-third 
of its length from the top the breadth of the bract is suddenly 
contracted and from thence slopes gradually to its root. 

This species is allied to A. alba. The cones have consider- 
able resemblance. They are of the same colour, and the scales 
in both are somewhat saucer-shaped, and have their edges 
smooth ; but Hookeriana has the cone, and more especially 
the scale, seed and wing larger. These, as well as the bract 
at the back of the scale, are differently shaped, as will be seen 
from the figures in the etching. The habit of the tree, and 
the manner of growth of the leaves, is also different. In A. alba 
the leaves are inserted pretty regularly along the branch. In 
Hookeriana they are crowded together, curling upwards a 
little, after the fashion of A. nobilis. 

This A bies has also considerable resemblance to A. Patton- 



of New Coniferous Trees from California. 291 

iana, introduced three or four years ago by Jeffrey, the collec- 
tor sent out by the Edinburgh Oregon Expedition, and as that 
species is little known (having only been described and figured 
in a private circular issued by that Association), I shall enter 
a little more at length into the distinctions between the two 
than I have done with A. alba. 

Both A. Pattoniana and A. Hookeriana are trees of ex- 
ceeding beauty, but the former is described by Jeffrey as being 
150 feet in height, and towering over the rest of the forest. 
The height of A. Hookeriana was only about 50 feet. One 
tree that my brother cut down measured 47J feet in height, 
and was 20 inches in diameter at the stump. The timber is 
hard and tough. It is more distinguished by its gracefulness 
than its size. With the exception of Cupressus Lawson- 
iana (to be presently mentioned)^ my brother describes this as 
the most beautiful of the new discoveries which his expedition 
produced. Its gracefulness and elegance were the qualities 
on which he particularly dwelt. The cones of the two trees 
give many points by which to distinguish them. They do not 
differ much in size, but those of A. Pattoniana are of a dark 
brown colour, and those of A. Hookeriana of a light fawn 
colour, somewhat of the hue of the cone of our common larch, 
or of Abies alba. The scales of A. Pattoniana are a third, 
or a half smaller than A. Hookeriana. They are deeply 
crenulated quite down to the place which the bract covers, 
and that place is smooth and prominent. The scales of 
Hookeriana are not crenulated, an evanescent raised line 
only shows itself here and there. The shape of its scale 
also is not regular ; it is cut out on each side, but one side 
is always more cut out than the other ; where the cutting 
out has commenced, the scale has thinned off so as to be 
membranaceous. In A. Pattoniana there is no such thin- 
ning off nor cutting out. In its scale the place where the 
two next scales have lain over it is not, or at least is 
scarcely, to be distinguished from the exposed part. In A. 
Hookeriana it is very marked, there being an immediate rising 
or thickening in the line of the scale just beyond where they 
lay, showing the exposed part very distinctly of a curved tri- 
angular shape. The surface of the covered part in A. Hooker- 



292 Andrew Murray's Description 

iana is duller and more opaque than the exposed part, and 
the streaks or raised lines are less perceptible. In A, Pat- 
toniana no such difference exists. The bract in A . Pattoniana 
contracts at about two-thirds of its length from the top, and 
has a projecting purple ear immediately before the contraction. 
A. Hookeriana has no such ear, and the contraction takes 
place at one-third from the top instead of two-thirds. This 
ear is not to be confounded with a sort of projection, which 
both have at the top angles. The seed and the wing of A. 
Pattoniana are both about one- third shorter than in A. 
Hookeriana, and the wing of the former has a purplish-brown 
tinge at the top and back, which does not exist in the latter. 

This species was found high up the Californian mountains, 
about lat. 41° N., where the ground was already covered with 
snow, on the 16th of October. 

We have named this species in honour of Sir W. Hooker, 
who has done so much for the botany of this country. The 
species A. Pattoniana was justly named by the committee of 
the Oregon Botanical Association, after Mr Patton of the 
Cairnies, in Perthshire, a gentleman who is following out with 
equal zeal and discrimination a series of experiments, having 
for their object the ascertainment of what new pine and other 
forest trees can be grown with most advantage in our climate. 

Cupressus Laiusoniana. Plate IX. 

C. ramulis quadrangulis mediocriter compressis flexuosis ; 
foliis crassis decussatis quadriseriatis adpressis ; strobilis 
polygonis pedunculatis ; squamis fere planis, mucronatis ; 
seminibus planis, auriculatis. 

Habitat in California, in lat. 40° ad 42° Bor. 

Branchlets quadrangular, somewhat compressed ; leaves 
decussate, ovate, glaucous, adpressed in four imbricated rows ; 
cones polygonal, of a light brown colour, about the size of a 
large pea, pedunculated ; scales, six in number, flat, rough, 
light brown, corticaceous, irregularly four or five sided, with 
an umbo or tooth in the centre, pointing straight outwards. 
Seeds proportionally large, flat, somewhat ear-shaped. Branches 
flexuose, crowded, ascending. 

This was the handsomest tree seen in the whole Expedition. 



of New Coniferous Trees from California. 293 

It was found on the banks of a stream in a valley in the moun- 
tains ; is about 100 feet high, and two feet in diameter. The 
foliage is most delicate and graceful. The branches bend 
upwards at the end like a spruce, and hang down at the tip 
like an ostrich feather. The top shoot droops like a Deodar. 
The timber is good, clear, and workable. 

This species has been named after Messrs Lawson, the enter- 
prising nurserymen of the Scottish capital, who, after having 
distributed and made generally known so many species of this 
family of trees, are well entitled to have their names con- 
nected with a species likely to prove a general favourite ; and 
the attention comes well from my brother, who, if he has re- 
ceived praise and commendation from others for the extent 
and excellence of his collection, has received from these gen- 
tlemen the solid pudding, they having purchased the whole of 
his collection at a liberal price. 

Cupressus M'Nabiana. Plate X. 

C.foliis acutis, carinatis, decus satis ; ramulis curtis tor- 
tuosis ; strobilis globosis, squamis mucronatis, mucrone con- 
torto ; seminibus parvis, concavis. 

Habitat in California, circa lat. 41° Bor. 

Leaves acute, keeled, decussate, sub-amplexicaul at the 
base, the older leaves ending in short firm projections. Branch- 
lets small, short, tortuose. Cones globose, growing on a short 
thick peduncle, about the size of a small cherry or gean. 
Scales, six in number, irregularly four or five sided, each with 
a strong projecting mucro in their centre, the mucro gene- 
rally curled in at the point, especially in the younger cones. 
Seeds small, circular, bent in the shape of a scoop. The figure 
given of this species is taken from a dried specimen, from 
which many of the leaves and branchlets had been broken off, 
so that it appears less clothed than it is in reality. 

An evergreen shrub, growing to no great size, but from its 
somewhat gnarled and tortuous appearance, likely to form an 
agreeable variety in a lawn or shrubbery. 

My brother has named this species after our friend Mr 
M'Nab, of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, who con- 
tributed much to the success of the Expedition by his judicious 



294 Andrew Murray's Description 

advice and suggestions, particularly as to the best mode of 
safely transmitting the seeds to this country, advice which 
proved not only eminently practical, but also singularly suc- 
cessful. 

Taxus Lindleyana. 

T. foliis bi-seriatis, linearibus, planis sparsis ; baccis ut 
in Taxo baccata hibernica ; seminibus fere globosis ; ramis 
longissimis etpendulis. 

Habitat in California, circa lat. 40° ad 41° Bor. 

Leaves two-ranked, linear, flat, of smaller size and narrower 
than in the common British yew (T. baccata, L.), and the 
prickle at the end of the leaf is more developed. Berries 
exactly like those of the Irish yew, growing on the under-side 
of the branch. Seeds nearly globose, putty-coloured. Branches 
exceedingly long and pendulous. Wood almost as elastic as 
whalebone — a property which has been turned to useful ac- 
count by the Indians, who make their bows of it. 

As I have only an imperfect specimen of the branch and 
seed, I am sorry that I cannot give more than the above very 
meagre description. 

The tree is from 40 to 30 feet high. One which my brother 
measured was 50 inches in circumference at 5 feet from the 
ground. Another at the same height measured 5 feet 10 inches 
in circumference. It was found growing on the sides of a 
glen under the shade of larger trees which grow higher up. 
It would consequently make a good filler-up where ordinary 
underwood does not readily grow. 

I have named it after Dr Lindley, whose courtesy and kind- 
ness, both now and formerly, in examining for me, and re- 
porting upon specimens sent from abroad, I take this oppor- 
tunity of gratefully acknowledging. 

It is perhaps unnecessary for me to say, that in the fore- 
going paper, all the information (other than which I could 
acquire from the actual inspection of the specimens themselves), 
was obtained from my brother ; and I regret that a more en- 
grossing occupation should have at present prevented him 
from describing these interesting novelties himself, a regret 



of New Coniferous Trees from California. 295 

which should be participated in by the reader, as had he 
undertaken it, the work would have been much better done. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate VI. Pinus Beardsleyi. 

Fig. 1. Leaves of do. 

2. Cone. 

3. Bract of Scale. 

4. Scale. 

5. Seed. 

VII. Pinus Craigana. 

Fig. 1 . Leaves of do. 

2. Cone. 

3. Bract of Scale. 

4. Scale. 

5. Seed. 

VIII. Pinus Benthamiana (copied from Hartweg's figure). 

Fig. 1. Part of Leaves. 

2. Cone. 

3. Seed. 

IX. Fig. 1. Twig of Abies Pattoniana. 

2. Leaf of do. 

3. Cone of do. 

4. Inner side of Scale of do. 

5. Outer side of do. 

6. Bract of do. 

7. Seed of do. 

8. Outer side of Scale of Abies alba. 

9. Bract of do. 

10. Seed of do. 

11. Twig of Abies Hooheriana. 

12. Leaf of do. 

13. Cone of do. 

14. Inner side of Scale of do. 

15. Outer side of Scale of do. 

16. Bract of do. 

17. Seed of do. 

X. Cupressus Laivsoniana. 

Fig. 1. Twig of do., with Cones. 

2. Cone of do. 

3. Seed of do. (natural size). 

4. Do. (magnified). 

XI. Cupressus M' Nabiana. 

Fig. 1. Branch of do., with leaves and cones. 

2. Seeds (natural size). 

3. Do. (magnified). 

4. Do. (magnified in profile). 



296 Professor Anderson on the 

On the Colouring Matter of the Rottlera tinctoria. By 
Thomas Anderson, M.D., F.R.S.E., Regius Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of Glasgow. 

The colouring matter of the Rottlera tinctoria has long 
been an article of commerce in India, and is still farmed by 
Government, being in considerable demand among the Ma- 
hommedan population for dyeing silk. No attempts have as 
yet been made to introduce it into European commerce, an im- 
pression appearing to have existed that the supply is too 
limited to make it of importance. Dr Cleghorn of Madras, to 
whose kindness I owe the specimen examined, assures me that 
this impression is unfounded, and that very considerable quan- 
tities might be obtained, if it were likely to prove useful ; and 
the trials I have made with it are sufficient to show that it 
really merits the attention of silk-dyers. Of its chemical 
composition very little is known, the only person who has as 
yet examined it being Solly, and even he appears to have done 
no more than substantiate the fact that the colouring matter 
is extracted by alcohol, and has the character of a resin. 

The Rottlera tinctoria is a large tree, which is stated by 
Roxburgh* to be confined to the mountainous districts of the 
Northern Circars. Subsequent researches, however, have 
shown that it is very widely distributed over the uhole Indian 
Peninsula, from Ceylon to the north-west provinces ; and Dr 
Cleghorn has found it very abundantly in the hill jungles of 
Mysore, Canara, and Malabar, from whence large supplies 
might easily be obtained. The bazaar price of the colouring 
matter, during the years 1847-8, ranged from 5 to 7 rupees 
per maund of 25 lbs. 

The fruit of the Rottlera tinctoria is about the size of a pea, 
and is covered externally with curious stellate hairs and 
coloured glands, which are easily rubbed off, and then form a 
red powder, which, without further preparation, forms the ar- 
ticle of commerce. Similar red glands are found, though in 
small numbers, on the leaves. The root is also said to be 
used in Bengal as a dye, but Dr Cleghorn has never heard of 
its employment in Mysore. The colouring matter, as it 

* Coromandel Plants, vol. ii., p. 160; and Flora Indica, vol. iii., p. 827. 



Colouring Matter of Rottlera tinctoria. 297 

came into my hands, was a perfectly uniform, dark brick- dust 
coloured granular powder, perfectly dry, and resembling a very 
fine red sand. It has a slight taste, and a peculiar, though faint, 
aromatic odour. It repels water, and is not easily moistened 
by it, requiring to be shaken with it for some time, and is so 
sparingly soluble, that even after boiling with it, water ac- 
quires only a pale yellowish tint ; but the addition of an alka- 
line carbonate, or, still better, of a caustic alkali, causes the 
fluid to assume a fine red colour. When boiled with alcohol, 
the greater part of it dissolves, forming a dark-red solution, 
and if this be filtered hot from the insoluble matter, it depo- 
sits, on cooling, a pale flocky matter, which is sometimes so 
abundant that the fluid is completely filled by it, while a dark 
red resin remains in solution, and may be obtained by evapora- 
tion as an amorphous mass. The case is different if ether be 
employed as the solvent ; a fine red solution is then obtained, 
which gives no flocks on cooling, but on sufficient concentration, 
and standing for a couple of days, solidifies into a mass of 
granular crystals, to which I give the name of Rottlerine. 

By repeated digestion with hot alcohol, the whole of the 
colouring matters are dissolved, and a pale whitish matter, con- 
sisting of cellulose and albuminous compounds, is left. A proxi- 
mate analysis, in which the proportion of albuminous matters 
was ascertained by a determination of nitrogen, showed the 
composition of the powder to be 



Water, 


3-49 


Resinous colouring matters 


78-19 


Albuminous matters, 


7'34 


Cellulose, &c, 


714 


Ash, . 


3-84 



100-00 

In addition to these substances it contains also a small 
quantity of a volatile oil, and apparently, also, of a volatile 
colouring matter ; for the alcohol which has been boiled with 
it, after being separated by distillation, retains the smell of 
the Rottlera, and has a decided yellow colour. 

Rottlerine. — If the colouring matter be boiled with ether, 
and the filtered fluid evaporated to dryness, it leaves only, an 



298 Professor Anderson on the 

amorphous mass : but if it be distilled to a small bulk, and 
left for a day or two in a cool place, as already mentioned, it 
becomes filled with granular crystals. These are collected on 
a filter, and pressed between folds of filtering paper, to remove 
the resinous mother liquor. The pressed mass is re-dissolved 
in boiling ether, and the crystals deposited, on cooling, are 
again expressed, and this is repeated until it is obtained en- 
tirely free from resinous matters. It then forms a mass of 
yellow crystals, having a fine satiny lustre, which is seen to 
great advantage when a fluid containing it in suspension is 
stirred. Under the microscope these crystals are seen to be 
minute plates, which are much broken up, and show no well- 
marked form. Rottlerine is insoluble in water, sparingly so- 
luble in cold alcohol, more so in boiling. In ether it is readily 
soluble. It dissolves in alkaline solutions, with a dark-red 
colour. Its alcoholic solution is not precipitated by acetate of 
lead. Bromine instantly decolorizes it, with formation of a 
substitution product, which dissolves readily in spirit, and is 
thrown down by the addition of water. It does not crystallize, 
and could not be obtained in a state of purity. Nitric acid oxid- 
izes Rottlerine, forming at first a yellow resinous matter, and 
by longer continued action, a quantity of oxalic acid. Concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, in the cold, dissolves it with a yellow 
colour, which, on the application of a gentle heat, first becomes 
red, and finally very dark, sulphurous acid being evolved. 
Heated on the platinum knife, it fuses into a yellow fluid, 
which decomposes at a higher temperature, giving off pungent 
fumes, and leaving a bulky charcoal. 

The specimens employed for analysis were from different 
preparations, and the results were : — 

{4*332 grains of Rottlerine gave 
11-026 ... carbonic acid, and 
2-235 ... water. 

( 4-295 grains of Rottlerine gave 
II. < 10*885 ... carbonic acid, and 
^2175 ... water. 

( 4*150 grains of Rottlerine gave 
III. < 10-505 ... carbonic acid, and 
2-096 ... water. 



Colouring Matter of Rottlera tinctoria. 299 

C 4*460 grains of Rottlerine gave 
IV. < 11-275 ... carbonic acid, and 
2 200 ... water. 



Carbon, 
Hydrogen, 
Oxygen, . 


i. 

. 69-37 

5-73 

. 24-90 


ii. 
69-11 
5-62 

25-27 


in. 
69-03 

5-59 
25-38 


IV. 

68-94 

5-26 

25-80 



100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 

The formula C 22 H 10 6 , is the nearest expression of these 
results, as is seen by the following comparison of the mean of 
experiments with the calculation, — 

Mean. Calculation. 

Carbon, . . . 69-112 ^69 -47 ~~~^~~ 13 ^ 
Hydrogen, . . 5-550 5-26 H 10 10 

Oxygen, . . . 25-333 25-27 6 48 



100-000 100-000 190 

The attempts which I have made to confirm this formula, 
have not led to any definite results, as Rottlerine is incapable 
of forming compounds with the metallic oxides, and though it 
gives a substitution compound with bromine, its properties, as 
already mentioned, were not sufficiently marked to afford any 
guarantee of its purity, and it could not be obtained of definite 
composition. 

Pale Substance obtained by Alcohol. — It has been already 
mentioned, that the hot alcoholic solution of the a Rottlera de- 
posits on cooling, a pale flocky substance. These flocks were 
separated from the dark-red mother liquor, and dissolved in 
the smallest possible quantity of boiling alcohol, from which 
they were deposited on cooling, in such abundance, that the 
fluid became nearly solid. By repeated solution, it was ob- 
tained of a very pale colour, nearly, but not altogether, white. 
When collected on a filter, it dries up into masses, resembling 
the hydrate of alumina, mixed with a small quantity of oxide 
of iron. It is insoluble in water, readily soluble in hot, spar- 
ingly in cold alcohol, and scarcely at all in ether. When ex- 
amined under the microscope, it is found to consist of minute 
grains, entirely devoid of crystalline structure. It gives no 
precipitate with lead or silver salts, and does not appear to 
from compounds with any other substances, but the quantity 



300 Professor Anderson on the 

at my disposal was too small to permit any detailed examina- 
tion ; for the flocks, notwithstanding their bulk, shrink int 
nothing when dry. Its analysis gave the following results, — 

J 5- 3 90 grains of the pale substance gave 
.13-995 ... carbonic acid, and 
I 5-118 ... water. 

{4-470 grains of the pale substance gave 
11-595 ... carbonic acid, and 
4-217 ... water. 

Expei'iment. Calculation. 





i. 


ii. 


"~ 






Carbon, * 


. 70-81 


70-74 


71-00 


C 10 


240 


Hydrogen, 


. 10-50 


10-45 


10-05 


H, 4 


34 


Oxygen, . . 


. 18-69 


1881 


18-95 


o 8 


64 



100-00 10000 100-00 338 

These results correspond very closely with the formula 
C 40 H 34 8 , but the impossibility of forming compounds pre- 
vents its confirmation. 

Resinous Colouring Matter. — The red alcoholic solution 
from which the pale substance has been separated, leaves on 
evaporation a dark-red amorphous resin, which melts at 212°, 
and solidifies on cooling. It dissolves in alcohol and ether, in 
all proportions, but is insoluble in water. It gives with ace- 
tate of lead a dark orange red precipitate, which could not 
be obtained of definite composition, compounds being formed 
in different operations, and with various modifications of the 
process, containing from under 19 up to 34 per cent, of oxide 
of lead ; and even when the precipitation was effected in pre- 
cisely the same manner, the quantity of oxide of lead varied 
as much as 4 or 5 per cent. ; for this reason I did not pursue 
the investigation of this substance, which most probably con- 
tains more than one resinous acid. I give, however, two ana- 
lyses, which were made at an early period of the investigation, 
on the resin dissolved in ether, and dried at 212°* 

( 4298 grains of the resin gave 
I. < 10-930 ... carbonic acid, and 
I 2 462 ... water. 

( 4 298 grains of the resin gave 
II. < 10890 .. carbonic acid, and 
2 415 ... water. 



Colouring Matter of Rottlera tinctoria. 301 

Experiment. Calculation. 





i. 


ii. 








Carbon, . 


. 71-47 


71*22 


71-71 


^60 


360 


Hydrogen, 


6-37 


6-21 


5-97 


H 30 


30 


Oxygen, . 


. 22-16 


22-57 


22-32 


°u 


112 



100-00 100-00 100-00 502 

I have added to these the calculation of the formula C 60 H 30 
14 , which agrees tolerably well with the analysis ; for al- 
though it is not entitled to much confidence it agrees with 
the determination of the lead salt, giving the smallest propor- 
tion of lead. The precipitate in question which was obtained 
by adding an aqueous solution of acetate of lead to a diluted 
alcoholic solution of the resin, contained 18*67 per cent, of 
oxide of lead, while the formula Pb O C 60 H 29 13 requires 
18*27 ; but on repeating the preparation in the same manner, I 
could not obtain sufficiently concordant results to entitle me 
to fix its constitution. Indeed I think it far from improbable 
that it may be a mixture of several resinous acids. 

The colouring matter of the Rottlera belongs to the class of 
substantive dyes. It does not require a mordant, all that is 
necessary being to mix it with water, containing a solution 
from a fourth to a half its weight of carbonate of soda, and to 
boil it with the stuff. The Hindoos, in addition to carbonate 
of soda, which they use in the form of native barilla, employ 
powdered gum, and before adding water, rub the whole of the 
materials up with a small quantity of sesamum oil. These 
additions, however, are not necessary for success, as I obtained 
a very fine colour without them. It is remarkable, however, 
that this colour is only produced on silk. Calico, whether 
with or without a mordant, acquires only a pale fawn colour, 
and entirely devoid of beauty. On silk, the colour is a rich 
flame or orange tint, of great beauty and extreme stability. 
The great brilliancy and permanence of the tint which it pro- 
duces, and the fact that the material supplied by commerce, 
contains between 70 and 80 per cent, of real colouring matter, 
ought to induce the silk dyers of this country to turn their 
attention to it, the more especially as there is no doubt, that 
if the matter were placed in the hands of an intelligent person, 
our Indian empire might supply it in abundance. 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. NO. II. APRIL 1855. X 



( 302 ) 

The late Lieutenant-Colonel John G. Champion, of the 95th 

Regiment. 

When, in the long list of valuable lives which have been 
sacrificed in the Crimea, we occasionally meet with a name 
which has been familiar to us in bygone days, as distinguished 
for learning or science, the grief which we feel for the loss of 
a brave soldier is sadly deepened by the thought that it is not 
merely a noble and gallant spirit that is gone, but that stores 
of learning, trains of reasoning and induction, still going on, 
habits of skilled observation and industry, are all cut off with 
the able faculties and cultivated mind to which they belonged. 
This is the character of the loss we have sustained by the death 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Champion ; and in recording it in 
this Journal, these are the qualities which naturally most 
force themselves upon our attention. Still, when every heart 
in Britain is beating with pride at the achievements of our 
gallant soldiers, and when, alas, there is scarcely a hearth 
whose pride is not chastened by the loss of some dear friend 
or relative, we cannot confine our notice of him to his scien- 
tific labours, but must also give a brief record of his military 
career, which affords another instance of the truth of the re- 
mark often made, that the possession of elegant accomplish- 
ments and scientific acquirements, instead of making a worse 
soldier, is only the more sure indication of military ability. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Champion, eldest son of the late Ma- 
jor J. C. Champion, 21st Royal N. B. Fusiliers, was born 
at Edinburgh, in May 1815. He was descended from a 
branch of the ancient family of Champion. In 1841 he mar- 
ried Frances Mary Carnegie, eldest daughter of the late 
Captain David Carnegie, of the 44th regiment. She survives 
him, with an infant boy and a daughter. He gained his com- 
mission at Sandhurst in 1831, and was appointed to the 95th 
regiment, with which he served uninterruptedly in various 
climes till his death on the 30th November last. His regi- 
ment was at home when the war with Russia broke out, and 
went with the advance to Gallipoli, thence to Varna and the 
Crimea. Colonel Champion embarked as Senior Major, and 



The late Lieut. -Colonel John G. Champion. 303 

joined General Pennefather s Brigade in the Second or Sir 
De Lacy Evans' Division of the army. At the Alma, when 
Lieutenant-Colonel Webber Smith was wounded, the com- 
mand of the 95th devolved on Major Champion, and he re- 
ceived the thanks of Lord Raglan for his conduct, in a de- 
spatch to the Duke of Newcastle, dated 31st October. Major 
Champion conducted the command of the 95th during all the 
subsequent harassing operations. On the 26th of October, 
when the Russians made an attack on the Second Division, 
they were met by a prolonged resistance from the pickets 
commanded by Majors Champion and Enian, — so skilfully 
conducted as to elicit the warmest praise from his Gene- 
ral, Sir De Lacy Evans, in his despatch published by Lord 
Raglan, — and this gallant defence was considered by his com- 
rades of the army to have been a service in which his ability 
as an officer was eminently displayed. On this occasion he 
kept the enemy at bay by a close musketry fire, until the am- 
munition of his men was expended. Afterwards, at one time, 
he repulsed them by charging ; at another, he stopped them by 
making his men cheer loudly as if reinforcements had arrived, 
and by such devices he maintained his ground till the wel- 
come sound of the guns crowning the hill at last relieved him 
from his perilous position. The gallant way in which he held 
these pickets enabled him to keep the Russians at bay till the 
division came up in order, and drove the Russians back, 
who were driven to the walls of Sebastopol by the 95th regi- 
ment. 

On the morning of the battle of Inkermann, Major Champion 
entered the field in support of the 41st regiment with a wing 
of the 95th — they soon met and repulsed the enemy — they 
were then desired to hurry on to the assistance of the Grena- 
dier Guards, at a battery where the enemy pressed them hard. 
Conjointly, these brave men (Guards, 41st, and 95th) success- 
fully resisted the persevering attacks of the overwhelming 
numbers of the enemy. It was towards the end of this strug- 
gle, when their ammunition was all expended, that Major 
Champion (then, we believe, senior survivor) proposed to some 
of the band of heroes to mount and charge over the battery. 
This they did in style, and drove the enemy down the hill 

x2 



304 The late Lieut- Colonel John G. Champion. 

after a long and most deadly struggle hand to hand. It was 
at this moment of victory that Major Champion received his 
death-wound from a musket ball through the breast and lungs. 
He was taken from the field, and reached the hospital of Scu- 
tari. His brilliant conduct in this his last action received 
honourable acknowledgment from Lord Raglan in his de- 
spatches, and in the Gazette of 12th December, where he was 
raised to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel for distinguished 
services in the field, but the acknowledgment and the honour 
came too late to reach the ear of him who had so nobly gained 
them. Death had put a period to his sufferings on the 30th 
of November. 

Colonel Champion's taste for Natural History developed it- 
self very early ; when yet a boy he devoted himself to Ento- 
mology, and with Kirby's Monographia Apium Angliae as 
his guide (one of the first scientific works which fell into his 
hands) he made a very complete collection of Scottish bees. 
Shortly after he joined the army his regiment was ordered to 
Corfu, and he eagerly availed himself of the wider field there 
offered to him, and made and brought home to this country a 
large collection of insects of all orders from the Ionian Isles. 
His attention next was turned towards Botany, the branch of 
Natural Science to which he ever after remained most devoted, 
and the next foreign station to which he was ordered being 
Ceylon, he had there ample opportunity of indulging that 
predilection. He there became acquainted with the late Dr 
Gardner, then superintendent of the Botanic Garden at Pera- 
denia, and by him was confirmed in his nascent taste for 
Botany. Whilst in Ceylon he collected much, explored many 
unexamined parts of the island, and discovered several very 
curious novelties which he carefully studied and made draw- 
ings of in the living state. Some of these he published in 
conjunction with Dr Gardner, and others have been since de- 
scribed from his materials He also prosecuted his researches 
in Entomology with equal vigour, and a very large collection 
of insects (principally coleoptera) was sent by him to this 
country, the major part of which were presented to the British 
Museum. The then local $ Government of Ceylon saw with 
pleasure men of such ability occupied in investigating the 



The late Lieut-Colonel John G. Champion. 305 

natural productions of the country, and had it in contempla- 
tion to encourage and preserve these observations by publish- 
ing, at their expense and under their sanction, a Fauna or 
Physical History of the Island. Captain Champion was to 
have been intrusted with the Entomology and a share of the 
Botany, and he amassed a vast amount of materials for this 
purpose. A large volume of carefully executed figures of in- 
sects was prepared by him, and an immense mass of drawings 
and dissections of plants. Unfortunately, the change of Go- 
vernment put a stop to this enlightened project, and the ma- 
terials still remain unused. Let us hope that they may yet 
be made available to science. 

The next scene of his labours was Hong Kong, where he 
was stationed for three years. This was in a great measure 
virgin territory, and amply repaid his industry and skill. 
Along with Mr Bowring he thoroughly investigated the ento- 
mology of the island, and their researches were rewarded with 
the discovery of a great many unknown species. Among 
others, no less than seven new species of Paussi were detected, 
all of which (we believe) are now in the British Museum. It 
would be out of place to dwell here on the new species made 
known by him ; but we must not forget one of the most beau- 
tiful of them, a lovely longicorn, described by Mr Adam White 
under the name of Erythrus Championi. 

His botanical explorations were not less fortunate ; and we 
have the privilege of quoting & short passage, giving an ac- 
count of the results of his labours, taken from a letter from 
the eminent botanist Mr Bentham, who was more associated 
with Colonel Champion in the botany of Hong Kong than any 
other person. Mr Bentham says : " The greatest contribu- 
tion Major Champion has made to the cause of science was 
during his three years' residence in Hong Kong, where he 
collected nearly 500 species, exclusive of Glumaceae and Ferns, 
— a most extraordinary number for so small an island, consi- 
dering, especially, the large proportion of entirely new forms 
it included. He published several of these, in conjunction 
with Dr Gardner, in the last paper transmitted by the latter 
eminent botanist from Ceylon previous to his decease, and 
inserted in the Kew Journal of Botany. On his return to this 



306 The late Lieut. -Colonel John G. Champion. 

country, Major Champion most liberally presented to me a 
complete set of his Hong Kong collections, communicating to 
me at the same time his notes and sketches made from the liv- 
ing plants. From these materials I have been drawing up a 
Florula Hong-Kongensis, the greater part of which (the whole 
of the Dicotyledones) is already published in Sir W. Hooker's 
Kew Journal of Botany, and I hope very soon to complete the 
remainder. The original specimens are deposited in my Her- 
barium, now the property of the Royal Gardens at Kew. Ma- 
jor Champion, before his departure to the East, presented the 
set of specimens he had reserved for himself to Sir W. Hooker, 
who had already purchased from Dr Gardner's executors those 
which Major Champion had sent to Ceylon, so that the whole 
of his collections are now deposited in the Herbaria at Kew, 
open for inspection and study to all botanists. From Major 
Champion's seeds some of the handsomest of his Hong Kong 
novelties, such as Rhodoleia Championi, Rhododendron Cham- 
pionse, &c, have been raised and secured to our gardens by 
nurserymen and others to whom he had presented them." 

Colonel Champion's disposition was essentially unselfish and 
liberal, and he parted with everything he acquired only too 
readily. His first object always was to place the unique and 
more valuable part of his collections in the possession of the 
public institutions of his country, where they would be most 
accessible ; after that, whoever took an interest in the subject 
was supplied with specimens, so long as they lasted. In con- 
sequence, the private collections he has left are meagre, com- 
pared with what he has bestowed on the British Museum, Kew 
Gardens, &c. &c. 

His readiness to communicate his information was equally 
great, and his original ideas and remarks were often the means 
of setting other minds on a scent which led to valuable results. 
His style of writing was easy and fluent, and well calculated 
to render every subject he treated of interesting to his readers. 
In this sketch of Colonel Champion's scientific character, 
his private and domestic relations are necessarily omitted ; 
but it may not be altogether irrelevant to mention that he was 
aided and encouraged in his scientific pursuits by his amiable 
and accomplished wife, a lady of a congenial spirit, who sym- 



The late Professor Edward Forbes. 307 

pathized with his tastes, and participated in his admiration of 
the beautiful productions of nature. His little daughter, too, 
often accompanied him in his botanical rambles in Hong Kong, 
and it was an unfailing source of satisfaction to him to be 
able to combine the indulgence of his feelings of love, affec- 
tion, or friendship, with his attachment to his scientific pur- 
suits. 



The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

[As every thing connected with the late Editor will be in- 
teresting to the readers of this Journal, the present Editors 
have ventured to insert the following sketch by Dr George 
Wilson, which has already appeared in the pages of Black- 
wood's Magazine.'] 

Edward Forbes was born in the Isle of Man in February 
1815, and died near Edinburgh on the 18th of November 1854, 
in his 40th year, six months after his appointment to the Regius 
Chair of Natural History in the University of that city. His great 
and varied gifts and accomplishments, his remarkable discoveries, 
and his singularly lovable, generous, and catholic spirit, made him 
an object of esteem and affection to a very wide circle of friends, 
and a still wider circle of acquaintances. All were exulting in the 
prospect of the long and honourable career which awaited him, 
when, in the height of his glory and usefulness, he was suddenly 
stricken- by a fatal disease, and died after a brief illness. 

The following lines seek to apply, mutatis mutandis, to the 
mystery of the great Naturalist's death, certain canons which he 
enforced in reference to the existence of living things, both plants 
and animals. Their purport was, to teach that an individual 
plant or animal cannot be understood, so far as the full signifi- 
cance of its life and death is concerned, by a study merely of it- 
self; but that it requires to be considered in connection with the 
variations in form, structure, character, and deportment, exhi- 
bited by the contemporary members of its species spread to a 
greater or less extent over the entire globe, and by the ancestors 
of itself, and of those contemporary individuals throughout the 
whole period which has elapsed since the species was created. 

He further held, that the many animal and vegetable tribes or 
races (species) which once flourished, but have now totally perished, 
did not die because a "germ of death" had from the first been 
present in each, but suffered extinction in consequence of the 
great geologic changes which the earth had undergone, such as 



308 The late Professor Edward Forbes. 

have changed tropical into arctic climates, land into sea, and sea 
into land, rendering their existence impossible. Each species, it- 
self an aggregate of mortal individuals, came thus from the hands 
of God, inherently immortal ; and when he saw fit to remove it, it 
was slain through the intervention of such changes, and replaced 
by another. The longevity, accordingly, of the existing races can, 
according to this view, be determined (in so far as it admits of 
human determination at all) only by a study of the physical altera- 
tions which await the globe ; and every organism has thus, through 
its connection with the brethren of its species, a retrospective and 
prospective history, which must be studied by the naturalist who 
seeks fully to account even for its present condition and fate. 

Those canons were applied by Edward Forbes to the humbler 
creatures ; he was unfailing in urging that the destinies of man 
are guided by other laws, having reference to his possession in- 
dividually of an immaterial and immortal spirit. 

The following lines, embodying these ideas, contemplate his 
death, solely as it was a loss to his fellow-workers left behind 
him : their aim is to whisper patience, not to enforce consola- 
tion. 

Thou Child of Genius ! None who saw 

The beauty of thy kindly face, 
Or watched those wondrous fingers draw 
Unending forms of life and grace, 
Or heard thine earnest utterance trace 
The links of some majestic law, 
But felt that thou by God wert sent 
Amongst us for our betterment. 

And yet He called thee in thy prime, 

Summoned thee in the very hour 
When unto us it seemed that Time 
Had ripened every manly power : 
And thou, who hadst through sun and shower, 
On many a shore, in many a clime, 
Gathered from ocean, earth, and sky, 
Their hidden truths, wert called to die. 

We went about in blank dismay, 

We murmured at God's sovereign will ; 
We asked why thou wert taken away, 
Whose place no one of us could fill : 
Our throbbing hearts would not be still ; 
Our bitter tears we could not stay : 
We asked, but could no answer find ; 
And strove in vain to be resigned. 



The late Professor Edward Fortes. 309 

When lo ! from out the Silent Land, 



Our faithless murmurs to rebuke, 
In answer to our vain demand 

Thy solemn Spirit seemed to look ; 
And pointing to a shining book, 
That opened in thy shadowy hand, 
Bade us regard those words, which light 
Not of this world, made clear and bright : — 

" If, as on earth I learned full well, 
Thou canst not tell the reason why 
The lowliest moss or smallest shell 
Is called to live, or called to die, 
Till thou w 7 ith searching, patient eye, 
Through ages more than man can tell, 
Hast traced its history back in Time, 
And over Space, from clime to clime ; 

" If all the shells the tempests send, 
As I have ever loved to teach ; 
And all the creeping things that wend 
Their way along the sandy beach, 
Have pedigrees that backward reach, 
Till in forgotten Time they end ; 
And may as tribes for ages more, 
As if immortal strew the shore. 

" If all its Present, all its Past, 

And all its Future thou canst see, 
Must be deciphered, ere at last 

Thou, even in part, canst hope to be 
Able to solve the mystery 
Why one sea-worm to death hath passed ; 
How must it be, when God doth call, 
Him whom He placed above them all ? " 

Ah, yes ! we must in patience wait, 

Thou dearly loved, departed friend ! 
Till we have followed through the gate, 
Where Life in Time doth end ; 
And Present, Past, and Future lend 
Their light to solve thy fate ; 
When all the ages that shall be, 
Have flowed into the Timeless Sea. 



GEOBGE WILSON. 



Elm Cottafte, Edinburgh, 
1st January 1863. 



310 James Elliot on certain 



A Description of certain Mechanical Illustrations of the 
Planetary Motions, accompanied by Theoretical Investi- 
gations relating to them, and, in particular, a new Ex- 
planation of the Stability of Equilibrium of Saturn's Rings. 
By James Elliot, Teacher of Mathematics, Edinburgh * 

Orreries, as they are called, have been constructed with 
much elaborate ingenuity, and rendered capable of exhibit- 
ing the motions of the planets to a surprising degree of accu- 
racy ; but they are so complicated and cumbrous in their 
machinery — so constrained in their movements — so totally 
different from that which they represent, in regard to their 
moving principles (their toothed wheels, pulleys, and inclined 
planes being utterly unlike the laws of attraction and iner- 
tia) — that they are seldom regarded in any other light than 
as mechanical curiosities, and are rarely used for explaining 
the subject of astronomy. In them we look in vain for imita- 
tions of 

" Heaven's easy, artless, unencumbered plan" 

(to borrow a description applied to a higher subject), and 
long for illustrations more simple, and governed by laws 
more nearly related to those which govern the planets them- 
selves. 

On first commencing the study of astronomy myself, and 
endeavouring to obtain a distinct conception of that motion 
of the earth which gives rise to the precession of the equi- 
noxes, it occurred to me that I had seen the same motion in 
spinning a hoop or a halfpenny. Thence I traced it to the 
top and the te- to turn. Afterwards, in teaching the subject, 
it appeared to me that, if I could reduce their untractable 
movements to some degree of management, I might obtain a 
useful auxiliary to my explanations. There is so much dif- 
ficulty in imparting to learners a distinct idea of the motion 
alluded to, — in making them conceive the possibility of a 
rotation of the earth about its axis in one direction, and 

* Read before the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, 27th February and 13lh 
March 1854 ; and the Silver Medal, value Ten Sovereigns, awarded. 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 311 

a simultaneous revolution of that axis itself, carrying the 
earth with it in the opposite direction, that we naturally 
look around for any illustration that can be given of it more 
satisfactory and more natural than turning the model with 
the hand. About the same time my attention was also more 
particularly directed to the same point by meeting with a 
remark in Sir John Herschel's excellent volume on Astrono- 
my. " A child's peg-top," he says, " or te-totum, exhibits, in 
the most beautiful manner, the whole phenomenon," of the 
precession of the equinoxes, " in a manner calculated to give 
at once a clear conception of it as a fact, and a considerable 
insight into its cause as a dynamical effect." So far well ; 
but this objection comes in the way — an objection which, of 
course, the writer just quoted did not overlook — that, in all 
ordinary tops and te-totums, the motion in question is in the 
contrary direction to that which we are required to illustrate 
in the planets, the conical revolution of the axis being, in the 
former, in the same direction with the rotation, while, in the 
latter, it is in the opposite direction. 

I observed, however, that in tops which have short pegs, 
this motion — the conical motion of the axis — is slower than 
in those which have long ones ; and, in fact, the shorter the 
peg, the slower the revolution. It therefore occurred to me 
that, if we could lower the centre of gravity till it coincided 
with the centre of motion, this movement would cease alto- 
gether, and the top would continue to spin with its axis 
pointing permanently in any direction in which it might be 
placed. I also concluded that, if we 
still further extended the same change 
which gradually annihilated the posi- 
tive motion, it would re-appear nega- 
tive, or in the opposite direction. 
With that view I had an instrument 
constructed of the form shewn in the 
annexed cut, consisting of a wooden 
ball hollowed out in its lower part, so 
as to admit the support upon which 
it rests to be raised above the centre 
of gravity of the ball, and with a screw 




312 James Elliot on certain 

upon its peg, or axis, to admit of its being raised or lowered 
at pleasure. I also confined it to one place by forming a 
small cavity on the support for the point of the peg to run 
in. This being done, I was much pleased to find my expec- 
tations exactly realized. By adjustments of the screw the 
conical revolution could be quickened, retarded, annihilated, 
or reversed, as might be desired ; and all its motions were 
brought under perfect control. At the same time it was sur- 
rounded by a fixed plane to represent the ecliptic, its own 
equator being marked upon it ; and, by forming the axis of 
hard steel, and giving it a support of agate, its velocity could 
be kept up without much abatement for a long time.* 

The rotation is produced in the ball by means of a string 
and handle, much in the same way as that in which a hum- 
ming-top is spun. 

The case in which, from the two centres coinciding, the 
axis remains fixed in one direction without any conical re- 
volution, enables us to illustrate clearly what is meant in 
astronomy by the Parallelism of the Earth's Axis, since the 
model may be carried by the hand slowly round in any cir- 
cular or elliptic orbit, without any perceptible deviation of 
the axis from its original direction. 

But, when the centre of gravity is brought slightly below 
the point of support, we are then enabled to show the devia- 
tion from parallelism which arises in the direction of the 
earth's axis after a long period of years, the same motion 
exhibiting the Precession of the Equinoxes. With the centre 
of gravity so placed, if the ball is made to rotate in the di- 
rection marked by the upper arrow, on the figure, or from 
west to east, the equinoctial point, E, is observed to move 
slowly in the direction marked by the lower arrow, from east to 
west. The latter motion may be made as slow as we please ; 

* Since the model described was constructed, my attention has been directed 
to Bohnenberger's instrument for the same purpose, of which I was not pre- 
viously aware. While that instrument is exceedingly beautiful, and adapted 
to various experiments on rotatory motion, for which the model described above 
is not intended, it wants (as will readily be admitted) the simplicity and capa- 
bility of precise adjustment of the latter, and is not so well adapted for the 
particular purpose of astronomical illustration. 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 313 

so as to approach, within any degree of closeness, the exceed- 
ingly slow precessional movement of the earth's equator. 

We have thus succeeded in obtaining, in the model, the 
precise motion of which we were in quest ; but if it can also 
be established that that motion is not only the same as the 
corresponding motion of the earth, but arises from the same 
cause, every object will have been attained that can possibly 
be desired in a model. To establish that, however, will draw 
us into somewhat abstruse and lengthened theoretical consi- 
derations, to which a patient attention must be requested, 
since they are absolutely indispensable not only to a right 
appreciation of this particular instrument, but to the eluci- 
dation of other parts of the subject. 

The first point to be ascertained, then, is — what physical 
cause produces the conical motion of the axis, either in the 
instrument before us, or in the common spinning-top ? and 
that question throws us back upon another, — what prevents 
a spinning-top from falling 1 — in what way does its motion 
keep it in an erect position % 

A popular notion is that the standing of a top is due to its 
centrifugal force. The fallacy of that idea is very well ex- 
posed by Dr Arnott. He shows that (since the force acts 
equally on all sides of the axis) if the axis is placed upright, 
the centrifugal force can have no tendency to incline it to one 
side more than to another, and can have no more effect in 
doing so when the axis is inclined. The inclination of the top 
can have no effect in changing the direction of the centrifugal 
force, which will still act perpendicularly to the axis, and equal- 
ly on all sides, neither accelerating nor retarding the fall. 

Dr Arnott having shown the fallacy of the opinion that 
centrifugal force is the cause, substitutes, in its place, ano- 
ther equally fallacious. " While the top," to use his own 
words, " is perfectly upright, its point, being directly under 
its centre, supports it steadily, and, although turning so ra- 
pidly, has no tendency to move from the place ; but, if the 
top incline at all, the side of the peg, instead of the very 
point, comes in contact with the floor, and the peg then be- 
comes a little wheel or roller, advancing quickly, and, with 
its touching edge, describing a curve, as a skater does, until 



314 James Elliot on certain 

it comes directly under the body of the top, as before." This 
theory may, at first sight, seem plausible, but is liable to three 
fatal objections. First, — an inclined cylinder, rolling upon 
one end, never would roll towards the centre, but, on the 
contrary, would continually deviate further from it, unless 
its upper extremity were supported. Second, — the cause 
would cease, and the top would immediately fall, whenever 
any small hollow confined its point to one spot, as frequently 
happens. And, third, — if the standing of the top depended 
upon the thickness of the point, the finer the point 'the more 
difficult it would be to keep up the top; and, if the peg could 
be ground to a mathematical point, the top would invariably 
and instantly fall. It is needless to say that such a conclu- 
sion is contrary to common observation, which shows us that, 
in mathematical language, the tendency to fall is no func- 
tion of the fineness of the point. 

In comparing the motions of the top with those of the 
earth, I thought that I perceived the true reason of the top's 
standing, viz., that the tendency to fall is converted by the 
rotation into the conical motion of the axis which I have be- 
fore described. But, to render this clear, let us commence 
with the common form of the top in which the centre of gra- 
vity is above the centre of motion, and let us suppose, for the 
sake of simplicity, the top to consist of a single circular plate, 
or, if we choose, we may take a top of any form, and suppose 
its whole mass to be concentrated in a single circular sec- 
tion perpendicular to the axis, and the whole weight of 
that section to be again collected into one circumference, 
as a hoop around an axis. Further, suppose such a top al- 
ready inclined to one side, as in the following diagram, CP 
being the axis, AB the circular sec- 
tion, or rather the circumference, just 
described, and the arrow pointing out 
the direction of rotation. The top 
will then have a tendency to turn 
over towards that side which is low- 
est, in doing which, the lowest point, 
B, of the circumference, would, of 
course, fall ; while the highest point, 




Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 315 

A, would necessarily rise. But the point B, in beginning to 
fall, is, at the same time, carried forward from B to 6, con- 
veying the tendency to fall with it, so that the actual fall 
would take place at a point, 5, immediately in advance of the 
lowest ; at the same time, the highest point, A, beginning to 
rise, carries that rise forward to a point, a, immediately in 
advance of the highest.* Now let us observe the effect 
which this has produced upon the top : the point a, in advance 
of the highest, is raised, and the point b, in advance of the 
lowest, is depressed : this change tilts the top over, if I may 
so express it, aside from its former inclination, bringing the 
higher extremity of the axis from C to c, and making it now 
lean towards the side immediately in advance of its former po- 
sition, and, if continued, produces the slow conical revolution 
of the axis which I have pointed out before, and an accom- 
panying revolution of the lowest and highest point in the 
circumference, both in the same direction as that of the ro- 
tation. Into that conical movement, then, the tendency to 
fall is converted.] 

* No doubt, ever}' point in the semicircumference next B, has a tendency to 
fall, and every point in the opposite semicircumference A, to rise. But the 
greatest rise and the greatest fall would take place at A and B, and the united 
effects of the tendencies of all the points in each semicircumference is the same 
as if the whole were accumulated at one point. 

t This explanation of the standing of a top is not so new as I supposed. 
When the communication was read to the Society, and subsequently, it was 
pointed out to me that the same thing might be found in Euler's work entitled 
" Theoria Motus Corporum Solidorum seu Rigidorum," and also in the works 
of Poisson and Whewell. I admit it to a certain extent, although I was pre- 
viously ignorant of the coincidence. With regard to Euler, however, his in- 
vestigation is altogether so obscure that it may be doubted whether the theory 
of the top can be obtained more easily from the top itself, or from Euler's in- 
vestigation, supposing it accurate. Throughout the whole of it, I cannot find 
it distinctly brought out that the top's tendency to fall is converted by the ro- 
tation into the precessional (or rather retrocessional) movement. That seems, 
however, to be his meaning, but under symbolical expressions. At the same 
time he clearly and distinctly assigns a cause of the top's rising to a vertical 
position, not only different from that which I have given, but different from 
that which he himself appears to assign as the cause of its not falling. He at- 
tributes the rise to friction. In chapter xvii. he says expressly : — " Nunquam 
enim turbo magis fiet erectus quam fuerat initio, siquidem nulla affuerit fric- 
tio." Now the cause to which I ascribe the rise (whether correctly or not), 



316 James Elliot on certain 

But the demonstration is as yet incomplete ; for, although I 
may have shown that the point which was the lowest at first 
will no longer be the lowest, unless I can also show that 
the neiu lowest point will not be lower than that which was 
previously the lowest point, the top will fall, in spite of this 
secondary preserving motion. How, then, can it be esta- 
blished that it will not be so % It cannot be proved gene- 
rally : to do so would be to prove too much ; for a top some- 
times does fall : but the same theory, a little extended, will 
show under what circumstances it will fall, and under what 
it will not. 

The same things being assumed as before, let us further 

has no connection whatever with friction, and is the very same with that which 
I have maintained prevents its fall. Practically also I have endeavoured to 
deprive my model of friction as far as possible, and yet it rises equally well. 
No doubt the peg is prevented from sliding or rolling from its place by con- 
finement to the agate cup, and if that were what Euler means by friction, or 
if it served the same purpose, the matter would be simple enough; but he ap- 
pears himself expressly to say otherwise ; for he goes on : — " At frictio cessare 
nequit nisi cuspis turbinis in eodem loco persistat," indicating clearly that he 
does not consider confinement of the peg to a particular place as identical 
with friction. In fact it is on this last statement that a peculiar position is 
taken by a writer in the Cambridge Journal (in an article also pointed out to 
me when the first part of this communication was read to the Society), who 
attempts to explain and support Euler. He offers to rest the practical proof 
of Euler's theory on the fact that a top cannot be made to rise when spinning 
on a very fine point. I showed to the Society a top rising to a vertical position, 
and spinning perfectly well on the point of a fine sewing needle. 

Poisson is much more clear in regard to the conversion of the fall or rise into 
the conical motion of the axis, but I cannot find that he enters into any expla- 
nation of a top of the common form (that is, with the centre of gravity above 
the point of support) rising towards a vertical position. Still his demonstrations 
are quite sufficient for establishing my main point, the identity of the top's 
motions with those of the earth in their principle; and if I had seen his work 
previously, I might have satisfied myself with quoting it, instead of entering 
so fully into the subject. 

Professor Whewell follows pretty closely in Euler's track, adhering to the 
same cause assigned by the latter for the rising of the top, viz., friction, but 
putting it forward with hesitation, and not supporting it by any demonstra- 
tion. {Dynamics, Book iii., Sect, ii.) 

I have also been referred to the Lectures and Tracts of Professor Airy. 
These bring out the theory clearly and explicitly with reference to the earth it- 
self : but in regard to it, I have advanced nothing as new : my subject is — not 
the earth, but the model. 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 317 




suppose onr imaginary circumference to be divided into por- 
tions equal to the spaces through which any point moves, in 
its rotation, in given times. Let us also imagine a vertical 
plane to touch the circle in its lowest point, and the circle, 
with the points marked upon it, to be orthographically pro- 
jected upon that plane, 
as in the annexed dia- 
gram. Again, from the 
points thus projected up- 
on the circumference of 
the ellipse, let perpendi- 
culars be drawn to a line 
touching the ellipse in 
its lowest point. These 
perpendiculars will be 
equal to the abscissae of the ellipse for the projected points, 
and set off upon the conjugate axis. Let the same distances 
be set off upon the tangent line which were previously set off 
upon the circumference of the circle : these will be the dis- 
tances through which any point in the circumference would 
move in the given times, if allowed to advance in a rectilineal 
direction. Through these points let vertical lines be drawn 
equal to the spaces through which the lowest point in the 
circumference would descend in the same times, if the rota- 
tion were stopped and the top allowed to fall, turning on its 
pivot. The curve connecting the lower extremities of these 
vertical lines will be an approximation to the parabola, and, 
in fact, for a small portion at the vertex, may be regarded 
as a parabola, the vertical lines being equal to its abscissae. 
Now, it is a familiar law in dynamics, that, if two forces act 
upon the same body in the same direction, the resulting force 
is the sum of the two ; but if in opposite directions, the dif- 
ference ; and forces are measured by the motions which they 
produce in the same mass and in the same time. In the pre- 
ceding diagram, the perpendiculars on the upper side of the 
horizontal line show the spaces through which the lowest 
point in the circumference would be raised, in the given 
times, by the rotatory motion alone ; those under the hori- 
zontal line show the spaces through which it would fall in 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. APRIL 1855. T 



318 James Elliot on certain 

the same times, if obeying gravity alone. Since these forces, 
then, are in opposite directions, the resultant force will be 
equal to their difference, and the resultant motion equal to 
the difference of the motions which those two forces would 
produce in the said times. There will, therefore, be a rise 
or a fall of the lowest point according as the perpendiculars 
above the horizontal line, or those below, are the greater. 

It is, however, the first pair of these perpendiculars — that 
is, the nearest to the point of contact — which determines- 
the resulting motion : if the first perpendicular, or abscissa, 
of the parabolic curve be greater than the corresponding 
abscissa of the ellipse, the lowest point will descend still 
lower, and the top will fall ; but, if less, the lowest point will 
attain a higher place, and the top will rise towards an upright 
position.* Now, since the form of the ellipse, corresponding 
to a given inclination of the top, is constant, while that of 
the parabola widens or contracts as we increase or diminish 
the velocity, it is evident that such a velocity may be given 
to the top that any abscissa of the parabolic curve shall be- 
come less than the corresponding abscissa of the ellipse, and 

* The tendency to rise or to fall (or rather the excess of tendency in favour 
of a rise or of a fall) will never cease (the velocity of rotation being constant), 
but will continue to urge the top either to rise towards a vertical position, or 
to fall to the ground. For, A B being the same circumference which we have 
supposed throughout, and C P the axis of the top, let the angle of inclination of 
the top vary : the abscissae of the parabolic curve 
above described vary as the force downward (or /; 

tendency to fall), and this varies as the sine of the I i 

angle of inclination, P C F. The abscissa? of the el- — -— ^/ ! 

lipse vary as the conjugate axis, — that is, as E B ; ' C^^^ /^v. "■ 
and E B varies as the sine of the angle E A B, or >». T^-J ^\ ' 

P C F. Therefore the abscissae of the parabola vary ^^"^7^^ i "*^J B 

a9 those of the ellipse. Consequently, if the advan- / 

tage is in favour of either in any one position of the / 

top, it will continue so in every other; and if the top / 

begin either to rise or to fall, it will continue to do 

so, so long as the velocity remains unchanged. But though the ratio of the 
said abscissae continues the same, their difference, when in favour of the ellipse 
(which difference measures the preponderance of the upward force or of the 
tendency to rise), will continually diminish. This difference will vary as the 
sine of the angular distance remaining to be passed over, and ultimately as the 
distance itself; therefore, I presume the axis will approach the vertical line 
in an endless spiral, and will never attain an actually vertical position. 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions, 319 

that, when such is the case, the top will rise towards a ver- 
tical position. 

For the sake of simplicity, I have spoken of the distances 
set off, and consequently the abscissae and ordinates as of 
definite lengths ; but, to those who have made mathematical 
subjects their study, it will be evident that, in order to be 
strictly correct, the second point in each curve must be taken 
in immediate succession to the first, making the first ordi- 
nate and abscissa infinitely small. In this case their rela- 
tive magnitudes may be calculated by means of the differential 
calculus ; or the result may, I think, be shown to depend 
upon the following principle, which, if what I have already 
said be admitted,* will be a self-evident consequence of it. 
When the radius of curvature of the ellipse, at its lowest 
point, is greater than that of the parabolic curve at its ver- 
tex, the top will fall ; when less, it will rise. 

The same theory applied to that form of the top in which 
the centre of gravity is below the centre of motion will show 
that the conical revolution of the axis must then be back- 
ward, or in a contrary direction to that of the rotation ; for 
in this case the tendency of the top, when at rest, is not to 
fall but to attain a vertical position. The lowest point, B, 
in the circumference, having a tendency to rise, and the 
highest point, A, to fall, both 

these tendencies will, by means ^ i r ^"*-^w 
of the rotation, produce their f ^\ 

effect in advance of the highest L '■ j 4 

and lowest points, depressing \^ J 

the point a and raising the point ^^^ j -jr^ 

b. If we stop the motion of the 

top and produce the same effect with the finger, we shall find 
that the highest point is thus thrown back to a', and the lowest 

* There will probably be some hesitation in accepting the preceding part of 
this investigation as strict demonstration. I have the same hesitation myself, 
and rest nothing upon it. I rather throw it out as a suggestion for considera- 
tion. It has at least simplicity in its favour, which Euler's theory assuredly 
has not. My doubts, however, do not extend to the main point, — of the ten- 
dency of the top to fall or rise being converted by the rotation into the for- 
ward or backward precessional movement. That does not admit of doubt, and 
is the only part of the theory which I use for astronomical application. 

y2 



320 James Elliot on certain 

point also back to b' ; and this process, being continued, will 
produce the retrograde conical motion exactly as experiment 
shows it. In this case we are not required to prove that the 
top will not fall, since it will not do so when at rest. The 
only effect of the production of the conical movement will be 
to retard the tendency towards a vertical position. 

When the centre of gravity coincides with the centre of 
motion, there will be no tendency either to fall or to rise ; 
consequently, no conical revolution ; and the top will con- 
tinue to revolve in any position in which it may be placed, 
without any change either in the direction or in the inclina- 
tion of the axis.* 

The theory I have thus attempted to establish is borne 
out, in its main points at least, by experiment, as we have seen 
in the different movements of the revolving sphere already de- 
scribed. An additional instance is, that our theory leads ob- 
viously to the conclusion that, with any given position of the 
centre of gravity, the more rapid the rotation the slower will 
be the conical revolution, and that this is at once confirmed 
by trial with the same apparatus. 

The conical revolution of the axis, in the model, not only 
illustrates that of the earth, but appears to me to depend on 
the same or a similar cause. There are, however, some ob- 
jections to this idea, in limine, which it may be as well to 
dispose of first. I have already stated that this motion of 
the top depends on the relative positions of the two centres. 
Where, then, it will be asked, are those centres in the case of 
the earth itself ? Before I can answer this I must come into 
collision with one of our most common, and, I must admit, 
most useful ideas in physics, — that of a centre of gravity. 
It is one of those hypotheses or theories which we meet with 
every day, answering very well all ordinary purposes, and 

* There is another movement of the top, to which in this place I can only 
briefly allude. It may be called its erratic motion. When the pivot is not 
confined to a point, but running upon a smooth and level surface, with the 
axis inclined, the top describes a circular orbit, by no means capriciously, 
but subject to given laws. Its periodic time is the same as that of one revo- 
lution of the equinoxes, and its diameter is a fourth proportional to the time 
of one rotation on the axis, the time of one revolution of the equinoxes, and 
the diameter of the point of the peg where it rolls on the table. 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 321 

'yet only approximately true. Such a thing as a fixed centre 
of gravity exists not in nature, or at least but one, — the 
centre of the whole material universe. The idea of a con- 
stant centre of gravity in any particular body depends upon 
the supposition that the force of attraction is equal at 
all distances from the attracting centre. Let us con- 
ceive a straight uniform rod to be placed in a ver- 
tical position, and divided into two equal parts : the 
lower half will be the heavier, because nearer to the 
earth's centre ; the centre of gravity will therefore be 
below the middle of the rod. Let us now conceive the 
position of the rod to be reversed, the upper end ex- 
changing places with the lower : the centre of gravity 
■will then be on the other side of the middle — in that 
half which was formerly the higher — it will have changed 
its position in the rod. It follows, then, that in any mass of 
matter the centre of gravity will not be a fixed point, but 
will depend upon the position of the mass, and that it will 
always be in that side of the mass which is nearest to the 
attracting body. 

The centre of momentum, however, though commonly con- 
founded with the centre of gravity, is not the same ; but as 
this is a rather nice point, and not usually taken notice of, 
I hope to be excused in saying a few words in explana- 
tion . 

If two solids, of the same size, differ in weight from a dif- 
ference in their specific gravity, the heavier has the greater 
momentum ; but if they are alike both in size and in specific 
gravity, and their difference in weight is caused by a differ- 
ence in their height above the surface of the earth, then 
their momenta are equal notwithstanding their difference 
in weight. Thus, if a cannon-ball were fired from the sum- 
mit of a mountain, it would strike an object with as much 
force as it would do if fired, with the same velocity, at the 
level of the sea, although the weight would be much less. 

Apply this now to the case of the straight rod. The lower 
end is the heavier, but it has not the greater momentum. 
The centre of momentum is therefore in the middle of the 
rod, while the proper centre of gravity is not so. In fact, 



322 James Elliot on certain 

what we commonly call the centre of gravity is truly the 
centre of momentum. The same reasoning applies to the 
earth in reference to the sun's attraction : its centre of mo- 
mentum — the centre round which it revolves in its diurnal 
motion — is the centre of the sphere (or spheroid) ; while the 
varying centre of gravity is always within the hemisphere 
nearest the sun. Here, then, is the very desideratum sup- 
plied, to complete our analogy between the earth's motions 
and those of the top : here are our two centres, — the one 
the centre of the mass, the centre of momentum, — the other 
the proper centre of gravity. 

The next difficulty is this. Sir Isaac Newton, as is well 
known, has demonstrated that the conical revolution of the 
axis would not belong to the earth were it a perfect sphere, 
but that it is indebted for it to its spheroidal form ; whereas 
the same motion in the top is independent of its form. The 
reply to that is, that there is no tendency to such a motion 
in the top while in a vertical position, — that is, when its 
centre of gravity is directly above or directly below its 
centre of motion, because then there is no tendency either to 
fall or to rise, and that the same thing precisely would be 
the case with the earth if it were a perfect sphere : the 
centre of gravity would then be directly between the sun 
and the centre of momentum. But, in the case of a spheroid, 
the centre of gravity will be a little out of that line, pro- 
ducing a tendency to fall into it, and this tendency is con- 
verted into the motion in question. 

Thus, let the point be the centre of the spheroid AB, 
and consequently its cen- 
tre of momentum : let the 
line AB be the transverse 

axis, and S the attracting s 

body ; and let the spheroid 

be divided into two half 

spheroids by a plane, CD, 

coincident with the line OS, and perpendicular to the plane 

BOS. Then, since the half spheroid, CBD, is nearer to S 

than the other half, CAD, the centre of gravity, G, will be 

in the former half, and consequently out of the line OS. 




Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions, 323 

Therefore the axis, AB, will be drawn in towards the line 
CS, while no such tendency would arise in the sphere, and 
consequently no conical revolution of the axis. 

These two objections being set aside, it will readily be 
perceived that the tendency of the line AB to fall into the 
line OS, exactly corresponds to the tendency of the top to 
fall, or to the tendency of the revolving ball of the model, 
when its centre of gravity is below the point of the pivot, to 
bring its axis into a vertical position, and, consequently, that 
the same results must follow. The conical motion produced in 
the axis of the ball corresponds to that which goes on in the 
axis of the earth, not only in its existence but also in its cause. 

Thus, then, we have two motions of the model agreeing 
with two corresponding motions of the earth, — viz., the Ro- 
tation and the Precession of the Equinoxes, which is identical 
with the conical motion of the axis. If we place the instru- 
ment, while in motion, upon a stand, and suspend the stand 
by a cord, from a great height, we may then, as is well known, 
exhibit the Elliptical Orbit, and also the Progression of the 
Apsides. 

If we next load the sphere, on one side, very slightly, by 
any means, we obtain an illustration of the Nutation of the 
Earitis Axis, the axis making a multitude of minute conical 
revolutions round the circumference of the greater conical 
revolution. Neither are the causes very different in the 
model and in that which it represents; for the moon's at- 
traction does to the earth what the little weight does to the 
model : it loads it on one side. The periods of the motions, 
however, are different in the two ; for, in the earth, the pe- 
riod is a lunar month ; in the model, a day. This cannot 
easily be avoided ; although, if desired, the period might be 
obtained strictly correct by means of a revolving magnet, re- 
presenting the moon, acting upon the iron circle which forms 
the equator of the model earth. 

The next motion illustrated by the apparatus is the gra- 
dual Diminution of the Obliquity of the Equator to the Eclip- 
tic. In the case of the earth itself, Laplace has computed 
that the diminution is not permanent, but confined within 
certain limits both of time and of extent, the obliquity, after 




324 James Elliot on certain 

a long cycle of years, again increasing. In the case of the 
model, however, the obliquity continues to diminish, an up- 
right position of the axis being constantly approached, but, 
as I have attempted to demonstrate in a previous note, never 
attained. The reason of the difference it is not easy to per- 
ceive. 

The next piece of apparatus is intended to exhibit the Re- 
trogradation of the Moon's Nodes. That phenomenon is 
similar to the precession of the equi- 
noxes, both in its description and in 
its cause. In the model, we have the 
same similarity : we have the plane of 
the moon's orbit occupying the same 
place which the earth's equator occu- 
pied in the first experiment. Like the 
plane of the equator, it is inclined to 
the plane of the ecliptic, the two points 
in which it cuts that plane, called its 
nodes, corresponding exactly to the 
equinoxes in the other case. When the line of the nodes is 
in the same line with the centres of the earth and sun, we 
have eclipses of the sun and moon ; when otherwise, the 
moon passes its change and full without eclipses of either 
luminary. The line of the moon's nodes revolves in a direc- 
tio contrary to that of the moon's revolution round the 
earth. There is the same difficulty of conveying a clear 
idea of this motion by mere words to students of astronomy, 
that there is in the precession of the equinoxes ; but all the 
difficulty disappears when we can actually show the move- 
ment, and that not under the constraint of wheels and bars ? 
but under the impulse of gravitation and inertia. 

The cause of the peculiar motion in the model is similar 
to that which produces the corresponding changes of the 
direction of the plane of the moon's orbit itself, but is not 
precisely identical with it, inasmuch as, in the model, the 
force of attraction acts upon the whole plane, while, in the 
reality, it acts only upon the moon whilst moving in that 
plane. But the difference is more in appearance than in 
kind, since we may conceive the solid orbit in the model to 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 325 

consist of a multitude of moons; and, since the effect upon 
each must be the same, the result will be the same, as in the 
case of a single moon. The effect will not even be magnified, 
since the inertia is increased in the same proportion in which 
the attraction is increased. 

Another application of the same model is, to exhibit and 
illustrate the various kinds of Perturbation which one planet 
exercises on another's orbit. As in illustrating the moon's 
motion, we use, in this case also, instead of the planet itself, 
the plane of its orbit, or, more correctly speaking, a solid 
disc of iron in the position of that plane. The place of the 
disturbing planet is supplied by a magnet. 

Before entering on the astronomical application of the ex- 
periment, it may be curious to observe the peculiar way in 
which the disc is affected by the magnet. When the disc is 
at rest, if we bring the magnet near it, either above or below, 
it is immediately attracted by the magnet and brought into 
collision with it. But if the disc is made to rotate with suf- 




ficient rapidity, and the magnet is again brought near it, as 
before, it now seems no longer to be attracted by the magnet, 
but rather appears to evade it : you might almost be per- 
suaded that the magnet had a repulsive effect upon the disc* 
But it evades it in different ways (at least apparently), ac- 

* The peculiar fact of the rotating iron disc evading the direct action of the 
magnet, was first shown to me by a friend, but with no perception, on his part, 
either of its cause, or of its connexion with astronomy. 



326 James Elliot on certain 

cording as we present the magnet to it in different positions. 
When the disc is revolving horizontally, the magnet, pre- 
sented above or below any point of the circumference, con- 
verts that point into one of the nodes, the half orbit in ad- 
vance of that point inclining upward or downward towards 
the magnet, and the other half receding from it. Thus, in 
the preceding diagram, the direction of rotation being from 
west to east, as indicated by the arrow, and the magnet 
being suspended over any point A, that side of the disc does 
not rise towards the magnet, as we might expect, but the 
side B does so, a quadrant in advance, while the semicircle 
opposite B sinks. Again, when the orbit is already inclined, 
if we place the magnet above the highest point of the disc, 
or beneath the lowest, the effect is not to increase the obli- 
quity of the orbit, as we should anticipate, but to produce a 
progressive or forward motion of the nodes. If we present 
it below the highest point, or above the lowest, it does not 
diminish the obliquity of the orbit, but causes a retrograda- 
tion of the nodes. If we apply it below the descending node, 
or above the ascending, we do not draw that side towards 
the magnet, as would appear likely beforehand, but we in- 
crease the obliquity of the plane to the horizon : if above the 
descending node or below the ascending, we diminish the 
obliquity.* When a circular plane, 
to represent the ecliptic, is fixed 
round the revolving disc, as shown in 
the annexed woodcut, the results are 
more quickly made manifest, and a 
screw upon the axis of the disc ena- 
bles it to be adjusted beforehand, so 
as to be free from any forward or 
backward motion of the nodes inde- 
pendent of that caused by the influ- 
ence of the magnet. 

Now, the various effects just described are precisely those 

* A slight touch of the finger on the revolving disc produces exactly the 
same effect as the magnet applied on the opposite side. The finger must be 
kept upon the disc with a gentle pressure, rubbing sn oothly over it, so as not 
to stop it. 




Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 327 

which the attraction of one planet produces upon the plane 
of another's orbit, in the eight different positions described. 

The cause, in the case of the metallic disc, is exactly the 
same as that which, we saw, produced the precession of the 
equinoxes. The point immediately under the magnet is at- 
tracted by the magnet, but the effect, in consequence of the 
rotation, takes place in advance of that point. The very 
same cause produces the reality represented by the model, 
in the case of the planets. The action of the magnet upon 
a metallic plate is not really different from the action of one 
planet upon another, as far as the plane of the orbit is con- 
cerned ; for we may suppose, as we did before in the case of 
the moon, every part of the plate to be a planet; and the 
magnet influences each part, as it passes it, in the same 
manner that the one planet influences the other. 

The circumstance of the magnet's being applied nearer, 
and more perpendicular to the orbit, than in the case of the 
planet, does not affect the result except in degree. It is 
brought near in order to make the effect more apparent; and, 
as to the perpendicular direction of its action, it may be re- 
marked that, in the case of the planets themselves, the at- 
traction of the disturbing planet, when not in the plane of 
the other's orbit, may be resolved into two forces — one in the 
direction of that plane, and the other at right angles to it : 
the former is employed in changing the form of the orbit, 
the latter in changing its direction : it is the latter that is 
represented by the magnet ; and, since it is actually perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the orbit, the position of the magnet 
truly represents it. 

The effect of the force in the direction of the plane of the 
orbit, in altering the form of the orbit, might also, perhaps, 
be shown by means of a magnet acting upon a loose chain, 
previously made to revolve as a circular ring by centrifugal 
force ; but the result I have not found to be sufficiently de- 
cided to be easily observable by the eye. 

I come now to my final application of the same principle 
which has pervaded all the previously described illustrations 
of the planetary motions. It is well known to those who have 
studied the subject, that the theory of Saturn's ring involves a 



028 James Elliot on certain 

difficulty from which it has never yet been satisfactorily freed. 
It is agreed on all hands that the assumption and main- 
tenance of the annular form is due to the centrifugal force 
arising from its rotation; but the difficulty is of another kind; it 
has arisen from a supposed demonstration by Laplace, in which, 
as far as I am aware, all other astronomers have acquiesced — 
that a uniform ring, revolving round a centre of attraction, will 
be in equilibrium only when the attracting centre coincides ma- 
thematically with the centre of the ring, — that, consequently, 
the equilibrium is unstable ; so that, if either the attracting 
object or the ring be displaced in the least, they will inevi- 
tably approach each other till they come into collision. But, 
though the planet Saturn w r ere poised, with mathematical 
accuracy, in the centre of his ring (a circumstance without a 
parallel in astronomy), the nice adjustment would not con- 
tinue a single day. for it would be immediately disturbed by 
the varying influence of the other planets and of its own sa- 
tellites. And not only are there abundant and constant 
causes to disturb that adjustment, if it existed, but it has been 
shown, as Sir John Herschel states, " by recent micrometri- 
cal measurements of extreme delicacy, that no such adjust- 
ment exists, but that the centre of the rings oscillates round 
that of the body, describing a very minute orbit." 

If, then, according to Laplace, there is no stability in the 
equilibrium of a uniform ring, it follows that, unless there 
were some preserving contrivance — some counteracting cir- 
cumstance, that beautiful mechanism would inevitably fall to 
pieces. For this purpose, Laplace has recourse to the expe- 
dient of supposing that the ring must be loaded on one side. 
That load, having of itself a tendency to describe an elliptic 
orbit round the planet, like a satellite, will drag the rest of 
the ring with it. The motion will thus belong to the load, the 
ring, large as it is, being merely its encumbrance. 

To that hypothesis, there are serious objections. In the 
first place, the load is almost hypothetical ; for although 
some slight apparent inequality may be observed in the 
different parts of the ring, yet nothing to justify Laplace's 
idea, — nothing which could be regarded as sufficient to bring 
about the result on which he calculates. In the second 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 329 

place, the expedient seems to be destitute of that elegant 
simplicity so conspicuous in the laws which govern the other 
parts of the planetary system. In the third place, if that 
load were carried round, like a satellite, and the rest of the 
ring dragged round by the load, the period of revolution 
would not be identical with that of a satellite at the same 
distance as the ring ; for the attractive force exerted upon 
the load, being equal to that upon such a satellite, and the 
inertia greater in consequence of the superadded mass of the 
rest of the ring, the time would be proportionally greater. But 
Laplace has himself proved that such a velocity of rotation 
is absolutely necessary to preserve the very form of the ring. 
Laplace's reply to this objection would probably have been, 
that the planet's attraction acts upon the ring also, as well 
as upon the load. But he does not say so ; and if he had 
said so, it would have entangled him in such complicated 
laws, involving both ring and load, that he could no more 
have established the stability of equilibrium with these than 
with the simple uniform ring — in fact much less easily. 

Sir JohnHerschel, dissatisfied with Laplace's hypothesis of 
the load, is driven into another, which appears to me to be no 
less objectionable. He thinks he perceives, he says, " in the 
rapid periodicity of all the causes of disturbance, a sufficient 
guarantee for its preservation ;" or, in other words, if I un- 
derstand him right, the displacement which one planet or 
satellite causes, another planet or satellite (or the same on 
its return) restores. He afterwards compares this to " the 
mode in which a practised hand will sustain a long pole in a 
perpendicular position, resting on the finger, by a constant 
and almost imperceptible variation in the point of support." 
His idea would be precisely realized, if, for the balancer's 
hand were substituted some ingenious piece of machinery, 
with its motions so nicely arranged beforehand as precisely 
to adapt itself to every foreseen and previously calculated 
displacement of the pole ; or rather, perhaps, the author would 
say, with the pole so nicely placed at first, that every little 
nod would come just in time for the counteracting motion of 
some one of its wheels. But, it may be replied, there is no 
other position or arrangement among any of the heavenly 



830 James Elliot on certain 

bodies in which any extreme precision of original adjust- 
ment has ever been detected : instead of that, they have been 
subjected to laws by means of which every little displace- 
ment produces its own remedy, and is its own restoring 
cause. This rule has been proved, I believe, to hold good 
throughout all the other motions of the solar system, prin- 
cipal and subordinate ; and, if this were an exception, it 
would be the only exception, standing out as a solitary ex- 
ample of its own kind. No doubt, if any necessary con- 
nexion could be shown to exist between the displacing and 
the supposed restoring causes, the general law would, in 
this instance also, hold good ; but no attempt is made to point 
out such a connexion ; nor can we even form the least con- 
ception in what way it can exist. In addition to this, the force 
necessary to restore an unstable equilibrium is always so im- 
mensely greater than that which has destroyed it, especially 
if any considerable time has elapsed in the interval, that a 
singularity and complexity in the restoring powers would be 
required, such as is altogether inconsistent with the general 
character of the planetary motions, if, indeed, it could not be 
demonstrated to be physically impossible.* No machine can 
be made to sustain a balanced pole. The exertion of intel- 
ligence alone can do it. 

But let us examine Laplace's supposed demonstration of 
the instability of equilibrium of a uniform ring round a centre 
of attraction, and see what it amounts to, for if not conclu- 
sive, neither his own hypothesis nor that of Sir John Her- 
schel will be necessary. After a very elaborate process of 
computation, to determine the proportion which the thickness 
of the ring should bear to its breadth, or at least the limit 
of that ratio, and a much simpler computation of the period 
of revolution which each ring ought to have in order to main- 
tain its form by its centrifugal force, showing that that pe- 
riod must be the same as that of a satellite at the same dis- 
tance, he proceeds to discuss the question of the stability of 

* I sincerely hope I have not misunderstood the sentiments of Sir John 
Herschel, an author for whom I entertain the very highest regard. Having 
examined his expressions carefully and repeatedly, I cannot interpret them in 
any other sense than that which I have attached to them. 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 331 

equilibrium, by first imagining the ring to be a mere circular 
circumference, attracted equally in all parts towards a point 
not coincident with its centre. He then goes on to compute 
the attraction existing between the centre of the ring and 
the centre of the planet, and, by a very refined process of in- 
tegration, he determines that attraction to be negative, or, in 
other words, that these two centres, instead of attracting, 
repel each other, and consequently, instead of tending to re- 
turn to coincidence, will continue to go more apart, until 
the circumference of the ring touch the surface of the planet. 

It is not necessary for me to produce Laplace's calcula- 
tion, since I am not going to find any fault with it as far as 
it goes, and its aspect is such that I am confident its attrac- 
tions, for this assembly, would turn out to be of a negative 
kind — somewhat repulsive. All that I need to say is easily 
appreciated ; and that is, not that the calculation is wrong, 
but that one of the principal elements is entirely omitted. 
Of the symbols introduced into the calculation, not one has 
any reference to the rotation of the ring : it is taken as at 
rest. How an omission so fatal should have been made on 
the part of so eminent a mathematician, I cannot explain ; 
neither am I called upon to account for the circumstance of 
the oversight not having been detected by subsequent astro- 
nomers. In the previous part of the demonstration, no doubt, 
the rotation forms a principal element, but not so in that part 
which we are now considering. My statement will be found 
borne out by a reference to La- 
place's celebrated work, the Meca- /^ 
nique Celeste, First Part, Book iii., / 
art. 46. But to save the trouble of f 
that reference, I will give a short [ 
sketch of his process. \ /^^V / 

A being the centre of the ring, \ ( B l' j / 

and B that of the planet ; the sym- \. \ / / 

bol S representing the mass of Sa- ^ 

turn ; r t the radius of the ring; m, the angle DAC ; and z, 
the line AB ;* he then says, — 

* The diagram rests on my own responsibility. There is no diagram for this 
in Laplace's work. It is presumed that no one will seriously maintain that a 
ring at rest and a ring in rotation, obey the same laws. 



332 James Elliot on certain 

Sd7X 



d^ r S 

dzj s/(r 2 + 2r 



*J(r 2 + 2rz cos ZS + z 2 ) 

will be the attraction of Saturn to the ring, decomposed in 
a direction parallel to z ; the integral being taken fromTS'^O 
to tJT = the circumference, and the differential being taken 
with regard to z. 

In all this there is no consideration of the ring's rotation, 
if I can understand it aright. All that is proved is precisely 
what we should have anticipated without such proof, viz., 
that if a planet at rest, surrounded by a ring also at rest, were 
nearer the one side of the ring than the other, it would be 
drawn towards that side. Still, although this appears likely 
beforehand, it is not self-evident ; for, as Sir Isaac Newton 
has demonstrated, it would not be true in regard to a planet 
placed within a hollow sphere, which is equally likely. It is 
very well, therefore, that Laplace has demonstrated it, and 
set the matter at rest, although, from the omission from the 
calculation, of any element representing velocity of rotation, 
the result has no bearing whatever upon the actual case of 
Saturn's ring,* since, as I think I am prepared to show, the 
very cause of the stability of equilibrium rests on the omitted 
consideration. 

Still, Laplace is not easily understood ; and if I have made 
any mistake regarding his meaning, I shall be glad to be set 
right-t But, whether or not, it does not affect my result, nor 
my objection to Laplace's conclusion ; for, according to his 
own explicit statement, the only force he has computed, is 
that in the direction parallel to AB. I shall at once assume 
not only that he is right in that in the case of the ring at 
rest, but also that the rotation of the ring will not affect that 
force. I will therefore commence at the point where he has 
left off; and start with the assumption that there is a repul- 
sion between the two centres, and, consequently, that, if the 

[ . * It was, however, especially to Saturn's ring that Laplace's investigation 
was directed, and therefore the rotation was an essential element. 

f I have been censured for presuming to dispute so high an authority as that 
of Laplace. I am not at all disposed to question Laplace's very high position 
as a mathematical astronomer ; but the greatest of men are not infallible, and 
the subject is certainly a fair one for discussion, so long as I assign my reasons, 
with perfect willingness to retract if proved to be in error. 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 333 

ring be displaced in the least, it will have a tendency to ap- 
proach the planet on that side on which it is nearest to it ; 
but that very tendency will produce its own remedy, by giv- 
ing rise to another and a very peculiar movement, which I 
am now about to explain. 

In considering the theory of the top, it appeared to me, 
that, if the top were in the form of a ring, and if an attrac- 
tive force within it, such as a magnet, were substituted for 
the downward force of gravitation the ring would avoid fall- 
ing in towards the centre of attraction by an evasive move- 
ment, similar to that by which a top avoids a fall, and simi- 
lar also to that by which, as we have already seen, the iron 
disc avoids contact with the magnet above or below it, — that, 
in fact, the tendency towards the centre would be converted 
into a slow eccentric revolution of the centre of the ring 
round the centre of attraction, entirely different from the 
rotation of the ring itself, exactly in the same manner as the 
tendency of the top to fall is converted into a slow conical 
motion of the axis. Thus, in the following diagram, let RR 
be the ring, C its centre, and P 
the centre of the attracting power, 
eccentrically placed with regard 
to the ring, the nearest point of 
the ring being A. That point A, 
is then acted upon by two inde- 
pendent forces, — that of the ro- 
tation, carrying it forward from 
A to B, and that of the attracting 
power, drawing it from B towards 
P, and is consequently brought to a point D between B and 
P, while the centre of the ring passes, in consequence, into 
the position C. The same movement continued brings the 
nearest point successively into the position D, E, F, &c, and 
carries the centre round the curve CC. 

It is only with a certain velocity of rotation, however, that 
the curve CC will be part of a circle. If the velocity is less 
than that, the point D will be nearer than A to P, and the 
ring will become more and more eccentric, till it is brought 
into collision with the attracting object, corresponding ex- 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. NO. IT. APRIL 1855. Z 




334. James Elliot on certain 

actly to the case of the top when its velocity is not sufficient 
to prevent it from falling. But if the velocity is greater than 
that which is necessary to keep the nearest point of the ring 
at a uniform distance from P, then PB will be greater than 
PA, and the ring will become less and less eccentric, the 
circle, or rather the curve, ADEF gradually enlarging till it 
coincide with the ring, and the curve CO gradually contract- 
ing till it disappear in the central point. The ring then be- 
comes perfectly concentric with the planet, and the state of 
stable equilibrium is restored. The latter case corresponds 
again to the case of the top whose velocity is sufficient to 
cause it to rise towards a vertical position.* 

Such was my theory, formed independently of experiment, 
but afterwards confirmed by it. After repeated trials, I suc- 
ceeded, by means of the apparatus represented in the follow- 
ing drawing, in showing it. 

M is a magnet supported on a stand, and R, an iron ring 
capable of revolving rapidly. E is a wooden support to con- 
tain the ring. D is an appendage employed for the purpose 
of bringing the centre of gravity of the whole to the same 
level with the point of support, and so getting rid of any 
conical motion which the axis of the ring might have inde- 
pendently of the magnet. The ring R, its support E, and 
the appendage D, revolve together upon a hollow on the top 
of the stem C, and are set in motion before the magnet is 
introduced. It is then found that the ring, when revolving 
with sufficient rapidity, is not, as Laplace asserts, in instable 
equilibrium, but that the rotatory motion is able to preserve 
it from collision with the magnet. We find also precisely 
the same eccentric revolution which was anticipated by theo^ 
ry, and corresponding exactly to that which, as I have pre- 
viously stated, is observed in Saturn's ring itself. 

The power of preserving the equilibrium, in the model, is 
so decided, that the whole apparatus may be turned consi- 
derably on one side, without derangement, the ring accom- 

* If the top never reach a perfectly vertical position, neither will the ring 
ever become perfectly concentric with the planet. But it is sufficient if we 
establish that it will constantly tend towards that state, approaching indefi- 
nitely near to it. 



Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions. 335 

panying the magnet ; and, if so turned before the introduc- 
tion of the magnet, the magnet will bring the ring into a 




concentric position, permitting its introduction into it, while 
a non-magnetic bar cannot be so introduced. The magnet, 
instead of causing collision, prevents it.* 

I have thus, both by theory and by experiment, attempted to 
explain that phenomenon, hitherto, as I think, not accounted 
for in any satisfactory manner, and to show that it rests on 
the same principle as the standing of a spinning-top, the pre- 
cession of the equinoxes, the retrogradation of the moon's 
nodes, and the perturbation of the planes of the orbits of 
the planets. How far I have succeeded I leave others to 
decide. 

* The loose structure, or fluidity, of Saturn's ring will not affect my theory, 
so long as there is sufficient cohesion, or mutual attraction, among its component 
particles, to keep them together as one hody, and sufficient velocity of rotation 
to preserve the annular form. 



z2 



336 EevleWs an J Notices of Bool- 9. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



1. — Die Kreidebilduncfen Westphalens. Von Dr Ferp, 

Roemer. 1854. 
2. — Coupe Geologique des Environs des Bams de Rennet 

Par A. d t Archiac. 1854. 

The nature of the change which the cretaceous formation, as a 
whole, undergoes in its extension from Belgium across Rhenish 
Prussia into Westphalia and Northern Germany, or southwards 
across France to the Mediterranean basin, is such, that the Eng- 
lish geologist, however well versed in the elementary knowledge 
of its divisions in his own country, the mineral character and as- 
pect of each, and of the included animal remains, must inevitably 
find himself at fault when he enlarges his inquiries in these di- 
rections. Beds identical in composition, and in the faeies of their 
fossil contents with such as occur in this country at the bottom 
of the cretaceous series, are just such as in Westphalia may be 
met with at the top. Mineral character loses its value, and only 
leads into error, whilst the distribution of fossil forms will be 
found to be altogether at variance with these laws of sequence 
and limited duration, which are still reverenced by so many of 
our palasontological naturalists. 

It will not be necessary to borrow much from the descriptive 
detail of Mr Roemer T s work, which recommends itself as much by 
its fulness as its cheapness to whoever may wish to explore per- 
sonally a district over which, as he remarks, the cretaceous for- 
mation occupies a larger superficial area, and presents a more 
favourable condition for examination than does any other in Ger- 
many. 

The divisions and subdivisions of the cretaceous strata of 
Westphalia, taken in descending order, are as follows : — 

A. 1. Upper Sandstone group, consisting of yellow sands, with 
bands of sandstone, forming the hill group of the Haard, of the 
Hohe Mark, near Hattern, and of the hills between Klein-Reken 
and Borken : the gray calcareous sandstone of Dulmen, and the 
clay marl with siliceous beds of the hills of Cappenberg. Taking 
the Haard as a type, it presents just such a group of strata as is 
to be met with in the south-east of England, within the area of 
the lower greensand, presenting barren hills with tabular sum- 
mits covered with heath and broom, and composed of alternations 
of sands and sandstones, with flat and tubular concretions of iron- 
stone ; there are also occasional lines of chert. This upper sub- 
division is said to be not less than 1000 feet thick. With sucli 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 337 

a combination of external characters, its place in the cretaceous 
series would seem to be either with the upper or lower green- 
sand groups ; the fossil contents of the beds, however, are both 
abundant and well preserved, and their relation to the series next 
beneath is unequivocal. Mr Roemer gives a list of upwards of 
twenty determined species ; with respect to these, we may exclude, 
as also in all subsequent lists, such forms as seem as yet to be 
peculiar to the German chalk strata ; and taking those only with 
which we are acquainted in this country, we find 

Exogyra laciniata, 1. ch.. w. ch., Inoceramus Cripsii (rd. ch.) 
Hunstanton, Cucullaea glabra, (Bldwn), Pholadomya caudata, 
Belemnitella quadrata (w. ch.), Nautilus elegans (1. ch), Tere- 
bratula alata and plicatilis ; against which are placed indications of 
their several positions in the English series. 

Mr Roemer considers that this subdivision represents the loose 
sands, with calcareous bands rich in fossils of the wood of Aix 
and of the Luisberg, and that it is the equivalent of the upper- 
most white chalk. 

In the lower strata of the hill of Cappenberg are Bourgueti- 
crinus ellipticus (u. ch.) ; Marsupites ornatus (u. ch.) ; Belemni- 
tella quadrata, which further support this view. 

Next beneath this arenaceous group is 

A. 2, A Calcareous Clay series of great thickness, and which, 
though mainly composed of marly beds, yet presents a mineral 
change in a given direction ; thus, the soft crumbling marls of 
the east of the basin, as about Beckum, are the equivalents of the 
compact calcareous beds resembling chalk, which occur at the 
same level on the west, at about Virden. Like changes occur in 
lower parts of this cretaceous series ; and in the Aix-la-Chapelle 
district still greater changes take place within still narrower 
limits. 

The strata of the hill of Baumberg, near Minister, have yielded 
the largest assemblage of fossils, by means of which the hard cal- 
careous strata near Ahaus, the chalk marls north of Coesfeld, and 
the clay-marls of the hills about and west of Beckum are con- 
nected with the same subdivision. 

Manon megastoma (1. ch.) ; Siphonia cervicornis fu. ch.) ; Ccelop- 
tychium agaricoides (u. ch.) ; Parasmilia centralis (u. ch.) ; Bour- 
gueticrinus ellipticus (u. ch.); Diademaornatum, Ananchytcs ovata 
(u. ch.) ; Micraster cor. anguinum (u. ch.) ; Chama striata Ignaber- 
gensis (u. ch.); Terebratula splicata (u. ch.) ; Ostrea vesicularis, (u. 
ch.) ; Pecten costatus ; Spondylus spinosus (u. ch.) ; Inoceramus 
Cripsii (1. ch.) ; T. Lamarckii (u. ch.) ; Belemnitella mucronata, (u. 
and m. ch.) ; B. quadrata (u. ch.) ; Ammintes Lewesiensis (1. 
ch.) ; Turrilites polypocus (1. ch.) 

This list might be somewhat extended, by including the species 
quoted from the numerous localities, described by Mr Boemer, on 



338 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

the north and south of the Lippe ; hut, taken by itself, it is quite 
sufficient to indicate a group corresponding with the great mass 
of our middle and upper chalk, and which is ranged, together with 
the overlying arenaceous division, under the Senonien group of 
M. d'Orbigny. The two together form a tract which is isolated 
from the rest of the cretaceous series by the alluvial and turf 
formations of the valleys of the Ems and the Lippe, so that their 
immediate superposition on the next group is nowhere to be seen. 
B. 1. The Planer, whose age and position at one time was such 
a matter of doubt and difficulty to some English geologists, is, 
according to M. Roemer, the most constant in its organic remains 
and mineral ogical character of all the cretaceous rocks of New 
Germany. He estimates its thickness at more than 800 feet ; of 
this, the upper portion is mostly a compact, pure, calcareous rock, 
the lower a marly calcareous clay. At Bochum, an intercalated 
band of greensand is seen, and in the range of the Planer, east- 
ward, such bands increase, and serve to subdivide the formation 
into two natural groups. In this form it can be traced round 
the whole of the bay or amphitheatre, from Muhlheim, near the 
Hhein, to Lichtenau, and thence to Bevergern, near the Ems, and 
along this whole line it is only separated from the older forma- 
tions by the intervention of the sands of Essen. 

The list of fossil species from this great group is very limited ; 
such as there are occur abundantly. Inoceramus mytoloides (1. 
is most common ; next in frequency is Terebratula pisum ; also 
Tereb. striatula ; T. semiglobosa (1. ch.) ; T. gracilis ; T. splicata 
(m. ch.) ; Spondylus spinosus (u. ch.) ; andHolaster subglobosus ; 
Ammonites peramplus (1. ch.) ; Nautilus elegans. A suite which 
refers the Planer to the lower chalk. 

B. 2. The Flammen mergel is a name first given to some beds 
which are seen between Goslar and Seesen, and which occur also in 
Westphalia. The strata consist of argillaceous limestone, more 
or less siliceous, of a light gray, with dark streaks. From its 
hardness, this group usually shows as a projecting edge between 
the ridges of the Hils sandstone and the Planer, and is as much 
as 100 feet thick. It is best seen from Dbrenschlucht to Biele- 
feld. Its geological position, in the Teutoberger Wold, is next, 
beneath the Planer. The only fossil quoted by Mr lloemer is 
Avicula gryphnp.oides (u. gr. s.) 

B. 3. Greensand of Essen. — Under the head of the •' green - 
sand of Essen," Mr Roemer groups a very variable series of ac- 
cumulations, consisting sometimes of very coarse conglomerates 
or sandstones, and of fine calcareous marls. They vary much in 
thickness ; their position is constant, being in immediate juxta- 
position on the highly inclined beds of the carboniferous groups, 
and overlaid by the beds of the Planer, with which the marly beds 
agree mineralogically. 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 339 

This remarkable group, commencing at Essen and Miihlhein on 
the Rhine, and whence were derived so many of the cretaceous 
forms described by Mr Goldfuss, ranges along the outline of the 
palaeozoic rocks as far as Stadbergen on the Diemel. In this we have 
a close approximation to an old coast line : in a direction at right 
angles to this line the detrital beds thin away and become finer ; 
and from west to east the alternations of coarse materials with fine 
sedimentary matter are more frequently repeated. A like change in 
the arenaceous band dividing the Planer, would seem to show that 
the present bay-like form of the cretaceous map of Westphalia is 
due to the form assumed by certain lines of disturbed strata, at 
some pre-cretaceous period. Along the whole of this line the 
conditions of accumulation are just such as the Tourtia of 
Belgium presents, of which according to Mr Roemer it is the exact 
equivalent. If this was ever made matter of doubt owing to the 
copious marine fauna of the sands of Essen, the difficulty is re- 
moved by an examination of the group further east. It is then 
seen that the assemblage about Essen was due to local con- 
ditions, whilst about Bilmerich, with sections which strikingly re- 
semble those of Tournay, the beds contain Area cardiaeformis, and 
the large Pleurostimaria of that locality. 

Mr Roemer give a list of 104 species from Essen. Of these we 
recognise as British, Scyphia infundibuliformis (Farr.), S. fur- 
cata (Farr.), Manon, peziza (Farr.), Tragos pulvinarium (Farr.), 
Micrabacea coronula (Worm.), Cidaris vesiculosa (u. ch.), Diadema 
ornatum (u. gr. s. 1. ch.), Goniopygus peltatus (u. gr. s.), Cerato- 
mus rostratus (Worm.), Discoidea subuculus (Worm., 1. ch.) Cato- 
pygus carinatus (Worm. 1. ch.), Nucleolites lacunosus (u. gr. s.), N. 
cordatus (u. gr. s.) Terebratula latissima (Farr. to 1. ch.), T. nuci- 
formis (Farr.), T. oblonga (Beaumont), T. nerviensis (Farr.), Ostrea 
macroptera (0. diluv.), O. carinata (u. gr. s.), Exogyra halotoidea 
Worm. Blackdn.), E. conica (greensands of the West of England), 
E. plicatula, Pecten asper (Worm. Blackdn.), P. cretosus (w. ch.), 
P. laminosus (1. ch.), P. costatus, Spondylus striatus (u. gr, s. 
Wilts), Nautilus elegans (1. ch.), N. simplex (n. grs. s.), Ammon- 
ites varians (u. gr. s.), A. peramplus (1. ch.), A. Mantelli (u. gr. s.), 
Turrilites costatus (1. ch.) 

The inference as to the relative age of the sands of Essen is that, 
considered according to the British cretaceous series they are the 
equivalents of the chalk marl, and of the sands which are beneath 
it ; as those of Warminster. 

It will be thus seen that round the great cretaceous bay of West- 
phalia there is a line of littoral sea beds, surmounted by deep-sea ac- 
cumulations of vast thickness, such as the Planer marls and lime- 
stones ; the continuity of which conditions seems to have been more 
than once disturbed by oscillations such as caused the outspread 
of the coarse bands which are subordinate to that great group. 



340 Reviews and Notices of Boohs. 

To this again succeeds the deep-water sedimentary beds of Mr 
Roemer' s second group, the equivalents of our upper chalk. The 
chalk formation of the south-east of England is nowhere complete i 
even where thickest there is abundant evidence of the removal of 
a much higher portion consisting of flinty chalk ; but whether, in 
its upward extension over the English area, it subsequently under- 
went any change in mineral character, can only be matter of con- 
jecture. It is most probable that it did not. Over the Westphalian 
area, on the contrary, the formation of the white chalk was followed 
by a shallowing ; the result of which was that sandy beds, character- 
istic of moderate depths, were formed above those of the deep-sea 
chalk; and the zoological result is exhibited in the lists of marine 
forms given by Mr Roemer, when we have the recurrence of a 
fauna identical as to many characteristic species with one which 
had previously existed over the same area at a long distant anterior 
period, and confirming in a remarkable manner the accuracy of an 
hypothesis advanced by Mr D. Sharpe (Geol. Jour, vol.x. p. 186.) 

Gault. — It had been generally supposed that this group was 
not represented in the cretaceous series of Germany. In a rail- 
way cutting near Neuenheerse a section was exposed in which 
certain strata of a red sandstone overlaid true Neocomian beds, and 
which from containing an ammonite supposed to be A. auritus has 
caused the sandstones in question to be referred to the Gault. 
With respect to the identity of the species, Mr Roemer admits, that 
it does not altogether agree with the French and English forms. 
Mr Roemer recognises the Gault at another place from the pre- 
sence of A, interruptus ; but this shell would not be sufficient evi- 
dence, and the distinctness of this group cannot as yet be consi- 
dered to have been satisfactorily made out. 

C. The Neocomian — is the lowest cretaceous group, constituting 
a long ridge along the Teutobergervald, but altogether wanting 
on the south from the Rhine to Winnenberg. It is composed of 
yellow and red sands, which were formerly supposed to belong 
to the Quader sandstone ; but the discovery of a number of fossil 
forms, as from Oerlinghausen and Bevergern, has determined its 
true age and position. On the south, a little beyond Lichtenau, 
these sandstones are found resting inconformably in the Triassic and 
Jurassic beds there. Further north they mostly overlie clays con- 
taining Cyrena majuscula and Milania strombiformis, well-known 
forms of the so-called Weal den of North Germany. Its infra-posi- 
tion to the whole of the cretaceous group of the district is also 
shown by certain protruding ridges ; as the hill of Gildehaus near 
Bentheim, and at Losser just within the Dutch province of Over- 
yssel. The following forms are quoted from the several localities : — 
Ammonites Decheni-bidichotomus, Belemnites subquadratus, Crio- 
ceras Duvallii, Pecten crassitesta, Exogyra sinuata, Thracia Phil- 
lipsi, Avicula cornueliana, Perna Mulleti. 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 341 

In the last Crioceras Duvallii, which is a form peculiar to the 
Neocomian group of the Mediterranean area, may perhaps be C. 
plicatilis of the Speeten clay ; the rest occur in the Neocomian beds 
of the S.E. of England and of the N.W. of France. In Hanover 
Mr Eoemer considers that it is represented by the sandstones and 
conglomerate of Hils. 

The transgressive passage of the Essen group, over and beyond 
the area occupied by the lower or Neocomian group, serves to 
indicate the direction in which subsidence was taking place in that 
quarter during the cretaceous period ; and confirms an opinion 
expressed by the late Professor Edward Forbes, after his visit to 
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1852, that the plant-bearing beds, subordinate 
to the sands of that locality, were the terrestrial equivalents of 
the older portions of the cretaceous series. 

The second memoir placed at the head of this notice is a de- 
scription by M. d'Archiac, of a group of strata, of somewhat the 
same age as those before noticed, and which are well seen near 
the Baths of Bennes, in the midst of the Cerbieres (Department of 
the Aude). A very large part of the region which separates West- 
phalia from the south of France was included in that which 
formed the terrestrial surface of the time of the cretaceous marine 
series ; and the memoir in question is interesting, as it adds much 
to our knowledge respecting the geographical range and distribu- 
tion of that Fauna, and suggests speculations as to the source or 
quarter from which portions may have been originally derived. 
The Cretaceous Fauna of the European area already presents two 
such distinct assemblages of forms, that geologists are warranted 
in distinguishing between the Southern or Mediterranean, and the 
Northern or Germanic province. It is most probable that the 
southern of these dates back its origin to times long antecedent to 
the other, so that the area now represented by the departments of 
the Var, Hautes, and Basses Alpes, was beneath the waters of the 
cretaceous ocean during a long lapse of time before the more 
westerly but adjoining area of France became submerged. The 
fact of this successive depression is well illustrated by M. d'Archiac's 
memoir ; the cretaceous strata of the Cerbieres rest unconformably 
on old Palseozoic slates, yet in spite of their vast thickness there is 
no part which can be considered older then the Gault of England, 
and as such, it can be clearly identified with the beds of that stage 
which overlies the older (Neocomian) formation in the three de- 
partments before named. This agreement, however, is only 
general : M. d'Archiac remarks, that it is not with the nearest 
beds of the same age in that part of France that those of Bennes 
can be compared with reference to their fossil contents, but rather 
with those of Gosau (Eastern Alps) with the Planer of North 
Germany, and the sands of Aix-la-Chapelle ; and that, in addition, 



312 Reviews and jYotices of Books. 

the list presents identifications with forms from a much more dis- 
tant region. About ten years ago Professor E. Forbes described 
a beautiful series of fossils from Southern India. The facies of 
this Fauna was characteristically cretaceous : of thirty-five species 
of Cephalopods, three-fourths were found to be very closely allied 
to species from the Neocomian beds of the department of the Var ; 
many other genera of Mollusks presented a like result. In addition 
to these species a close and critical comparison satisfied Professor 
Forbes that there were twelve forms which could not be dis- 
tinguished from well-known European ones : of these some were 
limited to the south of France, and some ranged into our own 
area. M. d'Archiac, whose caution in stating results is well 
known, has added as many as five or six to this list — making about 
ten per cent. — a very remarkable result when the difference in 
latitude, amounting to 30°, is taken into consideration. 



The Entomologist's Annual for 1855, comprising Notices of 
the new British Insects detected in 1854. Edited by H. 
T. Stainton, Author of the " Entomologist's Companion." 
London : John Van Voorst. 1855. 

The idea of an Entomologist's Annual is a good one ; and we 
hail with satisfaction the attempt which has been made by Mr 
Stainton and his able coadjutors, Mr Smith and Mr Janson. At 
the same time, we will not receive this from their hands as more 
than a preliminary essay towards the production of such a work. 
Our notion of what an Entomologist's Annual ought to be goes 
far beyond what Mr Stainton sets before him. He tells us that 
his object has been " to give systematically notices of all the new 
species found in this country in the past year, and at the same 
time to intimate which rare species had been taken in any plenty." 
The latter purpose has not been attempted this year from want of 
space, but the former has certainly been ably accomplished. 

Mr Stainton records no less than 173 species of Lepidoptera as 
detected in Britain since the publication of Stephen's Illustrations 
of British Entomology in 1835, of which 11 are species hitherto 
uiulcscribed, and of which Mr Stainton has given good descrip- 
tions, and in one or two instances figures. He might have added 
15 Tortricina to his list, had he taken all those enumerated by 
Stephens in his Museum Catalogue as British species ; but he has 
most properly abstained from doing so, on the ground that he has 
no satisfactory information regarding them, reserving to himself 
to introduce them in subsequent years, should they hereafter 
prove distinct. Some fine species are recorded in the list, such as 
Authroccra Minos, SpaeloLts Vallcaiaca, Centra bicuspis, &c. 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 343 

Mr Stainton next gives some observations on the British Tineina, 
as supplementary to his work on them in the Insecta Britannica, 
and Entomologist's Companion; and he answers some " enigmas" 
which he had propounded in the latter work, chiefly relating to 
the breeding of some of these small moths. A recapitulation of 
some other of his enigmas, which have not yet been solved, closes 
his portion of the Annual. 

Mr Frederick Smith of the British Museum next takes up the 
Hymenoptera. He adds 59 species to our British bees, as hav- 
ing been noticed since the publication of Kirby's Monographia 
Apium Angliae in 1802. With the exception of half-a-dozen, the 
whole of these seem to have been discovered by Mr Smith himself 
within the last few years — a testimony to his abilities as an ento- 
mologist which our readers will know how to appreciate. In the 
Lepidoptcra and Coleoptera Mr Stainton and Mr Janson have drawn 
their materials from numerous sources ; but Mr Smith has had 
the field of Hymenoptera almost entirely to himself. Three of the 
finest species, however, have not fallen to his lot. Osmia parie- 
tina fell to Mr Curtis ; Bombus Lapponicus, Fab. was first found 
by Mr Newman, and the fine Bombus Smithianus, White (arcticus, 
Dahlbon.) was captured in Shetland by Mr Adam White. 

Mr Smith adds 6 new species to the fossorial Hymenoptera 
published by Mr Shuckard, and a like number to the MyrmicidcB 
and Formicidce ; and concludes by giving a couple of valuable 
pages of " notes in explanation of the new species of aculeate 
Hymenoptera in Stephens' Systematic Catalogue," in every line 
of which one of Mr Stephens' species is destroyed after this fashion : 
" Pompilus nervosus, Steph., is the female of P. gibbus, Lin.;" u Pom- 
pilus basalis, Steph., is the male of P. gibbus, Lin." &c. &c. ; and he 
knocks off 65 of Stephens' species in this way. He does not tell 
us how he has come to the conclusion he announces, but we pre- 
sume it is from an examination of Stephens' own type specimens 
now in the British Museum ; and Mr Smith's mere statement of 
the result to which he has come will, we are sure, be received by 
entomologists in general as quite sufficient evidence of its accuracy. 
To such obliteration of Stephens' species and names entomologists 
are now well accustomed ; and they are much indebted to those 
who undertake the ungrateful task of clearing up the confusion 
which that celebrated entomologist has unhappily made. Mr 
Smith has limited himself to the portion of the Hymenoptera above 
noticed. A separate work on the Chalcidites must first be exe- 
cuted before they can contribute their share to new acquisitions. 

The Coleoptera, which occupy the remainder of the volume, have 
been undertaken by Mr E. W. Janson, who has bestowed very 
great care and attention on his part of the work. His list in- 
cludes all those species which have been noticed as occurring in 
Britain since the publication of Stephens 1 Manual in 1839. The 



S44 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

sources from which he has drawn his information have been 
Dawson's Geodephaga Britannica, Murray's Catalogue of Scottish 
Coleoptera, Hardy and Bold's Catalogue of Northumbrian Co- 
leoptera, Hogan's Catalogue of species found in the neighbour- 
hood of Dublin, and scattered notices published in the scientific 
periodicals of the day, such as the Annals of Natural His- 
tory, the Zoologist, &c. He has thus accumulated 227 species, 
of which he says it is presumed none are given in Stephens' 
Manual. We fear he is mistaken in saying so. Stephen's de- 
scriptions are so vague and undecipherable, especially of the 
smaller species, and his own collection frequently so inaccurate, 
that it is often impossible to tell what insect he is describing, and 
in such cases his names can neither be adopted as principal deno- 
minations, nor even as accessory synonymes, and the entomologist 
is compelled to take the Continental names, so that a number of 
insects under these names may be included in the list which 
Stephens had got and thought he had described in his Manual. 
We wish that Mr Janson had, like Mr Smith, given a list of those 
of Stephens' species which should be deleted from his Manual, or 
referred to older well-known names. He would have found much 
assistance in doing so in the works from which he has compiled 
his list, especially in Dawson's Geodephaga Britannica and Mur- 
ray's Catalogue of Scottish Coleoptera, where great attention has 
been paid to the synonymy of Stephens' species. Perhaps Mr Jan- 
son may undertake this in some future Annual. When it shall 
be done, it will probably be found that instead of adding to the num- 
ber of species reckoned as British, we must still reduce them. 

From the summary which we have given, it will be evident that 
" the Entomologist's Annual" is as yet very far from fulfilling 
the promise which its title holds out. It can scarcely be said 
to do so even as a " British Entomologist's Annual," for half the 
orders of British insects are left untouched. The Hemiptera, Hom- 
optera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Biptera, Aptera, &c. are never 
mentioned ; and what has been done in the other orders, although it 
may fulfil what Mr Stainton in his preface professes to do, cer- 
tainly fulfils only a very small, and that the most inconsiderable 
part of what we imagine to be the true duty of an Entomologist's 
Annual. As we take it, the object of such a work should be not 
only to bring together the notices of new captures in the course 
of the year, but to make the entomologists aware of what has 
been doing in the literature of the science, what new works have 
appeared, what information is contained in them, and generally to 
keep the entomologist au courant du jour in all matters relating 
to his study both at home and abroad. British entomologists are 
in general wofully ignorant of what is going on on the Continent, 
and to supply this information should be one of the great objects of 
an Entomologist's Annual. It may perhaps be supposed that 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 345 

such remarks should have been withheld at the commencement of 
a new work, and that as it goes on in future years the authors will 
of themselves adopt such a plan as we have indicated, but we 
learn from Mr Stainton's preface that no such course is contem- 
plated, and we are threatened in another year with a very different 
kind of supplement. Mr Stainton says, " The object of the pre- 
sent annual is to record systematically the discoveries of each year ; 
but it need not thereby be a purely technical work, and with the 
view of making it attractive as well as useful, several amusing 
chapters would have been introduced had space permitted. If the 
demand should be sufficiently great to warrant such a proceeding, 
the bulk of next year's Annual will be increased, without any 
alteration in the price, and I may then be able to give some ' Say- 
ings and Doings at St Osyth,' by Mr Douglas ; ' Results of a 
Summer's Residence at Fochabers,' by Mr Scott ; and a chapter 
' On the comparative degrees of usefulness of Public and Private 
Collections,' or other communications of a like nature." We hope 
Mr Stainton will reconsider this. However excellent the papers 
alluded to may be in their way, he may rest assured that that is 
not the sort of thing his readers want. They do not look for 
amusement in a scientific work, and the best way to make it at- 
tractive is to make it useful. 

Mr Stainton no doubt foresees that he will have a lack of mat- 
ter next year ; and seeing that the discoveries of the last twenty 
years have all been required to fill the pages of this small volume, 
it is undoubted that if he confines himself to the narrow bounds 
he has laid down, he will not have matter for a dozen pages. 
But if instead of filling up the deficiency with " amusing chapters," 
he and his coadjutors will set themselves to give the information 
we desiderate, he will find that his yearly pages will be all too 
small to hold the half of the valuable matter he has to communi- 
cate. Let them take Erichson's " Report on the Contributions to 
the Natural History of Insects, &c. during the year 1842," of 
which a translation was published by the Ray Society in 1845, 
as a model ; and however short they may come of that unequalled 
production, we shall venture to say that the " Annual" will then 
give more satisfaction than if it contained the liveliest articles 
that ever were tendered to a monthly magazine. 



Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. 1854. 

8vo. (Printed for Members only.) 
Proceedings of the Cotteswold Naturalists 9 Club. 1853. 8vo. 
Malvern Naturalists 1 Field Club. 1855. 8vo. 

The proceedings of the active Club placed first on our list, now 



346 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

in its twenty-third year, besides the annual address of the presi- 
dent, contains valuable information on the Zoology, Botany, and 
Geology of the district. 

The printed papers of this Club extend now nearly to three 
volumes. Previous to the time of its formation there were man 
active naturalists in the district, whose circumstances and avoca- 
tions prevented much interchange of opinions with their fellow- 
labourers, and it was chiefly at the suggestion and by the energy 
of Dr Johnston of Berwick, that a plan was formed to increase 
the communication with each other. " The Club was instituted," the 
opening paragraph of its first Proceedings states, " for the pur- 
poses of examining the natural history and antiquities of the 
county and its adjacent districts, and of affording to such as were 
interested in the objects the opportunity of benefiting by mutual aid 
and co-operation ;" and while at its commencement it acted singly, 
and for a time alone, its interest and utility at length became 
known by the institution of similar clubs in the English counties 
adjoining, and within these few years by several very important 
ones springing up in other parts of England. The western coun- 
ties of England have taken the most important lead ; several 
societies, denominated " Field Clubs," have lately been instituted 
there. They are all formed after the model of the old Berwick- 
shire Club, and profess to be bodies of working naturalists. It 
is the custom of their members to assemble during the summer 
months at the small and unambitious hostelries of their differ- 
ent counties, and, after breakfasting together, to transact the 
business of their societies and elect new members. This over, 
the Club divides into Geological, Botanical, and Entomologi- 
cal Sections, to which, as taste directs, the members attach 
themselves for the day. After a long walk they meet again at 
dinner, frequently at another village inn, eight or ten miles from 
the spot where they breakfasted. A homely repast is prepared, 
and generally discussed with much appetite. The remainder of 
the evening is devoted to reading scientific papers, examining the 
specimens collected during the day, and general conversation upon 
subjects of Natural History. A winter meeting is also held, where 
the sayings and doings of the past year are reviewed by the pre- 
sident in his address, new rules are passed, old ones altered, and 
the officers for the ensuing season elected. The elder of these 
west of England societies is the Cotteswold Club in Gloucestershire, 
under the presidency of T. B. Lloyd Baker, Esq. of Hardwicke 
Court, a gentleman who has much distinguished himself by his 
philanthropic endeavours to reform the young criminals and juve- 
nile jail-birds of London, and other large towns. The Cottes- 
wold Club is now in the tenth year of its existence. It was 
originally established by Sir T. Tancred, Bart., who for some years 
undertook the office of honorary secretary. On the departure of 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 347 

Sir Thomas for New Zealand,* Professor James Buckman was 
elected. The first volume of the " Proceedings of the Cottes- 
wold Naturalists' Club" was published in 1853. The papers 
by T. P. Wright, Esq., M.D., John Lycett, Esq., the Rev. P. B. 
Brodie, F.G.S., Professor James Buckman, and W. Hyett, Esq., 
are well known in the scientific world, ti The Woolhope," the 
Herefordshire Naturalists' Field Club, was founded on the 
principle of the Cotteswold Society, in 1851, by the late 
Mackay Scobie, Esq., and the Rev. W. S. Symonds. Its progress 
has been steady and uninterrupted, and the members are doing- 
much towards developing the geology and botany of their dis- 
trict ; they are limited to fifty, and the list is full. A set of 
meteorological instruments have been purchased, and placed under 
the superintendence of Mr Hewett Wheatley. Their first volume 
of " Transactions" will be printed in June. The following gen- 
tlemen have filled the office of president : — 1 852, T. M. Lingwood, 
Esq., F.G.S., F.L.S. ; 1853, The Rev. T. T. Lewis, the well-known 
Silurian geologist ; 1854, The Rev. W. S. Symonds, F.G.S. The 
president for 1855 is the Rev. J. F. Crouch, F.L.S., late Fellow of 
Baliol College, Oxford. 

The Malvern Naturalists' Field Club was established in 1852, 
and also consists of fifty members. The Rev. W. S. Symonds, F.G.S. , 
has been president since the formation of the Club ; the vice-pre- 
sident, the Rev. F. Dyson, and the honorary secretary, Mr W. 
Burrow, have also been re-elected. A local museum is being 
formed under the auspices of the members, at the house of the 
honorary secretary, and to which strangers visiting Malvern will 
be allowed access. The Club possesses a very fine collection of 
Malvern Silurian fossils. The " Transactions of the Malvern 
Club" will be published in June, when a great general meeting 
of the members of the three Clubs, joined by the members and 
council of the Natural History Society of Worcester, will be held 
at Malvern — Sir Roderick Murchison has promised to be in the 
Chair. 

The Warwickshire Club, on the same principle, is just com- 
mencing wo7-k. President, the Rev. P. B. Brodie, distinguished 
by his work on Fossil Insects. The honorary secretary is the 
author of" Chronicles of a Clay Farm," Chandos Wren Hoskyns, 
Esq. 

We hail, in the establishment of these societies, an extended 
knowledge in the local natural history of their counties, and 
heartily wish them success. It surely becomes an important 
feature in scientific history, when we find from 150 to 200 edu- 
cated men engaged in such pursuits. 

* Sir Thomas has just returned, and will, no douht resume his usefulness. 



348 Reviews and Notices of Booh 



Introductory Text- Book of Geology. By David Page, 
F.G.S., Edinburgh and London. 1854. w. C, 12mo. 

We heartily congratulate Mr Page on the production of a Geo- 
logical Text-Book, which is at once clear and succinct, and in 
many respects well adapted to the beginner. In his preface he 
states, that " the utmost care has been taken to present a simple 
but accurate view of his subject;" and while we consider that 
this statement is justified in the main by the mode in which he 
has fulfilled his task, he has fallen into a few inaccuracies w T hich 
we think it necessary to point out. 

His arrangement of the " Silurian system" (p. 58) is perfectly 
correct, and he has placed the " Tilestones" at the top of the 
Ludlow series of rocks, for he is well aware that the " Tilestones" 
contain fossils eminently Silurian. Orthoceras bullatum, Rhyn- 
conella nucula, Chonetes lata, Lingula cornea, &c, &c. At the base 
of the " Tilestones" we find the " bone bed" of the Upper Ludlow 
rock; and there, with the remains of Silurian shells and crustaceans, 
for the first time in the geologic scale and the history of the 
planet, we meet with the fragments of fish. These fish are peculiar 
to the Silurian system, and the same ichthyolites have been found 
by Prof. Phillips in strata of the Upper Ludlow shales consider- 
ably lower than the " bone bed." " Each stratum," says Sir 
R. Murchison, speaking of the lowest member of the Old Bed 
Sandstone and the fish beds of the Upper Ludlow, " is a fact con- 
firmatory of the view of Agassiz, that those animals are very exact 
indicators of rocks." 

Those who were present in the Geological Section at the British 
Association at Liverpool (September 1854), when Mr Page, with 
Sir R. Murchison's Siluria in his hand, was called to order by Sir 
Charles Lyell upon this very point, can hardly suppose that it was 
through ignorance our author penned the following passage in his 
recapitulation of the Old Bed Sandstone : — " Characterized on its 
lower margin by strata containing the remains of fishes, and in 
this respect separated from the Silurian, which is devoid of such 
fossils, and defined, on its upper margin, by the rarity of that 
vegetation which enters so profusely into the composition of the 
carboniferous rocks, there can, in general, be no difficulty in 
determining the limits of the old red formation." 

At page 63 he also "remarks that remains of fishes'' must be 
" regarded as marking the dawn of the Old lied Sandstone epoch, 
rather than as belonging to the close of the Silurian ;" and to 
which we reply that were mammalia found associated with the 
fossils of the Upper Chalk, he might argue, with equal truth, that 
the upper cretaceous deposit appertained to the epoch of the 
Eocene tertiaries ! This is not all : a similar mis-statement is ap- 



Correspondence. 349 

plied to the Silurian vegetation ; for (p. 66) we read that " the 
organic remains of the Old Red Sandstone 1 ' "furnish distinct evi- 
dence of terrestrial vegetation; as well as the earliest traces of 
vegetable life on our globe.*' Again (p. 136) we rise "from the 
lowly sea-iueeds of the Silurian strata /' but Dr Hooker has deter- 
mined fossil seeds from the Upper Ludlow rocks to belong to land 
plants allied to the Lycopodiacese. 

With these exceptions Mr Page has compiled an excellent 
" Introductory Text-Book ;" and we wish him every success ; but, 
as it may be very extensively used, we are bound in duty to point 
out what we consider inaccurate. 

Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Honourable 
East India Company. Printed by order of the Court of 
Directors. Vol. I. London, 1854. 8vo. 

There are many valuable Zoological collections in Great Bri- 
tain, but most of them are comparatively useless from want of a 
catalogue or arranged list of the contents. Among these ranked 
the Museum of the Honourable East India Company, which has 
now set an example, by publishing the first part of the Catalogue 
of its Ornithological Collection. This museum has been long known 
as a valuable one, particularly in that department now being cata- 
logued. Among its contents are the collections of drawings which 
have served as the foundations of many of the species described by 
Dr Latham, and which still continue as the sole authority for some 
of these. All the labours of Sir Stamford Baffles and Dr Hors- 
field are there, as well as the whole or part of the collections of 
General Hard wi eke, Colonel Sykes, M'Clelland, Falconer, Hodgson, 
Strachey, Tytler, &c, &c. 

The Catalogue is published under the superintendence of Dr 
Horsfield ; but the actual labour of compiling it has devolved upon 
Mr F. Moore, the assistant curator, who has executed his work 
well. The systematic arrangement proposed by the late N. A. 
Vigors has been followed, and the volume now printed contains 
the Raptor es of the collection, 103 species, and a portion of the 
Incessores. Extracts from various printed works of the donors of 
the specimens and drawings are introduced where they relate to 
the habits of the species. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



Mr W. Mills, Missionary in Navigator Islands, writes us 
from Sydney, where he had gone on account of his health : — 

" I am sorry to say the bird you were so anxious to get does 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. APRIL 1865. 2 K 



350 Correspondence. 

not now exist in our island (Samoa), nor, so far as I can learn, in, 
any of the other groups in the Pacific. I have procured all the 
Samoan birds except the Manu-Mea (Gnathodon), which has 
become all but extinct since the introduction of cats into the 
islands. I used every effort to get a specimen, but did not succeed. 
During a residence of eighteen years on the islands, I have only 
seen two Manu-meas." 

■-' At all the islands east of Samoa very few birds are to be found, 
so that the Navigators' form quite a contrast. The missionary at. 
the Harvey group supposes that the scarcity of birds there is 
occasioned from the destruction of their food by the frequent and 
dreadful hurricanes which they have." 
Sydney, August 13, 1854. 



Natal Geology. Extract of Letter from Dr P. C. Suther- 
land to the late Professor E. Forbes, dated 5th June 1854. 

" I send some specimens of copper ore from this colony. They 
occur between the junction of highly- contorted and almost verti- 
cally placed strata of the crystalline metamorphic rocks, with beds 
of non-fossiliferous sandstone, which not unfrequently pass into 
conglomerate on the one side and into shale on the other. The 
sandstone strata are nearly 1000 feet thick, are very rarely changed 
more than 10° to 15° from the horizontal line, and are frequent- 
ly interstratified with beds of greenstone and basalt and other 
rocks of the trap series, which are often found decomposed into a 
grayish-yellow clay. In nearly the same geological position with 
the copper ore, masses of a species of talcose rock occur, and are 
found, although not with the copper, passing into rocks of a more 
steatose character, which in one or two instances showed an 
approach to a slightly fibrous structure, not unlike Asbestus. I 
send also specimens which appear to be olivine, from the same 
locality as the copper ore, but not near the gneiss. The presence 
of olivine among the granites found here may perhaps lead to 
giving it a place among rocks esteemed to be of earlier date than 
those which disturb the sandstone and other strata. It is very 
abundant among the gneiss strata of this colony. By a rough 
analysis of the copper ore, I found that some of the average speci- 
mens yielded 15 per cent, of the green carbonate (Malachite), or 8 
per cent, of pure copper. ***** 

" I send also specimens of calcareous nodules, which are found 
in many parts of Natal, and not unfrequently in sufficient quan- 
tity to be collected and burnt into lime. As they are not found 
except in the soil, which appears to have resulted from the decom- 
position of erupted rocks, it is probable they may be the nodules 



Correspondence. 351 

sometimes found in Amygdaloid. The sulphate of lime, which I 
have found they contain, may tend to protect them from the action 
of the carbonic acid present in the rain water which washed away 
the soil and left them exposed. There is also transmitted a speci- 
men of crystalline limestone, occurring among the strata of the 
more quartzose gneiss rocks. It is taken from the immediate 
neighbourhood of an acidulous thermal water, which issues from 
among the rocks, at a temperature of 128°. A constant bubbling 
of carbonic acid escapes with the water, and imparts to it the acid 
properties it possesses, as shown by its action on litmus paper. 
Sulphur is deposited on the stones in the pools where the water 
cools down a few degrees, before it escapes into a large river close 
at hand, wdiich sometimes overflows it. This river is called the 
Tugila. It flows from the Dooken bog, and follows a highly 
tortuous course. Where the mineral water occurs, it has made a 
section of the country to the depth of 3500 feet, and its fall from 
this part to the coast, over an extent of at|least 40 miles, is not 
more than 500 feet. The strata are not contorted at the mineral 
water. 

" I have to lament the loss we have sustained in the death of 
Dr Stanger as much, perhaps, as any person in the colony. He 
contemplated a grand geological examination, which would have 
been carried on in connection with the survey on which he was 
preparing to enter."* 



Himalayan Geology. Extract of Letter from T. Oldham, 
Esq., to the late Professor E. Forbes, dated January 19, 
1854. 

" Coming down from Darjiling last year I visited a locality where 
coal was said to occur at the base of the outer ranges of the 
Himalayas, and though I did not find coal, I found a very in- 
teresting series of sandstones and clays, at least 4000 to 5000 
feet thick, with numerous imbedded stems of trees, palms, &c, 
and in one place with leaf-beds — no animal fossils — all dipping 
at considerable angles into the range of hills, and apparently cut 
off by a great fault from the gneiss of the great central portion 
there. There was no trace of the great nummulite group here, 
but I believe this thick series is the true representative in this 
part of the Himalayan range of the Sewalik group in the north- 
west. I did not find, nor did I hear of there having ever been 
found, any of the large fossils there discovered. But this is the 
case in many other places in the prolongation of this great group. 

* [We trust that Dr Sutherland will send further communications on the 
geology of Natal and of the coppsr district. — Ed. Phil. Jour.} 

2 a 2 



352 Correspondence — Proceedings of Societies. 

I fancy I have worked out pretty well that the great coal deposits 
of Bengal (Burdwan, &c.) are of the older oolitic era, (to compare 
Indian with European groups). We found fossils last season, 
which, as far as I can see, are identical with those from Cutch, 
described by Morris in the Transactions of the Geological Society, 
vol. v. (Ptilophylla), in the same beds containing Vertebraria and 
the common coal-series plants of Bengal. Now, though vegetable 
remains are but poor evidence after all, they are something. And 
as the Cutch ones are truly oolitic, I am inclined to refer the 
whole group to that period." 



Gutta Percha in India. Extract of a letter from Dr Hugh 
Cleghorn, Madras, to Professor Balfour, dated 13th 
January 1855. 

c< Three days ago, my friend Colonel Cotton, of the Madras En- 
gineers, sent me a piece of Gutta Percha from the Wynaad, with a 
twig of the tree producing it, which is a true Isonandra. I have 
on the table — both the gum-elastic and the branchlet — abundant 
proof of the important discovery. It is believed that the tree 
grows abundantly in Malabar. I have requested that a diligent 
search should be made. As telegraphic lines stretch across our 
Peninsula, the importance of the discovery can scarcely be over- 
rated, now that the forests of Singapore are wellnigh exhausted. 
The government will take means to preserve a wholesale destruc- 
tion in the present instance, by making the forest a royalty, or at 
all events placing the trees under strict conservancy. I await 
with deep interest further intelligence from the distinguished en- 
gineer as to the extent of the gutta percha forests.'' 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
Tuesday, 2d January 1855. Right Rev. Bishop Terrot, in the Chair. 
The following communications were read-. — 

i. Notes on some of the Buddhist Opinions and Monuments of Asia, 
compared with the Symbols on the Ancient Sculptured " Standing 
Stones" of Scotland. By Thomas A. Wise, M.D. 

The general identity, in idea and design, of the ancient monuments of 
southern and western Europe with those of Hindostan, was shown and 
illustrated by drawings of cairns, barrows, kist-vaens, cromlechs, circles 



Proceedings of Societies. 353 

of stones, and obelisks, or, as they are frequently called, standing stones? 
as found in both regions. The connection between the inhabitants of 
these regions was further shown by the physical conformation of the 
races, by the similarity of many of their manners, customs, and observ- 
ances, and by the decided and extensive affinity of the Celtic, and other 
languages of western Europe, with the Sanscrit. The early connection 
which thus appears to have existed was shown to indicate a line of in- 
quiry, by following which much of the obscurity, resting over the earliest 
monuments and history of western Europe, may be cleared away. In 
particular, reasons were adduced for believing that the doctrines of 
Buddhism, originating in Asia, at a period when some intercourse was 
still maintained between the cognate, but widely separated races, were 
carried westward by missionaries, who, finding the people unprovided 
with a written language, had recourse to symbols, already used in the 
East, to express their fundamental doctrines. The deity or spirit 
(Buddha) was designated, as in India, by a wheel or circle ; inorganic 
matter (Dharma) by another circle, or by a monogram, formed of the 
initial letters of the elements ; and organic matter (Sanga) by some em- 
bryotic form of animal or vegetable life, or by a circle or an imperfect 
crescent. The symbol of three single circles is found in both regions : 
This triad is found in India in the temple of Ellora, and other Buddhist 
temples, and in Scotland on the Kineller stone. In the progress of ad- 
vancement of the arts, these simple forms of symbols were changed for 
temples, and idols were added by the rich and powerful Buddhists of 
Asia. 

Among the ruder and more ignorant inhabitants of Scotland, the ar- 
rangement of the symbols required to be altered, to suit the people for 
whom they were intended : Spirit and Matter continued to be represented 
by two circles, but connected by a belt, and crossed by a bar uniting the 
extremities of two sceptres, to indicate the supreme power of these (ac- 
cording to the Buddhist creed) co-ordinate and all originating principles ; 
while organised matter was represented by a crescent, flower, a dog-like 
embryo, or some other rude representation of life. 

The modifications of the serpent figure, and the Buddhist cross or 
sacred labyrinth, as symbols of the spiritual deity ; and the occurrence of 
lions, camels, centaurs, with the honour paid to trees, &c, on the ancient 
sculptured obelisks of Scotland, were also adduced as proofs of an oriental 
origin, or connection. 

Reasons were given for the number of these stones in that part of 
Scotland forming the ancient Pictish kingdom ; of whieh the inhabitants, 
after a temporary profession of Christianity seemed to have declined 
from the faith. 



2. Note on the extent of our knowledge respecting the Moon's Surface. 
By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth. 

Taking advantage of the special attention paid at present to certain 
astronomical disquisitions, the author called attention to a particular point 
connected with the moon, which was first stated by the author of " The 
Plurality of Worlds," and then made by him to prove that the moon must 
be uninhabited, and thence to lead to the conclusion that all the other 
planets were uninhabited also. This point was, that " observations having 
been made on the moon abundantly sufficient to detect the change caused 
by the growth of such cities as Manchester and Birmingham, no such 
changes having been perceived, the theory of non-habitation may be in- 
dulged in." 



354 Proceedings of Societies. 

But after having indicated the sort of appearance that those collections 
of human habitations would make when transferred to the moon, Professor 
Smyth proceeded to show that the registered and published observations 
of the moon are by no means sufficiently accurate to be used to test this 
question : and that they do show changes, and often to a far greater 
amount than the mere building of a lunar Manchester would occasion , but 
such changes bear the impress of error of observation. More powerfully 
still was this brought out, on comparing even the best of the published 
documents with some manuscript drawings of the Mare Crisium in the 
moon , recently made at the Edinburgh Observatory ; and the author 
hoped that this statement of the imperfection of existing maps would lead 
to observers generally applying themselves to improve this important and 
interesting field of astronomy. 

3. On the Interest strictly Chargeable for Short Periods of Time. 
By the Rev. Professor Kelland. 



Monday, 15th January 1855. Dr Traill, Curator of the Library, in 

the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. On the Ethers and Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids. 

By Henry How, Esq. Communicated by Dr Anderson. 

This paper appears at page 212 of the present number of this Journal. 

2. On the Result of a Revision of the British Association Catalogue of 
Stars at the Madras Observatory. By Captain W. S. Jacob. Com- 
municated by Professor C. Piazzi Smyth. 

See page 206 of the present number of this Journal. 

3. Notice of Ancient Glacier Moraines in the Parishes of Strachur and 

Kilmun, Argyleshire. By Charles Maclaren, F.R.S.E. 

See page 189 of the present number of this Journal. 



Monday, 5th February 1855. The Right Rev. Bishop Terrot in the 

Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 
1. On the Properties of the Ordeal Bean of Old Calabar, Western 
Africa. By Dr Christison. 

In various parts of Western Africa it appears to be the practice to sub- 
ject to the ordeal by poison persons who come under suspicion of having 
committed heinous crimes. On the banks of the Gambia river the poison 
used for the purpose is the bark of a leguminous tree, the Fillcea suaveo- 
lens of MM. Guillemin and Perottet. In the neighbourhood of Sierra 
Leone it is the Erythrophleum guineense, which some botanists have 
considered'identical with the former species. On the Congo river, Captain 
Tuckey found that either this species, or an allied species of the same 
genus, was in constant use for the same purpose. These barks, when 
their active constituents are swallowed in the form of infusion, sometimes 
cause vomiting ; and then the accused recovers, and in that case is pro- 



Proceedings of Societies. 355 

nomiced innocent. More generally the poison is retained ; and then the 
■evidence of guilt is at the same time condemnation and punishment ; for 
death speedily ensues. 

In the district of Old Calabar, the poison used for the trial by ordeal is 
a bean, called Esere, which seems to possess extraordinary energy and 
very peculiar properties. It has been lately made known to the mission- 
aries sent by the United Presbyterian Church in Scotland to the native 
tribes of Calabar ; and to the Rev. Mr Waddell, one of these gentlemen, 
the author was chiefly indebted for the materials for his experiments, as 
well as for information as to its effects on man. According to what the 
missionaries often saw, this poison is one of great energy, as it sometimes 
proves fatal in half an hour, and a single bean has proved sufficient to 
occasion death. None recover who do not vomit it. The greater number 
perish. On one occasion forty individuals were subjected to trial, when 
a chief died in suspicious circumstances, and only two recovered. 

The author found the bean to present generally the characters of a Doli- 
chos. It has been grown at his request both by Professor Syme and at 
the Botanic Garden by Mr M'Nab ; and it proves to be a perennial legu- 
minous creeper, resembling a Dolichos, but it has not yet flowered. The 
seed weighs about forty or fifty grains. It is neither bitter, nor aromatic, 
nor hot, and differs little in taste from a haricot bean. Alcohol removes 
its active constituent, in the form of an extractiform matter, amounting 
to 2*7 per cent, of the seed. The author could not obtain an alkaloid from 
it by any of the simpler processes for detecting vegetable alkaloids . 

By experiments on animals, and from observation of its effects on him- 
self, the ordeal bean has a double action on the animal body : it paralyses 
the heart's action, and it suspends the power of the will over the 
muscles, causing paralysis. It is a potent poison, for twelve grains caused 
severe symptoms in his own person, although the poison was promptly 
evacuated by vomiting, excited by hot water. The alcoholic extract has 
the same effect and action with the seed itself. 



2. Experiments on the Blood, showing the effect of a few Therapeutic 
Agents on that Fluid in a state of Health and of Disease. By James 
Stark, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

3. Extracts from a Letter from E. Blachwell, Esq., Chamouni, contain- 
ing Observations on the Movement of Glaciers in Winter. Communi- 
cated by Professor Forbes. 

The accessibility of the glaciers, even up to a considerable height, is at 
this season a question of mere physical force. I have made within the last 
few days two excursions into the region of perpetual snow. The first of 
these was on the 6th of January, and was to the summit of the glacier of 
Blatiere, several hundred feet above the point where I had noted the line 
of the neve in September and October ; the second was on the 13th, when 
I succeeded in reaching the junction of the glaciers of Bossons and Tacco- 
naz, near the Grands Moulets. This junction is exactly at the commence- 
ment of the neve, as I remarked between the months of August and October, 
on six different occasions, when I passed there on my way to and from Mont 
Blanc, the Dome du Gouter, &c. In both these expeditions I was struck 
by the excessive power of the sun ; the greater apparent warmth, even in 
the shade, as compared to the valley of Chamouni ; and the sudden chill 
which followed sunset. There was also much less snow at these Heights 
than in the valley, and I have no hesitation in saying that in winter very 
little snow falls upon the higher summits. The snow-falls in the valley 



356 Proceedings of Societies. 

are invariably brought by a low creeping fog, which comes up from Lal- 
lan ches. It seldom overtops the Col de Voza, and the Aiguilles appear 
bright and sunny in the gaps of the cloud. It is in spring and autumn 
that these high peaks are powdered by every storm ; now the dispersing 
clouds leave them as dark as before they gathered. I fancy this winter is 
unusually cold ; every one is crying out, and complaining that the po- 
tatoes are frozen in deep cellars. I have seen Reaumur's thermometer at 
-25° at 5 £ in the afternoon, and I think it may reasonably be supposed 
that it may have fallen to — 30° during the night ; wine has frozen on my 
table before a fire. In the woods the trees crack with the intense frost 
and there is from 2£ to 3 feet of snow in the valley without drifts ; on the 
glacier of Blatiere there is only from 1 to 2 feet. 

In spite of all this cold the glaciers advance steadily. The glacier de 
Blatiere, terminating above the line of trees, pushes its moraine in front 
of it, and seems to be on the increase. Now this is a very shallow glacier, 
and, as I have said, covered with but little snow. Is it possible that in- 
filtrated water can have any action whatever under such circumstances ? 

I will here state a few results of careful observation, and I hope that, 
even should they appear strange, you will yet consider them worthy of 
confidence. I have no theodolite, but I have a prismatic compass, and 
will take the bearings of various points from my stations should you deem 
it advisable. 

The torrent of Bossons has been quite dry ever since the beginning of 
November, and I have profited by this circumstance to endeavour to de- 
termine the motion of the ice within the vault, nearly in contact with the 
ground. I believe it is usually supposed that the reason why the termi- 
nation of a glacier seems stationary in summer, is that there the waste 
predominates over the supply. It seemed to me therefore, that in winter, 
when there is actually no waste — the torrent being perfectly dry, and 
its subglacial bed even dusty — the end of the glacier ought to be thrust 
forward into the valley by the pressure behind. I accordingly with some 
little difficulty, fixed a station on the ridge or back of the glacier, near 
the lower extremity ; the result is, that the ice there is nearly sta- 
tionary. This is doubtless a clue to the assertions of some authors, ' that 
the glacier is stationary in winter;'' — they only looked at the end. 
"What becomes, then, of the ice continually descending from above? 
Does it not go to thicken the whole mass, accumulating behind the more 
rigid portion below, as water behind a dam ? I have no space to add 
more at present, but will write again if I have your approval of my pro- 
ceedings. Meanwhile I have fixed (yesterday) an intermediate station, 
for the purpose of determining where this comparative immobility begins. 
I have noted my observations, and kept a register of weather, &c. I 
give one observation to show the difference between the middle and lower 
glaciers : — 

From December 28 to January 11 — 14 days. 

Middle glacier (somewhat above where it is usually crossed). 
Centre, 14 ft. 7 in. (fourteen feet, seven inches). 
Side, 11 ft. 6 in. (eleven feet, six inches). 

Lower glacier in the same period. 
Ridge, 1 ft. 7 in. (one foot, seven inches). 
Interior of vault, ft. 2 in. (two inches). 

Observations on Mr BlackwelV s Letter. By Professor Forbes. 
The cold described ( - 25° to - 30° of Reamur ~ 24 J° to - 35£° of Fahren- 



Proceedings of Societies. 357 

heit) — appears so excessive as to be unlikely ; I have therefore written 
to enquire if the thermometer could be depended on. 

It is highly satisfactory that the superficial velocity of the glacier of 
Bossons — about a foot in twenty-four hours — coincides closely with the 
measurements of niy guide, Auguste Balmat, some years since, on the 
same glacier, at the same season. 

With respect to the ice of the glacier of Blatiere, which is above tho 
level of trees' — probably at least 7000 feet above the sea — being still in 
motion, it merely confirms the deductions long ago made by me as to the 
continuity of glacier motion even in winter. And as to the apparent para- 
dox of water remaining uncongealed in the fissures of the ice at this sea- 
son, though I have nowhere affirmed the presence of liquid water to be a 
sine qua non to the plastic motion of glaciers, it would be difficult to assert 
positively that it is everywhere frozen in the heart of a glacier even in 
the depth of winter. Heat, we know, penetrates a glacier (up to 32° and 
no further), not only by conduction, but much more rapidly by the per- 
colation of water ; but cold penetrates solely by conduction, and that 
according to the same law as in solid earth, though it may be more 
rapidly. Now, it is known that at a depth of 24 or 25 feet in the ground 
the greatest summer heat has only arrived at Christmas. A similar re- 
tardation in the effects of cold must occur in glaciers. Not a particle of 
water detained in the capillary fissures can be solidified until its latent 
heat has been withdrawn. 

The contrast the writer draws between the glaciers of Blatiere and 
Bossons, the latter of which is some thousand feet lower in point of level, 
is curious and instructive. The former, he says, appears the more 
active, and is pushing forwards its moraine ; whilst the latter, at its 
lower extremity, and in contact with the ground, is scarcely moving 
at all. 

There is nothing of which we know less than the cause of this seemingly 
capricious advance and retreat of the extremities of glaciers at the same 
time, and under, seemingly, the same circumstances. 

In the present case, I will only mention as & possible explanation, that 
the glacier of Blatiere probably possesses a continuous slope, from 
its middle and higher region down to its lower extremity. But the 
Bossons, after its steep descent from Mont Blanc, proceeds along way on 
a comparatively level embankment, which at an early period it cast up of 
its own debris, and in which it has dug itself a hollow bed in which it 
nestles. The angular slope of the bottom in contact with the soil is very 
probably much less than in the case of the glacier of Blatiere. Now, 
when winter has dried up the percolating water, the viscosity of the mass 
may be insufficient to drag it over the less slope although it carries it over 
the greater. That the motion of the ice close to the ground should be 
nearly nothing, whilst the more superficial part of the glacier over-rides 
it by its plasticity, is as a separate fact quite in accordance both with 
theory and previous observation. 

But as the snout, or lower end of the glacier of Bossons, is almost sta- 
tionary, whilst the middle region is moving at the rate of a foot a day, 
Mr Blackwell very pertinently asks, " What becomes, then, of the ice 
continually descending from above ? Does it not go to thicken the whole 
mas, accumulating behind the more rigid portion below, as water behind 
a dam?" I answer, undoubtedly ; and he will find this explanation given 
ten years ago in my Travels in the Alps, (2d edit., p. 386.) Speaking 
of the superficial waste of the glaciers in summer and autumn, and the 
manner in which it is repaired before the ensuing spring, I there observed, 
" The main cause of the restoration of the surface is the diminished 



358 Proceedings of Societies. 

fluidity of the glacier in cold weather, which retards (as we know) the 
motion of all its parts, but especially of those parts which move most 
rapidly in summer. The dis -proportion of velocity throughout the length 
and breadth of the glacier is therefore less, the ice more pressed together, 
and less drawn asunder ; the crevases are consolidated, while the increased 
friction and viscosity causes the whole to swell, and especially the inferior 
parts, which are the most wasted." — (See also Seventh Letter on Glaciers, 
p. 4"") of Appendix to the same work.) 



Monday, 19th February 1855. James Tod, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. On the Mechanical Action of Heat: — Supplement to the first Six 
Sections, and Section Seventh. By W. J. Macquohn Rankine, Esq., 
C.E. 

2. On an Inaccuracy {having its greatest value about 1") in the usual 
method of computing the Moon's Parallax. By Edward Sang, Esq. 

When, as in the usual operation, the moon's obscured zenith distance 
is corrected for the effects of atmospheric refraction, the zenith distance so 
obtained is that of the rectilineal part of the ray of light between the planet 
and the upper surface of the air ; and on applying that correction as at 
the observatory, we do not obtain the direction of the moon as it would 
have been seen if there had been no atmosphere, but that of a line drawn 
parallel to the first part of the ray, and therefore passing below the moon. 
The true direction of a straight line drawn from the observer to the planet, 
must differ from this direction by the angle which the curved part of the 
ray subtends at the moon's centre ; and the neglect of this angle may cause 
a sensible error in estimating the parallax. 

It is a well-known property of refraction by concentric strata, that the 
perpendiculars let fall from the centre of curvature upon the tangent to 
the path of light are inversely proportional to the indices of refraction of 
the medium at the two points of contact. 

From this property it very easily follows that the sine of the true 
parallax is obtained by multiplying the sine of the horizontal parallax by 
the sine of the observed zenith distance, and by the index of refraction of 
the air at the observatory. 

And if the horizontal parallax given in the almanac, instead of being 
the half angle under which the earth would have been seen from the moon 
if there had been no atmosphere, had been the true horizontal parallax, or 
half the angle which, in the actual state of things, the earth does subtend 
at the moon , — the true method of computing the parallax would only differ 
from the common one in the use of the uncorrected instead of the corrected 
zenith distance. 

In the common formula, the multiplier is the sine of the zenith distance 
corrected for refraction ; in the true formula, it is the sine of the uncor- 
rected zenith distance, multiplied by the index of refraction of the air. 

For the purpose of obtaining the maximum error of the common formula, 
it is observed that when the moon is in the horizon, the zenith distances 
being nearly 30°, have their sines sensibly equal to each other, and that 
then the true multiplier must exceed the usual one in the ratio of 3405 to 
.j4!J4, — this ratio being the index of refraction bf air in its mean state ; 
wherefore at the horizon the parallax, as usually computed, must fall short 
of the true parallax by one 3404th part of itself. 



Proceedings of Societies. 359 

This ratio holds good for all planets ; and it is only in the case of the 
moon that the error becomes sensible, being then almost exactly one second 
of arc. 

Monday, 5th March. The Right Rev. Bishop Terrot, in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. On Annelid Tracks in the Equivalents of the Millstone Grits in the 
south-ivest of the County of Clare. By Professor Harkness. 

See page 278 of the present number of this Journal. 

2. On Superposition. By Professor Kelland. 

The object of this paper was to defend the method of demonstration 
employed by Euclid from some of the charges which have been at various 
times brought against it. It particular, it was shown, that the method is 
not deficient in variety of demonstration of the same fact. This posi- 
tion was illustrated by the exhibition of twelve totally different demonstra- 
tions of the problem, " To cut three-fourths of a square into four pieces, 
which shall form a square." 

3. On the Colouring Matter of the Rottlera Tinctoria. By Dr Anderson. 
See page 296 of the present number of this Journal. 



Monday, Vdth March. Colonel Madden, Councillor, in the Chair. 
The following Communications were read : — 

1. Experiments on Colour as perceived by the Eye, with Remarks on 
Colour-Blindness. By James Clerk Maxwell, Esq., B.A., Trinity 
College, Cambridge. Communicated by Professor Gregory. 

These experiments were made with the view of ascertaining and regis- 
tering the judgments of the eye, with respect to colours, and then, by a 
comparison of the results with each other, by means of a graphical con- 
struction, testing the accuracy of that theory of the vision of colour, which 
analyses the colour-sensation into three elements, while it recognises no 
such triple division in the nature of light, before it reaches the eye. 

The method of experimenting consisted in placing before the eye of the 
observer two tints, produced by the rapid rotation of a system of discs of 
coloured paper, arranged so that the proportions of each of the component 
colours could be changed at pleasure. The apparatus used was a simple 
top, consisting of a circular plate on which the coloured discs were placed, 
and a vertical axis. The discs consisted of paper painted with the unmixed 
colours used in the arts. Each disc was slit along a radius from centre to 
circumference, so that several could be interlaced, so as to leave exposed 
a sector of each. The larger discs, about 3 inches diameter, were first 
combined and placed on the disc, and the smaller, about If inches di- 
ameter above them, so as to leave a broad ring of the larger discs visible. 

When the top was spun the observer could compare the resulting tint 
of the outer and inner circles, and by repeated adjustment, perfect identity 
of colour could be obtained. The proportions of each colour were then 
ascertained, by reading off on the circumference of the top, which was 
divided into 100 parts. As an example, it was found on one occasion, 
that, — 



360 Proceedings of Societies. 

•37 Vermilion, | f 
+ -27 Ultramarine, = + . 72Black 
+ •34 Emerald green, ) « 
By experiments on various individuals, it was found (1.) that a good 
eye could be depended upon within two of these divisions, or hundredths 
at most, and that by repetition of experiments, the average result might 
be made much more accurate. 

(2.) That the difference of the results of experiments on different indi- 
viduals was insensible, provided the light used remained the same. 

(3.) That when different kinds of light were used, or when the resultant 
tints were examined with coloured glasses, the results were totally changed. 
It follows from this that the cause of the equality of the resulting tints 
is not a true optical identity of the light received by the eye, but must be 
sought for in the constitution of the sense of sight. The materials for 
this inquiry are to be found in the equations of colour, of which the above 
is an example, and these are to be viewed in the light of Young's theory 
of a threefold sensation of colour. 

The first consequence of this theory is, that between any/o«r colours 
an equation can be found, and this is confirmed by experiment. 

The second is, that from two equations containing different colours a 
third may be obtained by the ordinary rules, tmd that this also will agree 
with experiment. This also was found to be true by experiments at 
Cambridge, which include every combination of five colours. 

A graphical method was then described, by which, atter fixing arbi- 
trarily the positions of three standard colours, that of any other colour 
could be obtained by experiments in which it was made to form a neutral 
grey along with two of the standard colours. In the diagram so formed, 
the position of any compound tint is the centre of gravity of the colours 
of which it is composed, their masses being determined from the equation, 
and the resultant mass of colour being the sum of the component masses. 
The colour-equations represent the fact that the same tint may be pro- 
duced by two different combinations. This diagram is similar to those 
which have been given by Meyer, Hay, and Professor J. D. Forbes, as 
the results of mixing colours. It is identical with that proposed by Young, 
and figured in his Lectures on Natural Philosophy . The original con- 
ception, however, seems to be due to Newton, who gives the complete 
theory, with an indication of a construction in his Optics. 

The success of this method depends entirely on the truth of the suppo- 
sition that there are three elements of colour as seen by the eye, every 
ray of the spectrum being capable of exciting all three sensations, though 
in different proportions. It is at present impossible to define the colours 
appropriate to these sensations, as they cannot be excited separately. 
But it appears probable that the phenomena of colour-blindness are due 
to the absence of one of these elementary sensations, and, if so, a compa- 
rison of colour-blind with ordinary vision will show the relation of the 
absent sensation to those with which we are familiar. 

A method was then described, by which one observation by a colour- 
blind eye was made to determine a certain point representing the absent 
sensation, which thus appears to be a red approaching to crimson. The 
results of this hypothesis were calculated in the form of " equations of 
colour-blindness" between colours which seem to defective eyes identical. 
These equations were compared with those previously determined from 
the testimony of two colour-blind, but accurate observers, and found to 
agree with remarkable precision, rarely differing by more than 0*02 in 
any colour. The effect of red and green glasses on the colour-blind was 
then described, and a pair of spectacles having one eye red and the other 
green was proposed as an assistance to them in detecting doubtful colours. 



Proceedings of Societies. 361 

Observations on Mr MaxwelVs Paper. By Dr G. Wilson. 1 

I greatly regret that indisposition will not allow me to attend the 
meeting of the Royal Society this evening, especially after Mr Clerk 
Maxwell has had the kindness to send me his MS. I should have 
liked to express my admiration of his beautifully simple device for 
testing, quantitatively as well as qualitatively, colour-vision, and of re- 
ferring to the value of his results. Now that railway managers are 
fully alive to the necessity of ascertaining the quality of colour- vision 
of their servants, both for the sake of excluding the colour-blind and 
of certifying the acuteness of visual perception of those who are to 
handle and interpret railway-signals, the colour-top will prove of great 
service in determining those points. Our regimental, naval, and hos- 
pital surgeons also, but especially those on the recruiting service, will 
have the opportunity (at least when the pressure of war is over) of 
employing this instrument as a means of accumulating important data 
in reference to the perception of colours. But on this I need not en- 
large. 

In the cursory perusal which I have been able to give Mr C. Max- 
well's paper, the points which have struck me most have been the follow- 
ing, and, if agreeable to the Society, I should be glad if you would com- 
municate them to it : — ■ 

1. It is satisfactory to find the author, while working independently, 
and pursuing a mode of research peculiar to himself, reach the conclusion 
concerning colour-blindness, that it is the habitual vision of two colours, 
blue and yellow, whilst normal vision is the habitual perception of three, 
blue, yellow, and red. Sir John Herschel, it now appears (viz. since the 
publication of Dalton's Life) proposed, more than twenty years ago, to 
distinguish colour-blindness as dichromic vision. I have urged the same 
conclusion as making it vain to expect that more than one-third of 
the phrenological organ of Colour (supposing such an organ to exist) 
should be conspicuously wanting in the colour-blind, and as rendering it 
hopeless to employ more than two-coloured signals, if those who are 
colour-blind are allowed to act as signal-men. But though colour-blind- 
ness may be conveniently referred to as identical with two-colour vision, 
it seems questionable whether this is strictly accurate. The sensation of 
red does not appear to be altogether absent from the colour-blind. On 
the other hand, many of them distinguish red at times from blue and yel-. 
low, as well as from green, and, so far as one may judge from their lan- 
guage, their sensation of red is then the same as ours. Mr Maxwell's 
experiments with the Cambridge students are not at variance with this 
being the case. They show the great liability to mistake red which un- 
questionably characterizes the colour-blind ; but the latter should never 
see red if their eyes are devoid of the nervous apparatus essential to the 
red sensation. I am inclined to think that, with very few exceptions, the 
vision of every one is trichromic, though for practically useful purposes 
it is only dichromic in the colour-blind. 

2. It seems to me exceedingly doubtful whether we sufficiently fully 
define colour-blindness, even in reference to the utilitarian perception of 
colours, by regarding it as equivalent to the non-perception of red. All 
the records of colour-blind cases appear to show that the darker shades of 
all colours are confounded with each other and with black, and the lighter 
shades with each other and with white, in circumstances where the defect 
of white light on the one hand, and the excess of it on the other, do not 

1 In a Letter to Professor Gregory. 



362 Proceedings of Societies. 

prevent a normal eye from distinguishing the accompanying colour from 
the blackness or whiteness which tends to extinguish it. 

If this be the case (and Mr Maxwell's method and apparatus would 
serve admirably for testing the truth of the belief), then a colour- 
blind eye is not a normal eye in all but the perception of red, nor can 
colour-blindness be properly defined as " anerythric or no-red vision." 
A colour-blind eye is, I apprehend, abnormal, in its perception of certain 
at least of the tints and shades of all colours, and this so far justifies the 
phrenological hypothesis of a diminution of the entire organ of Colour (if 
there be such an organ at all) in the colour-blind, and is to myself one 
of the strongest justifications of the use of the word colour-blindness, 
which, however, is of Sir David Brewster's coining, not of mine. 

3. The question why green should be mistaken for red remains still a 
puzzle, but 1 cannot enter into the discussion of this question at present. 
I hope to bring it before the Society again. 

4. Mr C. Maxwell's spectacles for the colour-blind introduce a new and 
important feature into the construction of optical aids for their defects. 
In the many previous proposals to use coloured glasses, the colour-blind 
person had no means of deciding what colour of glass he was at the mo- 
ment using, and might fancy himself looking through a red glass when 
he was using a green. 

But by placing red in one eye of the spectacles, and green in the other, 
and making it simply a question which, used singly, renders a colour 
known to be either red or green brighter, the decision of the true nature 
of the colour resolves itself into brightness under right eye, versus bright- 
ness under left eye, supposing the spectacles to be made, as they general- 
ly are in England, so as to bridge the nose only in one way. The foreign 
double-bridged spectacles would defeat the end in view. 

5. In conclusion, I would, through you, beg Mr Maxwell not to con- 
fine himself to sharply defined cases of colour-blindness, but to extend his 
beautiful method of inquiry to the less attractive but more common cases 
of uncertainty as to all colours, which we may anticipate he will also 
bring under law. 

Observations on Mr Maxwell* s Paper. By Professor J. D. Forbes. 

I do not know whether 3 r ou advert at all to the history of experiments 
on the mixing of colours, but I may mention that I find by my register, 
that my chief experiments were made on the 4th and 12th January 1849 ; 
and amongst these results I find "yellow 100°, blue 120°, white 140°, 
produce a quite neutral gray like black 180°, white 180°." " Yellow 
and blue only, equal, produce a yellow grey or citrine — never green." 
[The yellow was gamboge.] 

On the 1st March 1849, I have the following entry : " Examining the 
red, yellow, and blue papers by the colours they reflect in a dark room, 
when a narrow slip of each was strongly illuminated by the sun, and the 
light examined (not in the plane of reflection) by a prism, the colours 
appear very complex indeed. Both the red and yellow reflect almost 
every colour of the spectrum. The blue seems purest, but very decidedly 
violet or tinged with red. 

2. Notice of the Occurrence of British newer Pliocene Shells in the Arctic 
He is and of Tertiary Plants in Greenland. In a letter from Dr 
Scoular of Dublin. Communicated by James Smith, Esq., of Jordan- 
hill. 

Dr Scoular to Mr Smith. 
"I have lately had the opportunity of examining a series of fossils from 

high Arctic latitudes, brought home by Captain M'Lintock, R.N. The 



Proceedings of Societies. 363 

series in one sense is extensive, as there are silurian and oolitic shells, 
and also other fossils of the tertiary epoch. Among these last there are 
some things which I am sure will be of interest to you. Among the speci- 
mens are some recent and living shells from Baring's Island, of which I 
will send you a list when 1 determine the species. In the meantime I 
may state with full confidence that the variety called My a udevallensis, 
so common a fossil with us and in Sweden is still a living species at 
Baring's Island. The truncated form of the shell, and the palliar impres- 
sions, are those of the My a udevallensis, and not those of the modern M. 
truncata. On the truth of this you may fully rely, and also that the shells 
were taken with the animal in them. 

" In the collection there are also some fossil plants from Greenland. They 
are not, however, carboniferous, but, to my surprise, tertiary, and of the 
same character as those of the Mull formation. I could not find any dif- 
ference between them and the fossil leaves from Mull, but I cannot at 
present command the paper of the Duke of Argyle ; however, I have not 
the smallest doubt of the identity of the formation and species." 



Royal Physical Society. 
Wednesday, November 22, 1854. Hugh Miller, Esq., P., in the Chair. 

1. Mr Hugh Miller delivered an opening address " On the Fossilife- 
rous Deposits of Scotland." (This has been published as a separate 
pamphlet.) 

2. On a curious habit stated to have been observed in one of the Wood- 

peckers in California. By Andrew Murray, Esq. 

In this communication, Mr Murray stated, he had received information 
on the habits of one of the Californian woodpeckers, which appeared to 
him both sufficiently new and interesting to be worthy of being made 
generally known to naturalists ; and although the information is imper- 
fect, and may possibly turn out to be incorrect, he was bold enough to 
communicate it to the Society. The statement is, that a particular Wood- 
pecker in California lays up a store of acorns in autumn for its spring 
consumption, and does so by hammering out small holes in the bark of 
trees, into each of which it places an acorn. His informant was his bro- 
ther, Mr William Murray, whose botanical tastes may be probably known 
to some of the members of the Society. He resides at San Francisco; but 
when home on a visit last year, he mentioned the habit of the woodpecker 
which has just been related. Shortly after his return to California, he 
received from him the piece of bored bark, which he exhibited to the 
Society, and at the same time communicated the following information 
which he had picked up. He says, — ' ' I was talking to Simson the other 
day about the curious custom the woodpeckers here have of boring holes 
in the bark and storing them with acorns, when I mentioned that I had 
told you of it, and that you had refused to credit the fact, not of the acorns 
being there, but of their being put there by woodpeckers, because I was 
unable to say I had seen them put there. ' Well,' said he, ' you can tell 
him that I've seen them. I have seen them bore the holes , put in the acorns, 
and hammer them well in, and I've seen them take them out again in 
spring;' and he went on to tell me, that on one occasion, in the time of 
the great flood (some years ago), he had witnessed an amusing scene 
among them. His party were camped on a kind of island that had been 
left dry; and having nothing better to do, watched the operations of these 
birds. There were six or eight of them at work on a tree, in which there 



364 Proceedings of Societies. 

was a squirrel, who had made his house in a hollow at the root of a branch. 
The squirrel would pop out his head and look at them ; and the moment 
the coast was clear, he would run out and scratch away at these things, and 
tear away the bark ; and when the birds would see him, they would 
all attack him, and he would run like lightning down the tree, and up 
the other side and into his hole again, and then peep out and watch 
another chance to do the same, evidently having great fun. This 
continued for about three days, till at last one of the party knocked the 
squirrel's head off with a rifle-ball, and rid them of their persecutor." 
In a subsequent letter his brother gives the following additional informa- 
tion. He says — " Newland, a Scotchman, told him he had often seen 
the woodpecker storing the acorns, and that it was a black bird with a red 
head ; but Simson, he said, would introduce me to Dr Trask (author of the 
geological report herewith sent), and that he would be able to say posi- 
tively. The Doctor stated that the provident woodpecker is the black one 
with the red head and yellow throat, that he had observed them re- 
peatedly ; and further asserted that they eat acorns, and that he had 
seen them do it. In confirmation of the possibility at least of their being 
vegetable feeders, Simson tells me that in the western country the 
farmers frequently clear the woods by cutting the communication of the 
bark of the trees, and that, where that is done, these red-headed wood- 
peckers appear in the clearings in perfect swarms, and destroy apples 
and peaches in these districts to such an extent that it is impossible to 
have any fruit. I do not know whether they eat the acorns or the grub 
that may be in them, but it is most certain that they bore holes in the 
bark, and hammer in the acorns so firmly that you can hardly pick them 
out again, and afterwards break them open, and eat something that is 
within the shell. The native Californians are so well acquainted with 
the fact, that they say when the woodpeckers commence early, it is a 
sign that we shall have a severe winter. They keep boring the holes all 
the summer, and are all ready for harvest when the acorns are ripe." 
My brother adds that Mr Simson came across Mexico with John Audubon 
(he presumed the son), who watched them, stuffed their skins, and knows 
all about them. They first observed these acorn deposits in Chihuahua. 
Mr Murray was inclined to think that the evidence contained in these 
letters would be sufficient to satisfy the Society, as it had done himself, 
that there is good ground for believing that bona fide acorn deposits are 
in California stored up for future consumption by a woodpecker. 

3. Notice of the Lepidopterous captures near Edinburgh, during the 
past Season. By Wm. H. Lowe, M.D. 

Dr Lowe having been appointed Convener of the Entomological Com- 
mittee at the last winter meeting of the Society, said, he thought that, 
although from the small number of entomologists in Edinburgh , and those 
for the most part engaged in active professions, little had been accom- 
plished during the past summer, still he had several species of Lepidop- 
tera to bring forward as new to the list published by him and Mr R. F. 
Logan in 1852. As his own captures, he mentioned Trachea piniperda 
(two specimens), Micropteryx unimaculella, Lampronia quadripunc- 
tella, Peronea Hastiana, Jinea Zinkenii. To these he had to add, 
Pterophorus acanthodactylus , 1851, Argynnis selene, 1853, Satyrus 
dabus, Hepialus yelleda, Cabera exanthemaria , Euthemonia plan- 
taginis, Zanthia rufina, Dosithea reversaria, all which were owing to 
the industry of Mr Andrew Wilson of this city, and with the exception of 
Cabera exanthemaria, which had been previously taken by Mr Peter 
Fairbairn, as well as by Dr Lowe, were additions to the insects of this 



Proceedings of Societies. 365 

district. Dr L. also noticed Coccyx strobilana, which had been taken in 
a greenhouse at Newington, and which was traced to a basket of fir cones 
sent to Edinburgh by Mrs Scott of Gala. Among other insects also ob- 
served, and taken this year were Mac aria lituraria, Leucania lithar- 
gyria, Spcelotis cataleuca, Agrotis obelisca, A. putris, Caradrina 
morpheus, Hadena adusta, etc. There was also a fine series of Dosithea 
scutularia, bred from caterpillars, and which, in that early stage of de- 
velopment, had been frozen hard, and left to thaw in the ordinary way, 
but which had, nevertheless, produced beautiful specimens. Another 
brood of caterpillars of a different genus, which had been similarly 
exposed, had entirely perished. The results of a day's ramble in Castle 
Eden Dean, in the county of Durham, were included in the insects 
brought before the Society. Among them were Dosithea blomeri, 
Pyraustra Punicealis, Stigmonota trauniana, <&c. 

Mr R. F. Logan exhibited specimens of Bombyciaviminalis, bred from 
larvae found in June on a dwarf sallow on the Pentlands ; also a male 
Parasemia plantaginis, taken on the wing near the top of one of the hills 
on the same day. He also exhibited a specimen of the new British 
Zygaena minos, from the collection of Dr Fleming, in which it had stood 
probably for the last twenty years, and which Dr Fleming said he had no 
doubt had been taken by himself in Fifeshire. 

4. Notice of the Scops-Eared Owl (Scops Aldrovandi), Will. Orn. Shot 
in Sutherlandshire. By John Alex. Smith, M.D. 

This rare owl, which Dr Smith exhibited, was shot, in the latter end 
of last May, at Morrish, near Golspie. In the general colour and cha- 
racter of its plumage, it reminded him very much of the Nightjar; and 
is distinguished from our other British owls by its small size, by the 
incomplete character of its fascial disk, by its having tufts or horns, and 
also by its rather long and slender legs, closely covered with short mottled 
feathers, which terminate at the junction of the toes, leaving the toes en- 
tirely bare. There is also a series of spots along the edge of the scapulars, 
the outer half of these feathers being yellowish white with dark brown 
tips, contrasting beautifully with the closely mottled and minutely spotted 
and striped character of the rest of the plumage. It is a bird more espe- 
cially of the southern and eastern portions of Europe, and from these it 
migrates to Africa. Several instances have been reported of its occur- 
rence in England. 

5. Mr A. Murray read an extract of a letter from Sir William Jardine, 
mentioning a capture of the Ivory Gull (Larus eburneus), shot at Thrum- 
ster, Caithness-shire. It was sent to him by Mr R. Shearer, Borrowston, 
near Wick, who has thus added another specimen to the two or three 
which are known to have been killed in Rritain. 



Wednesday, Dec. 27, 1854. Professor Balfoue, P., in the Chair. 

1. On the occurrence of Oxalates in the Mineral Kingdom. Analyses 
of two new Species. By M. Forster Heddle, M.D. 

At this time last year two oxalates were known in the mineral king- 
dom. The one, an oxalate of iron, was analysed by Rammalesberg, and 
named by him Humboldtine ; the other, an oxalate of lime, identical in 
composition with that ordinarily precipitated by the chemist, has been 
called after Dr Whewell. Some months ago Mr R. Greg of NorclifTe 
Hall sent me for analysis a few white crystals, which had been found, 
some five-and-twenty years ago, in a copper mine at the Old Man, near 

NEW SEMES. — VOL. I. NO. II.— -APRIL 1855. 2 B 



366 Proceedings of Societies. 

Coniston Lake, in "Westmoreland. From a hasty examination of these, 
Mr Greg was led to suppose that he had found a new substance, and the 
analytical result proved that he was right. I found the mineral to be an 
oxalate of lime, differing from Whewellite in having six additional atoms 
of water of crystallization. Associated with these white crystals was a 
purplish red substance, which, appearing to me to be new, I submitted 
also to analysis, when it proved to be an oxalate of potash, with ten atoms 
of water of crystallization. The colour was due to some oxalate of co- 
balt. It is always desirable that a mineralogist should be able to account 
for the occurrence of every substance which comes under his notice. This 
is more especially the case when the substance is of an organic nature, and 
in general we have little difficulty in satisfactorily explaining even such 
occurrences. The mineral Humboldtine, for instance, being found either 
embedded in lignite, or associated with decomposing succulent plants, leaves 
no room for doubting that, as it is organic in its matrix, so also it is or- 
ganic in its origin. I am afraid, however, that our ingenuity will be taxed 
rather severely to account for the three other oxalates which we are now 
acquainted with, two of these having been found deep in the womb of 
earth, associated with a metallic lode. I think there can be little question 
that they are of secondary formation, having resulted in some way or other 
from the operations connected with the working of the mine ; but I pro- 
fess to be perfectly unable to offer any explanation which appears even 
to myself to be satisfactory. One theory has been brought forward, — 
a theory which I cannot but dissent from ; it is, that the minerals were 
originally bi-carbonates, — that metallic potassium having been brought 
into contact with them, an atom of oxygen was abstracted, the result 
being necessarily oxalates. This does not appear satisfactory : neither 
bi-carbonate of lime or of potash have yet been found in nature ; and I 
cannot place myself among those who, whenever they wish to account for 
volcanic action, or to get out of any difficulty, call in the aid of metallic 
potassium. I am very far from thinking that no satisfactory theory can 
be brought forward, but I am content for the present to look upon the oc- 
currence of these oxalates as one of many proofs that as yet we know 
but too little of the operations carried on in nature's laboratory. The 
first of these minerals has been named by Mr Greg Conistonite, from 
the locality ; and the second Heddlite, after the analyst. 

2. On a Raised Sea Bottom, near Filliside Bank, between Leith and 
Portobello. By Hugh Miller, Esq. 

3. Exhibition of a Collection of Liasic Fossils from Pabba and Shje. 
By Archibald Geikie, Esq. 

Mr Geikie laid on the table the fossils he had collected, which he illus- 
trated with the following remarks : — The Isle of Skye is an object of 
special interest to the geologist, from its containing in tolerable abun- 
dance the remains of the Liasic formation, — one which occurs in but 
unfrequent patches throughout the whole extent of Scotland. The 
Lias, as developed in that island, stretches from shore to shore in a band 
about seven or eight miles in length, by from two to five in breadth. 
Over the greater part of this extent a dark peaty soil covers the strata, 
so that they are seldom discernible, save where channelled by some moun- 
tain torrent. The best exposures are therefore to be found at the extre- 
mities of the belt. Broarlford Bay, on the east, affords a general section 
of the formation. The beds are there free from the dislocating effects of 
trap dykes, and dip gently under the waters of the bay at an angle of 5°. 
The lowest members of the series are found at the village of Lussay, rest- 
ing uncomfortably upon the red sandstone of Sleat. They consist of con- 



Proceedings of Societies. 367 

cretionary sandstones, and dark compact limestones, some of them charged 
with organic remains. But the most remarkable of these strata is one, 
irregularly three feet thick, composed entirely of corals of the family 
Astreidss, which are bound together by an indurated mud. These organ- 
isms, of which there are several specimens upon the Society's table, were 
described several years ago by Mr Miller. They differ in size and abun- 
dance from any species in the lias of England, where corals are exceed- 
ingly rare ; and they thus give a peculiar character and interest to the 
Scottish deposit. Beyond Lussay beds of sandstone and limestone alter- 
nate along the coast. Some of these abound with the characteristic shells 
of the period. At Breckish, for instance, where the limestone has been 
broken up in the course of constructing a road, the Gryphaia incurva 
might be removed from the beach by ship loads. The same fossil, mingled 
with ammonites, belemnites, and pectens, is found in most of the strata as 
far as Corrie Farm, at the northern point of Broadford Bay, where they are 
buried beneath an extensive overflow of Sienite. The upper members of 
the series are found forming the flat island of Pabba, about three miles out 
in the bay. Pabba, though not more than a square mile in extent, forms, 
with its rich green pasture, a striking contrast to the dark, barren moun- 
tains of the surrounding shores. The Lias is here represented by a series 
of dark micaceous shales, dipping northward at the angle usual in this 
district 5°. They abound with the organisms of the formation ; indeed, 
so richly charged are some of the beds as to emit a strong foetid odour 
when rubbed or broken, — a fact likewise noticeable in the Lias shales of 
Eathie. There is now on the table a set of these Pabba fossils. The 
majority have been already noticed by Murchison, and figured by Sow- 
erby; but there are several which appear to be new. The most abundant 
organisms are the Pectens, of which there are at least three species. 
Other fossils are the Pentacrinites, Plagiostoma, and Terebratula, of 
each of which there are several species — Gryphcea incurva, and G. Mac- 
cullochi ; Pinna, probably of several species ; Belemnites, Ammonites, 
at least four species; Serpulai, &c. The state of keeping of the fossils 
varies considerably in the different beds. The ammonites exist, in some 
cases, as mere flattened impressions. Generally they present only the 
outer ring, the central portion of the disc having entirely disappeared. 
In not a few of the layers the condition of the organic remains seems to 
indicate protracted maceration — a conclusion rendered probable by the 
abundance of casts of the more tender species. The western coast of Skye, 
along the shores of Loch Slapin, presents a rich field of study to the geo- 
logist. The Lias, for the space of several miles, is traversed in all direc- 
tions by dykes and veins of basalt. In some places the limestone is 
black ; in others, of different shades of gray ; while inland, towards Kil- 
cbrist, it takes a snowy white ; but in all cases it has been altered into a 
compact marble. A series of specimens upon the table exhibits the pas- 
sage of a calcareous shale, abounding with Gryphsea and Pecten, into a 
hard fossiliferous limestone, which in turn shades off' through various 
hues of black and grey into a white crystalline marble, destitute of or- 
ganic remains. The latter rock, as it lies in the quarries at Kilchrist. is 
not much inferior in colour to the best stone of Italy, though, after being 
cut and exposed for a few years to the air, it acquires a dirty yellowish 
tinge. The trap dykes are themselves a curious subject for investigation. 
Owing to the decomposition of the marble around them, some of large 
size are seen running up the hill sides like walls. Indeed, when two or 
three cross each other, the appearance presented reminds one of some 
ruined relic of the feudal times. Others may be found insinuating them- 
selves among the cross rents of the contorted strata, and terminating in 
a point as fine as that of a pen. The shores of Loch Slapin are, on the 

2b2 



368 Proceedings of Societies. 

whole, one of the most interesting localities in the island ; and a careful 
examination of them would form a valuable contribution to Scottish geo- 
logy. The district lies far out of the ordinary track of the tourist, and 
the accommodation, where it can be had, is not of the best: but these 
disadvantages would doubtless be more than compensated by a ramble 
among the beautiful sections which abound in the creeks and caves of that 
solitary shore. 

4. On some Worm Tracks in Silurian Slates. By Alex. Bryson, Esq. 

Mr Bryson showed that considerable difficulty was felt in accounting 
f jr these curious appearances on the Silurian slates at Thornielee, Peebles- 
shire. They had been named by Professor M'Coy Crossopodia Scotica, 
or fringed-footed animals. Sir Roderick Murchison described them as 
occurring of considerable length, even extending to yards. Mr Bryson 
was of opinion that the length was merely due to a track made by a worm 
of about six inches long, in mud of a rather crisp than slimy condition ; 
and that the different appearances presented by the track, as compared 
with the surrounding matter, was due, not to the remains of the worm, 
but to dry dust blown into the track by the wind, on the recession of the 
ocean, which formed the lowest Silurian beds of Scotland. On the tracks 
found by Mr Bryson in the Llandeilo flags of Wales, he observed that 
many naturalists had mistaken for setae merely the effects caused by 
wind blowing light sand over tracks made by gasteropodous molluscs ; 
and stated, that tracks which he found at Port Rheudyn, in Wales, in 
almost the lowest beds of the Silurian slates, were quite identical with 
those he saw in the act of formation by the common Turbo littoreus, on 
the sands of Tremadock, a few miles south of Port Rheudyn. Mr Bryson 
exhibited some very large slabs, showing numbers of these tracks, sent 
him by the kindness of Mr Chaffers, the lessee of the quarry at Port 
Rheudyn, Wales. 



January 24, 1855. Dr Lowe in the Chair. 

1. On the Discovery of Diatomacece in the Silurian Slates of Scotland. 
By Alexander Bryson, Esq. 

In a former paper, read at the last meeting of the Society, Mr Bryson 
had indicated a hope that Diatoms might be found iu the lower Silurian 
formations of Scotland, from the peculiar appearance resembling or- 
ganisms which he observed in a microscopic section of the slate from 
Thornielee Quarry, in Peeblesshire. One form is identical with a rare 
species found in the guano of Ichaboe, both in form and colour. In an 
endeavour to separate the alumina from the silica in the slate he had met 
with difficulties, as any solvent of alumina also acted on the silica of 
which he supposed the diatoms to consist. Dr George Wilson suggested 
the boiling of the powdered slate in Nordhausen sulphuric acid, which was 
found after a long time to isolate the silica. After many washings of the 
residue with distilled water, the author found several forms of diatoma- 
ceas, two identical with living species, and four or five quite aberrant. 
After digestion with nitric acid the organisms seemed fewer, which he 
referred to their being more horny than silicious. 

2. Notes on a Species of Nostoc or Shy-Jelly (specimen exhibited by 
Dr Heddle). By Alexander Bryson, Esq. 

3. Description of a New Species of Trematode Worm, with Observations 
on the Structure of Cercarice. By T. Spencer Cobbold, M.D. 

Specimens of the worm were exhibited. They had been obtained from 



Proceedings of Societies. 369 

the liver of a giraffe, and differed from all known species. Dr Cobbold 
illustrated his paper with numerous drawings, showing the minute ana- 
tomy of this worm and also several embryonic forms of entozoa- 

4. Mr P. A. Dassauville exhibited a specimen of the Gray Phalarope, 
(Phalaropus lobatus), Lath., which was shot in the Firth of Forth in De- 
cember last. The bird was only beginning to assume its winter plumage, 
and appears to be a rare bird in this locality. 

5. Analysis of Datholite from Glen Farg. By M. Forster Heddle, M.D. 

Datholite, Dr Heddle said, has been found in the British islands in four 
localities, all of these being Scottish — first, by Mr Rose, on the yellow 
prehnite of Salisbury Crags ; then at Glen Farg, in Perthshire, asso- 
ciated with zeolites, and well crystallized ; next, upon prehnite, in what 
is mineralogically called the " Greenockite Hole," namely, the tunnel on 
the Glasgow and Greenock Railway ; and, lastly, at Corstorphine Hill, 
by Mr Forrest, within the last few years. It is a fact worth notice 
that three out of these four are prehnite localities. This might warrant 
a searching examination for boracic acid in prehnite. In all these locali- 
ties the mineral has been recognised by its cry stallo graphic characters, no 
analysis of a British specimen having yet been published. A specimen 
from Glen Farg had been examined by Dr Heddle, and the analysis showed 
nothing different from those made of foreign specimens, with the excep- 
tion of '28 per cent, of oxide of iron ; and as a second analysis (made upon 
crystals apparently absolutely pure) gave *24 per cent. Dr Heddle was 
inclined to think that the iron is the colouring matter, giving the mineral 
its light yellowish-green or asparagus stone tint. 



February 28, 1855. Robert Chambers, Esq., P. in the Chair. 

1. On the late Severe Frost. By Hugh Miller, Esq. 

Mr Miller remarked that the present intense frost, — coincident at new 
moon with a stream tide,' — has killed many of the littoral shell-fish around 
our shores ; and they now lie by thousands and tens of thousands along 
thebeach. On the beach below Portobello, and for at least a mile on the 
western side of the town, they are chiefly of two species, — Solen siliqua, 
or the edible spout-fish or razor-fish, and Mactra stultorum, or the fool's 
cockle, both of them molluscs, which burrow in the sands above the low- 
water line of stream tides. The spout-fishes, when first thrown ashore, 
were carried away by pail and basketfuls by the poorer people ; and yet 
of .their shells enough remain in the space of half a mile to load several 
carts ; but the fishes themselves, devoured by myriads of birds, chiefly 
gulls, have already disappeared. The Mactra, though they may be picked 
up in some places by basketfuls, are less abundant. It is probable, how- 
ever, that both species will be less common on our coasts than heretofore, 
for years to come ; and their wholesale destruction by a frost a few de- 
grees more intense than is common in our climate, strikingly shows how 
simply, by slight changes of climate induced by physical causes, whole 
races of animals may become extinct. It exemplifies, too, how destruc- 
tion may fall upon insulated species, while from some peculiarity of 
habitat, or some hardiness of constitution, their cogeners escape. There 
are two species of Solen in the Frith, 8. siliqua and S. ensis ; but we 
have not seen, on the present occasion, a single dead individual of the lat- 
ter species ; and, of at least four species of Mactra, Mactra stultorum 
seems alone to have suffered. 



370 Proceedings of Societies. 

It is worthy of remark, that there are shells very abundant on the 
roast, and which, from their littoral character, must have been quite as 
much exposed to the intense cold as either Mactra stultorwm or Solen 
tiliqua, of which I did not find a single dead specimen on the beach. 
Tellina solidula is one of these species, and Mactra solida, with its sub- 
species or variety Mactra truncata, another; and these the frost seems 
not to have in the least affected. Of the various littoral univalves, too, 
including the periwinkles, purpura, and trochiclse, only one species — 
Natica monilifera — seems to have suffered. Now, Tellina solidula is in 
some localities, — as at Castleton King-Edward, — one of the most numer- 
ous and best developed of the boreal shells ; Mactra solida is also a boreal 
species, with the common periwinkle Littorina littorea, the common 
purpura P. lapillus, and the dog-periwinkle Trochus cinerarius. Again, 
on the other hand, of the destroyed shells, I have not yet found any trace 
of Tellina fibula or Donax anatinus in the old glacial deposits, such as 
the boulder clay, or Gamrie gravels and sands, nor yet of Mactra stul- 
torum or Solen siliqua, though the former is said to be a shell of the 
Mammiferous Crag, and the latter of the Clyde beds. And though a 
large natica occurs in both the Caithness and Gamrie deposits, that very 
considerably resembles Natica monilifera, it fails to exhibit the charac- 
teristic flexuous streaks, and in general form seems at least as much akin 
to a sub-arctic species as to the one recently killed by the frost. And 
there can be, I think, no doubt that the boulder clay Tellina, T. proxima, 
is altogether a different species, notwithstanding its points of similarity 
in the more dwarfish individuals, from Tellina, tenuis. None of the 
molluscs killed in any considerable abundance by the present intense 
frost seem to be truly boreal species ; and their destruction by the refri- 
gerating agent, which has strewed them by millions along the beach, 
seems not only strikingly illustrative, as I have said, of one of the modes 
in which species may be destroyed, but also of a curious passage in the 
later geologic history of Northern Europe. It is an ascertained fact, that 
shells were living in the British area during the times of the Red Crag, 
of the same species with those recently killed by the frost ; Mactra stul- 
torum is one of these, and Natica monilifera another ; and they now 
live in the neighbouring frith ; but J at least have failed, after sedulous 
exploration, to detect them in the intermediate period of boreal shells, 
ice-grooved surfaces, and the boulder clay, — a period during which some 
of their hardier cogeners were very abundant. And the catastrophe 
which has just destroyed them in such numbers shows in part how this 
passage in our geologic history may have taken place. 

2. On the Silurian and Old Red Floras of Scotland. By Hugh 
Miller, Esq. — Mr Miller illustrated his paper by the exhibition of a 
most interesting collection of the fossil remains of these little-known 
plants. 

3. On the Homology of the Vertebrate Skeleton, and its representative 
Eso-Sheleton of the Invertebrate Classes, with the application to Zoology, 
Palaeontology, and Geology. By Professor M'Donald. — The Professor 
exhibited a numerous collection of osteological preparations and diagrams 
in illustration of his peculiar views. 



Proceedings of Societies. 371 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

9th November 1854. 

1. On the Associations of Colour, and Relations of Colour and Form 
in Plants. By Professor Dickie, Belfast. 

The author alluded to the harmony of colours in plants, and endea- 
voured to prove that the primary colours, red, yellow, and blue, are gene- 
rally present in some parts of the plant ; and that when a primary colour 
occurs in any part, its complement will usually be found in some other 
part. He also showed, that in regular corollas, the colour is uniformly 
distributed ; whereas, in irregular corollas, there is an irregular distribu- 
tion of colour. 

- 2. Records of new Localities for Plants. By Dr Balfour. 
3. Remarks on the formation of Ascidia. By Dr Balfour. 

The author stated that he was induced to make some remarks on the 
formation of Ascidia in consequence of seeing lately a statement to the 
eifect that all pitchers were formed by a hollowing out process. He was 
disposed to think that true ascidia, such as those of Nepenthes, Sarracenia, 
Cephalotus, and Heliamphora, were formed by folded leaves in the same 
way as carpels are supposed to be produced. The anomalous ascidiform pro- 
ductions on the leaves of cabbage, lettuce, &c. , might be traced to a similar 
process, and in some instances the pitcher-like body appeared to be a 
second leaf folded in an opposite manner from that from which it 
sprung. Occasionally two or more leaves formed ascidia. What has been 
called the " hollowing out process" is applicable to such cases as Esch- 
scholtzia, Myrtacese , Rose, Hovenia, &c. This hollowing out process caused 
a development of the circumference of the receptacle, peduncle, or other 
part, while the central portion was undeveloped, and thus there arose a 
cup-like body with a hollow centre. In such instances there seemed to 
be a union, in the early state, of the circumferential cellular papillae aris- 
ing from the peduncle or receptacle, or other part ; these became elon- 
gated so as to form a gamophyllous rim of greater or less depth, enclosing 
a hollow space in which certain organs were developed. The pitcher -like 
peduncle or receptacle was often intimately connected with the calyx, and 
was lined by cellular matter in the form of a disk. 

4. On Linaria sepium of Allman. By C. C. Babington, M.A. 

The author stated that this plant had been found by Professor Allman, 
near Bandon, Cork, and that he (Mr B.) had been at first disposed to 
consider it and L. italica as hybrids between L. vulgaris and L. repens. 
Professor Allman had given conclusive evidence of the plant not being a 
hybrid ; and from an examination of living specimens in the Cambridge 
Botanical Garden, Mr B. was disposed to look upon the plant as a distinct 
species, distinguished by its creeping root, erect smooth stems, linear- 
lanceolate acute scattered leaves, racemose flowers, ovate acute smooth 
sepals, shorter than the spur, and tuberculately-rough three-winged 
seeds. 

5. On Diseases in Plants caused by Mites. By Mr Hardy, Penmanshiel. 

6. Botanical Notes. By Dr J. D. Hooker, in a letter to Dr Balfour. 

Dr Balfour stated, that in a letter recently received, Dr Hooker re- 
marks (1.) that the natural order Balanophoraceae is truly Dicotyledonous, 
and far removed from Rafflesiaceae, the latter being (as Brown pointed 



372 Proceedings of Societies. 

out) closely allied to Aristolochias. The Balanophoracese are far more 
perfect in their ovules, and have albuminous seeds, with a Dicotyledonous 
embryo. They are closely allied to Gunnera. — (2.) Dr Hooker finds the 
germination of Xymphaiaceae to be genuinely Dicotyledonous. It is only 
the adventitious roots which are sheathed, as is the case with many other, 
exogens. The rhizome of the order is a very reduced form of the exo- 
genous, but not at all constructed on the endogenous type. The species 
of Nymphoeaceae must apparently be reduced to a very few, for in India 
half-a-dozen varieties in colour, number of petals, stamens and stigmatic 
rays, are found in one tank, and no two tanks have exactly the same forms. 
*— (3.) DrH. considers that Brown's theory of carpellary sutural placenta- 
tion is the correct one, and that axile and free placentation may be 
reduced to it. Dr H. mentioned a case of Stachys with a four-lobed, one- 
celled ovary formed by two carpels placed back and front, and bearing 
half-way up a pair of parietal sutural ovules ; also a Primrose with parietal 
ovules. The Yew which Schleiden describes as having an ovule termina- 
ting the axis, has been shown to have often two ovules, and when one, it 
is always oblique and lateral. 

7. On Stellaria umbrosa, Opitz. By Mr G. Lawson. 

Stellaria umbrosa, hitherto only known as a Sussex plant, had been ob- 
served by Mr Lawson on the shore, near Rosyth Castle, in Fifeshire. 
He did not, however, support its claims to specific distinction, and re- 
garded it in the light of a book species, made out of forms of S. media ; 
the Scotch S. umbrosa appeared to form even a greater departure from 
the typical S. media, than the Sussex one. Mr L. pointed out the 
characters which distinguished S. media, With., S. umbrosa, Opitz, ( = 
S. grandiflora, Ten.), S. neglecta, Weihe, and S. (media?) microphylla, 
Wight ; and exhibited specimens of all the forms in illustration of his re- 
marks. No plant appeared to be more capable of adapting itself to all 
conditions of soil, climate, and situation, than Stellaria media, and to this 
circumstance was due the numerous forms of the plant known to botanists ; 
the extremes of these forms were remarkably distinct from each other ; 
but when studied in detail, all were found to be intimately linked toge- 
ther. 



14th December 1854. 

1. Sketch of the Life of the late Professor Edward Forbes. By 
Professor Balfour. This paper has been printed in the Annals of Na- 
tural History for January 1855. 

2. On Hypericum anglicum. By Charles C. Babington, M.A., 
F.R.S. This paper has been printed in the Annals of Natural History 
for February 1855. 

3. On the Structure of the Anthers of Erica. By John Lowe, Esq. 

4. Summary of the Flora of the Lake District, By Mr James B. 
Davies. 



11th January 1855. 

1. Notes on the Flora of Dumfries. By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., 
Perth. 

2. Notice of plants in the neighbourhood of Oban, and in part of the 
island of Mull. By David Philip Maclagan, Esq. 

3. On Plants found in Strachur, Argyleshire, and in Roxburghshire. 
By William Nichol, Esq. 



Proceedings of Societies, 373 

4. On Lichens collected in the Breadalbane Mountains and Woods. 
By Hugh MacMillan, Esq. 

5. On Harmonious Colouring in Plants. By Professor M'Cosh, 
Belfast. 



8th February 1855. 

1. Account of a Botanical Excursion to the Braemar Mountains in 
August 1854. By Professor Balfour. 

2. Report on the Diatomacece collected in Braemar in the Autumn of 
1854, by Professor Balfour and Mr George Laivson. By Dr Greville. 
This paper appears in the Annals of Natural History for April 1855. 

The following are among the novelties, some being new species and 
others additions to the list of British species : — 

Eunotia Camelus, Ehr. Cymbella sequalis, W. Sm. 

,, tridentula, Ehr. Navicula cocconeiformis, Greg. 

,, quaternaria, Ehr. Diatomella Balfouriana, Sm. 

Cymbella lunata, W. Sm. Orthosira spinosa, W. Sm. 

3. On the Geological Relations of some Rare Alpine plants. By Dr 
Gilchrist, Montrose. 

4. Description of some neiu Coniferous trees recently introduced into 
this country by William Murray, Esq., of San Francisco. By Andrew 
Murray, Esq. This paper appears in the present number of this Journal. 



8th March 1855. 

1. A Comparative View of the more important Stages of Develop- 
ment of some of the Higher Cryptogamia and the Phanerogamia. By 
Charles Jenner, Esq. — This paper will be found in the Annals of Na- 
tural History for April 1855. 

2. Notes of a Botanical Tour to the Island of Jersey. ByMrC. Bax- 
ter, Royal Botanic Garden, Regent's Park. Communicated by Mr James 
Rae. 

3. On some Gall-like Appearances on the Leaves of a Species of Chry- 
sophyllum from the Rio Negro, collected by Mr Spruce. By Mr 
James Hardy. 

4. Extracts from a Letter from Dr Cleghorn on the Discovery, by 
Major Cotton, of the Gutta Percha Plant in Malabar. — Communicated 
by Dr Balfour. — This notice will be found among the Extracts from 
Correspondence at p. 352 in the present number of the Journal. 

5. On some Plants -which have recently flowered in the Royal Botanic 
Garden. By Dr Balfour.' — The plants referred to were Tricyrtis pilosa, 
Boucerosia Munbyana, and Erianthus japonicus. 

Boucerosia Munbyana is noticed by Munby in his Flore d'Algerie, 
and the following are its characters : — Ramis tetragonis erectis, foliis 
ovatis acutis planis, floribus sessilibus, fasciculatis ad summitatem 
ramorum, laciniis linearibus, folliculis longissimis, apice inflexis. The 
plant has a habit of a Stapelia, is about five inches high, and sends 
off numerous branches, which are tetragonal and erect or ascending ; 
the branches are more or less prominent, and have triangular concave 
depressions between them, and their edges are covered with triangular 
toothed projections, bearing minute, ovate, acute, fleshy, nearly sessile 
leaves. Flowers sessile, in clusters of 5-10 towards the extremity of 
the branches, of a brown colour, and fetid. Calyx five-partite, fleshy ; 
segments narrow, acute, purplish-green. Corolla somewhat campanulate, 
five-partite, aestivation induplicato-valvate, and slightly twisted, seg- 



37-4 Proceedings of Societies. 

ments rather more than a quarter of an inch in length, narrow, broader 
at the base, concave externally, the edges folding back during flowering, 
so as to give the segments a linear appearance, the internal lower surface 
showing numerous minute cellular papillae. Staminal crown gamophyllous, 
consisting of five brown leaflets, each of which is trifid, the two lateral 
segments being erect or divaricate, and awlshaped, and the central por- 
tion triangular, acute, and incurved, so as to cover the anthers. Pollen 
masses yellow, elliptical, attached above the base where there is a sort of 
operculate margin. Stigma blunt. 

The plant was sent to the garden by Mr Giles Munby. It was found 
by him on the rocks of Santa Cruz, and on the rocks overhanging the 
sea between Mers-el-Kebir and Cape Falcon, in Oran. The Arabs and 
the goats eat the young shoots. 

Erianthus japonicus, according to Major Madden, occurs all along the 
Himalaya from Assam up to Simlah, growing on the northern sides of the 
mountains, in damp woods, and generally near rivulets, up to 7000 or 
perhaps 7500 feet, and is a fine species. It is noticed by Griffith, under 
the name of Saccharum rubrum, but it has no saccharine qualities. 

6. Observations of the Temperatures observed at the Royal Botanic 
Garden during the month of February last. By Mr M'Nab. — The 
lowest temperature was 5° Fahr. 



Californian Academy of Natural Sciences. 

September 4, 1854. 
Dr A. Kellogg in the Chair. 

Dr Kellogg exhibited a drawing and specimens of a plant from the sea- 
shore and the salt marshes of the bay of San Francisco, — the Frankenia 
grandijlora. 

Dr Ayres presented descriptions of the following species of fish, be- 
lieved to be new : — 

Zabrus pulcher, Ayres. This species is brought to the market from 
the 1st of August until the close of February, and is sold by the 
fishermen under the name of " Black-jish." It is taken near San 
Diego. 

D.12.10. ; A.3.12. ; P.18. ; V.1.5. ; C.14. 

Hemitripteras marmoratus , Ayres. A species reaching from six to 
eight pounds weight. It appears to represent on this coast H. aca- 
dianus of the rocky shores of our Atlantic States ; it is, however, 
entirely distinct from it, the structure of the head alone being enough 
to separate it. 

D.11.17. ; A.13. ; P.14.; V.6. ; CIO. 



September 11, 1854. 

Dr A. Kellogg in the Chair. 

Dr Kellogg presented a drawing of a plant given him by Mr Wallace 
of Los Angelos, called by the Mexicans Chia. It belongs to the Labiate, 
but the genus is unknown. The seeds are said to be very mucilaginous, 



Proceedings of Societies. 375 

and are used medicinally in fevers and dysenteries, and other irritations 
of the bowels. It deserved the attention of the Academy.* 

Dr H. Gibbons exhibited a head of bearded wheat, said to grow wild in 
the mountains. It measured about seven inches and a half in length. The 
grains are about half an inch long. 

Dr W. Ay res continued his observations on the fishes brought to the 
market at San Francisco. Roch-fisk or rock-cod is abundantly offered 
for sale. Five distinct species have been detected, although we were pre- 
viously aware of the existence of only one, Sebastes norvegicus, Cuvier. 
Three of these are very nearly allied — S. nebulosus, ruber, &nd parvus, 
Ayres. 

S. nebulosus, Ayres, is in colour finely mottled with dusky yellow and 
dark brown. 

D.13.13.; A.3.8.; V.1.5. ; P.7.10. ; C.ll. 

8. paucispinis, Ayres ; colour plain reddish brown above, lighter be- 
neath. 

D.13.13.; A.3.7; V.1.6. ; P.5. ; C.12. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 



L'Institut, from 25th October 1854 to 28th February 1855. 

Clark, William, History of the British Testaceous Marine Mollusca. 
8vo. London, 1855. Van Voorst. 

Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool. 
1853-54. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. Nos. 9 and 10. 

Proceedings of the Californian Natural History Society. 

Dublin Monthly Journal of Industrial Progress. January, February, 
and March 1855. 

Les Cascades de Niagara et leur Marche Retrograde. Par E. Desor. 

Westminster Review. January 1855. 

Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society. No. 28. 

The Phonetic Journal. Vol. XIV. No. 1. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. New series. Vol. XXIII. 
Nos. 69 and 70. 

Davidson (Simpson), A New Theory of the Origin of Gold. 1854. 

Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia. Vol. VIII. Nos. 
5 and 6. May- June 1854. 

Hooker, Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany. February 
and March 1855. 

Journal of the Dublin Geological Society. Vol. IV. Part II. No. 2. 

* Professor Balfour will feel much obliged by seeds of this plant and of the next 
being forwarded to the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. 



( 376 ) 
SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



Melanerpes formicivorus (Swainson.) — At a late meeting of the Royal 
Physical Society of Edinburgh, Mr Andrew Murray read a notice of a 
singular instinct possessed by a Californian woodpecker, which was said 
to lay up a store of provisions for winter use by boring holes in the bark 
of trees and placing in them acorns. (See Proceedings of the Royal 
Physical Society, ante, page 363.) A habit so singular and so little 
known among birds was listened to with some doubt, but on examin- 
ing into the subject we find so many naturalists adverting to it that we 
cannot now refuse to give it credit. The following remarks on the habits 
of this woodpecker will be found in the very beautiful work on the Birds 
of California and Texas, by Mr John Cassin, now in the course of publi- 
cation in America. 

" Our present species (M. formicivorus) is one of the most abundant of 
the birds of California ; it appears to take the place of the red-headed 
woodpecker in the countries west of the Rocky Mountains. Dr A. L. 
Heermann of Philadelphia made extended visits to California for the pur- 
pose of investigating its Natural History, and has identified, for the first 
time, this species of woodpecker, of which previously nothing could be 
accurately made out from the statements of travellers, and which was 
stated to possess the provident and curious instinct of storing away a sup- 
ply of food for the winter in holes made for that purpose in the bark of 
trees. 

" In the autumn this species is busily engaged in digging small 
holes in the bark of the pines and oaks, to receive acorns, one of which 
is placed in each hole, and is so tightly fitted or driven in that it is with 
difficulty extracted. Thus, the bark of a large pine, forty or fifty feet 
high, will present the appearance of being closely studded with brass nails, 
the heads only being visible. The acorns are thus stored in large quan- 
tities, and serve not only the woodpecker in the winter season, but are 
trespassed on by the jays, mice, and squirrels. 

" The following intelligent account is from Kelly's Excursion to 
California : — ' In stripping off the bark of this tree I observed it to be 
perforated with holes larger than those which a musket-ball would make, 
shaped with the most accurate precision, as if bored under the guidance 
of a rule and compass, and many of them filled most neatly with acorns. 
Earlier in the season I had remarked such holes in most of all the softer 
timbers, but imagining that they were caused by wood insects, I did not 
stop to examine or inquire ; but now finding them studded with acorns 
firmly fixed in. which I knew could not have been driven there by the 
wind, I sought for an explanation. It is regarded as a sure omen that 
the snowy period is approaching when these birds commence stowing 
away their acorns, which otherwise might be covered by its fall. I fre- 
quently paused from my chopping to watch them in the neighbourhood, 
with the acorns in their bills, half clawing, half flying around the tree, 
and have admired the adroitness with which they tried it at different 
holes until they found one of its exact calibre ; when inserting the pointed 
end, they tapped it home most artistically with the beak, and flew down 
for another.' 

" But the natural instinct of this bird is even more remarkable in the 
choice of nuts, which are invariably found to be sound, whereas it is an 
utter impossibility in selecting them for roasting, to pick up a batch 



Zoology and Geology. 377 

that will not have a large portion of them unfit for use. The most 
smooth and polished frequently contains a large grub. These wood- 
peckers never encroach on their packed stores until all the nuts on the 
surface of the ground are covered with snow, when they resort to those in 
the bark, and peck them of their contents without removing the shell from 
the hole. The bark of the pine tree, from its great thickness, and the 
ease of boring, is mostly sought for by these birds as their granary for 
the winter season." — (Cassin — Birds of California and Texas.) 

Societe Zoologique d' Acclimatation. — A new Society has been esta- 
blished in Paris under the above title. The objects of the Society are to 
encourage the Introduction, the Acclimatation, and the Domestication 
of useful and ornamental animals. The first meeting was held on 20th 
January 1854, under the presidency of M. Isidore Geolfroy Saint Hilaire. 
A report has been published, and the Society already numbers a long list 
of members. 

Introduction of Foreign Species of Salmon. — At a meeting of " Aca- 
demie des Sciences de Paris," 6th February 1854, Mon. Coste exhi- 
bited to the Academy specimens of salmon that had been hatched by him 
at the College of Frome. Similar results had been accomplished by Mons. 
de Vibraye in the fine establishment he had constructed on the banks of 
the Loire ; by Mon. Desrne, at his demesne in the vicinity of Saumur ; 
by Mon. Blanchet in the department of the Isere. The acclimatation of 
species at a distance from their native localities is not, therefore, so diffi- 
cult as was supposed, and the following species have already been suc- 
cessfully introduced into certain waters of France : — The Salmo hucho 
of the Danube ; S. umbla ; coregonus fera ; and into the Lake Ballon 
(Yosges) the great trout of the Swiss Lakes, Salmo lemanis, Cuvier.- — . 
(Rev. and Mag. &c, Zool., 1854, p. 103.) 

Eschara cervicornis. — This zoophyte has been discovered by Mr 
Embleton, in Embleton Bay, on the Northumberland coast. It was ex- 
hibited at the June (1853) meeting of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, 
by Dr Johnston, with the following remarks : — ■ 

" I have Mr Burke's authority for stating that our coral is the Eschara 
cervicornis of his catalogue of marine polyzoa. He is of opinion that it 
is identical with the Cellipora cervicornis of my British Zoophytes. The 
two specimens differ in habit, one being attached by a solid expanded 
base, the other by a cementation of the segments. The Cellipora cervi- 
cornis is, moreover, more erect in its mode of growth, and more solid in 
its texture ; but these differences may be the result of age, and of pecu- 
liarities in the sites wherein the corals were developed. It would seem 
that although Eschara cervicornis has been often mentioned in works on 
the British Fauna, there are very few instances known of its occurrence 
on our coast. Dr Fleming has not included it in his ' History of British 
Animals,' so that the evidence for its being a native production must 
have been weak when that very valuable work was published. The species 
described in my ' British Zoophytes' was procured from the coast of 
Devonshire. Mr Burke did not know the exact habitat of his British 
species, for he seems to have seen only one. Thus Mr Embleton's is the 
third known British specimen, and it is the more valuable, as the locality 
is fully ascertained."' — (Proc. of BerwicJcsh. Nat. Club, 1854.) 

GEOLOGY. 

Cause of the Gray Colour in Dolomite and other Neptunian Rocks. 

Petzholdt has submitted to examination the opinion expressed by 
Gobel, that the colouring matter of dolomite depends on the presence of 
iron pyrites. He has examined seven different dolomites, and draws the 



37S 



Scientific Intelligence. 



conclusion that organic substances are the true cause of their colour. His. 
experiment^ were made by digesting the specimens with hydrochloric 
acid, determining the carbon in the residue; and assuming that it exists 
there in the form of a humus acid, containing 58 per cent, of carbon, he 
calculates the total quantity of organic matter they contain. The follow- 
ing table gives his results : — 



Dolomite from Tuttomaggi, . 
Do. another specimen, . . 
Dolomite from Igo Pank, . . 
Do. do. Ojo Pank, . . 
Do. do. Koggowa Sar, . 
Dolomitic limestone from Hoi- 1 

lenhagen, near Salzuflen, J 
Dolomite from Ojo Pank, with ) 

black incrustation, . . J 
Dolomite from Koggowa Sar, ) 

with black incrustation, / 


Residue, 
insoluble 
in acid. 


Carbon. 


Organic 

matter. 


Iron 
pyrites. 


14-90 
14-11 
13-00 
25-40 

35-20 

26-61 
23-90 

29-80 


0-102 
0-084 
0-101 
0-160 
0-213 

0-131 
0-220 
0-463 


0-176 
0-145 
0-174 

0-276 
0-367 

0-226 
0-379 

0-798 


0-35 
0-31 
0-35 
0-31 
1-46 

none, 
not exam, 
notexam. 



By a comparison of these experiments with the colour of the speci- 
mens, the author dra\v r s the conclusion that it is due to the organic matter, 
and not to the pyrites. — (Journal fur Practische Chemi*, vol. lxiii., 
p. 193.) 

[Our own observations have led us to a conclusion similar to that stated 
by Petzholdt. We have found that some dark-coloured limestones yield 
appreciable quantities of organic matter, amounting in some instances to 
about one per cent., without a trace of iron pyrites. In many instances, 
however, the organic matter is accompanied by pyrites, and this is re- 
markably seen in some varieties of black marble. The pyrites in such 
limestones may probably be traced to the collection of sulphate of iron 
during the decomposition of the organic remains which they contain. — 
Edit. Phil. Journal.'] 

CHEMISTRY. 

Preparation and Properties of Aluminium. By M. St Clair Deville. 
Some time since it was announced that Deville had succeeded in procur- 
ing aluminium in abundance, and by a process which would permit its 
use in the arts. It now appears that the processes employed by Deville 
are merel}'' modifications of those already known, sodium and the galvanic 
battery being the agents employed to reduce the chloride of aluminium. 
These processes are manifestly so expensive as to render it unlikely that 
aluminium will be applied to any economic uses, but the author has been 
enabled to describe more fully than lias before been done the properties 
of the metal. It is a fine white metal, with a high metallic lustre. Its 
hardness, when cast, is about the same as that of pure silver, but is in- 
creased by pressure. It is highly malleable and ductile, conducts electri- 
city about eight times as well as iron, and is slightly magnetic. It crys- 
tallizes readily by fusion, and its crystals appear to belong to the regular 
system. It melts at a temperatuie above that of zinc, but lower than 
silver, and the author attributes the excessively high melting point found 
by Wohler to the presence of platinum in the specimen examined by him. 
Its sp. gr. is 2*56, which is increased to 2-67 by rolling. It is unaltered by 
«iir and oxygen, even at the melting point of gold. It is without action 
in water, at ordinary temperatures, at 212°, and even at a lower heat ; 



Chemistry. 379 

but at a high temperature it slowly decomposes it Xitric acid at common 
temperatures does not attack it and even when boiling, the action is ex^ 
cessively slow ; nor is it soluble in diluted sulphuric acid. Its true solvent"* 
is hydrochloric acid, which attacks it very rapidly. At a very low tempera- 
ture the gas attacks it, and converts it entirely into the chloride. Sul- 
phuretted hydrogen is without action upon it. Aluminium does not amal- 
gamate with mercury, but alloys with copper, silver, and iron. It gives 
a compound with carbon. — (Annales de Chem. et de Physique, vol. xliii. , 
p. 1.) 

Solubility of Carbonate of Soda. 
Payen has made the observation that carbonate of soda, like the sul- 
phate, has a point of maximum solubility. In fact the quantities of the 
crystallized carbonate dissolved at 57° Fahr., 97° and 219°, while the boil- 
ing points of the saturated solution are as follows : — 

57° 60-4 

97° 833-0 

219° 445-0 

It is remarkable that this peculiarity of so familiar a salt should 
have so long escaped the attention of chemists. — (Annates de Chem. etde 
Physique, vol. xliii., p. 233.) 

On a Compound of Methyle and Tellurium. By Prof. Wohler. 
This substance, which deports itself like a metal, is prepared by dis- 
tilling a mixture of telluride of potassium and sulphomethylate of baryta. 
It is a reddish -yellow mobile fluid, heavier than water, and having an 
unpleasant alliaceous smell. It boils at 176°, and forms a yellow vapour. 
It burns with a blue flame, and thick fumes of telluric acid are formed. 
When boiled with nitric acid, nitric oxide is disengaged, and a nitrate of 
the oxide of telluromethyle is formed, which crystallizes in fine large stri- 
ated prisms. 

Oxide of Telluromethyle, C 2 H 3 Te 0, is obtained as a white crystalline 
mass, without smell, but with a very disagreeable taste. It deliquesces 
in the air, absorbs carbonic acid exactly like caustic potash, and possesses 
powerfully alkaline properties, restoring the blue of reddened litmus and 
expelling ammonia from its salts. Sulphurous acid reduces it, separating 
the radical. It is obtained by decomposing the chloride or iodide with 
oxide of silver. 

Sulphate of Telluromethyle, C 2 H 3 Te S0 3 crystallizes in large trans- 
parent cubes. 

Chloride of Telluromethyle is a white precipitate, very similar to 
chloride of lead. It dissolves in boiling water, and is deposited in small 
prisms. It melts at 207°*5, and is not volatile without decomposition. 
Treated with ammonia and oxychloride, C 2 H 3 Te 0-f-C 2 H 3 Te Ce is formed, 
which is also well crystallized. 

Bromide of Telluromethyle resembles the chloride. 
Iodide of Telluromethyle, C 2 H 3 Te I, is a beautiful yellow precipitate, 
which, some minutes after its formation, acquires a fine cinnabar red 
colour. When precipitated in a hot solution, it is obtained red and crys- 
talline. It is very little soluble in cold water, more so in hot, and more 
abundantly still in alcohol, and deposits from these solutions in small red 
prisms. When its cold alcoholic solution is mixed with water, it is pre- 
cipitated as a yellow powder, which, in the course of a few minutes, turns 
red. It is obvious, therefore, that this substance exists in two states, like 
iodide of mercury ; but the author has not been able to ascertain whether 
this is accompanied by a dimorphous change. It is decomposed at 266°, 
producing the black iodide of tellurium. 

A liquid sulphuret of tellurium appears to exist, but want of material 
prevented its examination. — (Comptes Rendus, 3d Jan. 185.").) 



380 Scientific Intelligence. 

Examination of the Rind of the Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana)^ 
By Dr Schmid. 

The rind was first boiled with water, which extracted tannin. The re- 
sidue was then treated with hot alcohol ; the filtered fluid deposited a 
resinous substance, which is a mixture of a resin and a crystalline mat- 
ter, which the author calls mangostine. To separate it from the resin 
water is added to the hot alcoholic solution until it becomes muddy ; on 
cooling the resin is deposited, and after standing for some the mangostine 
is deposited in silky plates, which are further purified by precipitating 
with basic acid of lead and decomposing the precipitate with sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and repeatedly crystallizing the product from alcohol. 

Mangostine crystallizes in golden-yellow glittering plates without smell 
or taste, fusible about 374° into a yellow fluid, which solidifies into an 
amorphous mass ; by farther heating it is decomposed, a small portion 
only subliming unchanged. It is insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol or 
ether, and the solutions are without action on litmus. It dissolves in the 
alkalies with a yellow or brown colour, nitric acid gives oxalic acid when 
boiled with it, and sulphuric acid dissolves it with a yellow colour, pro- 
ducing a partial decomposition. It is not precipitated by any of the me- 
tallic salts except subacetate of lead. Chloride of iron gives a dark 
blackish-green coloration. Its analysis gave results agreeing with the 
formula C 40 H 22 O 10 . The lead compound was not obtained of constant 
composition. The author refers to the probable relations of this sub- 
stance to the resin of gamboge, which has the formula C 40 H 18 O 21 , and 
Purcee or Indian yellow, said to be produced from the urine of camels 
which have been fed on the fruits of Mangostana manganifer, of which 
the formula is C 40 H 16 O 21 . He finds that euxanthic acid is a coupled 
compound decomposed by sulphuric acid into euxanthine and a substance 
which reduces oxide of copper. — (Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 
vol. xciii. p. 83.) 

BOTANY. 

Gutta Percha of Singapore. — " Of the gutta percha very small quan- 
tities are now brought to Singapore ; it has become a manufactured sub- 
stance. A vast variety of its gum, at various prices, from three to thirty 
dollars a picul, is brought in by the natives. Some of these are deep red, 
some quite white, and many of them are hardly coherent, breaking down 
and crumbling between the fingers. These are cut and broken up, and 
cleared from the scraps of bark and wood which are generally found among 
them ; they are then boiled in an iron pan with coco-nut oil, and stirred 
until thoroughly amalgamated. This mixture is allowed to cool again, 
when it is broken up and re-boiled with more oil, sometimes as often as 
four times, or until the mass acquires a certain tenacity. The good gutta 
percha, sliced into thin shavings, is then added in greater or less propor- 
tion, according to the quality of the basis, and the whole well mixed. 
The Chinese who do this are very skilful, and manage to produce from 
a great variety of gums a very uniform article, — wonderfully so, when it 
is considered that the gum is bought by the merchants in very small 

quantities at a time as the natives bring it in There seems to be 

a great mystery about the Gutta Percha trees. I was in the heart of their 
country, and yet could get nobody to show me a single tree. I think the 
fact is, that they have all been long ago cut down within any reasonable 
distance of the settlements. I saw large quantities of the gum, though 
none of the best quality, on the Indragiri. I think I can distinguish at 
least five sorts, which are probably the produce of different trees ; or 
rather five classes of gums, for perhaps the species are many more, and 
yet, though I offered great inducements, I could not get even a leaf. Of 



Botany. 381 

course, if I had gone up with time at my disposal, I would have seen the 
trees in spite of all ; for I should have gone into the woods with the col- 
lectors, and this I hope some time to be able to do. The Gum Benjamin, 
another great staple here, I saw collected. The trees are about eighteen 
inches diameter, with small low buttresses to the roots ; these are notched 
with a chopper, and produce the ordinary quality of the drug. The best, 
of a light buff colour and dense substance, is procured from wounds in the 
uncovered larger roots, and the common, or Foot Benjamin, is procured 
from the trunk of the tree. The oil of the seeds is valued as an applica- 
tion to boils ; it is probably of little use." — (Letter from James Motley, 
Esq., in Hooher's Journal of Botany, February 1855.) 

Mora excelsa, a large West Indian Timber tree. — " Prominent among 
the trees which adorn the forests of Guiana, and which astonish by their pro- 
fuse verdure and gigantic size, stands the majestic Mora, the king of the 
forest. Rising to the height of from sixty to ninety feet before it gives 
out branches, it towers over the wall-like vegetation which skirts the 
banks of the rivers of Guiana, forming a crown of the most splendid 
foliage, overshadowing numerous minor trees and shrubs, and hung with 
Lianas in the form of festoons. The Mora, of all other trees of the forests 
of Guiana, is peculiarly adapted for naval architecture ; and it is to be 
found in such abundance, that if once introduced for building material 
into the dockyards, there can never be any apprehension there would be 
a want of that timber which could not be supplied. The wood is uncom- 
monly close-grained, and gives scarcely room for a nail when driven into it. 
When cleared of sap, it is durable in any situation, whether in or out of 
the water. With this property it unites another of equal consideration 
to builders ; it is strong, tough, and not liable to split, has never been 
known to be subject to dry-rot, and is considered, therefore, by the most 
competent judges, to be superior to oak and African teak, and to vie in 
every respect with Indian teak. The full-grown tree will furnish logs 
from thirty to forty, or even to fifty feet in length, and from twelve to 
twenty-four inches square, taken from the main stem, whilst the remain- 
ing portions are suited to various purposes of naval architecture ; such, 
for instance, as keels, keelsons, stern-posts, floors, ribs, beams, knees, 
breasts, backs, &c." Thus wrote Sir Robert Schomburgk fifteen years 
ago (Transactions of the Linnwan Society, vol. xviii. p. 207) ; and, in 
the same volume, that there might be no difficulty of distinguishing the 
tree in the search for it in other countries, Mr Bentham, from specimens 
sent by Sir Robert, published an excellent figure and botanical history, 
under the name of Mora excelsa ; for it had previously no place in bo- 
tanical works. It belongs to the natural order of Leguminosce, and to 
the same group or section as the well-known Cassias. Yet it does not 
appear that the attention of any of our authorities or travellers has been 
directed to the commercial importance of this tree till very recently. The 
same tree has been found to prevail in certain localities of the island of 
Trinidad. — (Hooker's Journal of Botany , March 1855.) 

Vegetable Oils in the Amazon and Rio Negro Districts. — Spruce re- 
marks, that vegetables yielding oils abound in the Rio Negro district. 
Nearly all the palm- fruits yield oil ; but the bright vermilion fruit of 
Elais melanococca, or Caiaue palm, furnishes it in very large quantity. 
Various species of OEnocarpus, which abound on the Amazon and Ori- 
noco, are oil-bearing. The oil procured from (Enocarpus Bataua, which 
forms forests in the Rio Negro, is called Patana oil by the Indians, and 
resembles much that procured from olives. Raphia toedigera, the Jupati 
palm, has a very oleaginous fruit, and its leaf-stalks can be used as flam- 
beaux. Andiroba-oil is the produce of Carapa guianensis. Bertholletia 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. NO. IT. — APRIL 1855. 2 C 



382 Scientific Intelligence. 

excelsa, the Castanha or Jiivia, is another oil-giving tree of the Amazon 
district. — (Hooker's Journal of Botany, November 1854.) 

Cyperua polystachyua. — This plant grows on the mouth of the crater 
of the extinct volcano of the island of Ischia. This is the only locality in 
Europe. It nourishes there where steam is continually issuing at a tem- 
perature of at least 150° Fahr. The plant is essentially a warm country 
species, tropical and extra-tropical in Asia, Africa, and America. In the 
European locality it is accompanied by Pteris longifolia. — (Hooker's 
Journal, November 1854 ) 

Palma Jagua of the Orinoco. — Spruce mentions a species of Maxi- 
miliana having a frond 34 feet long, composed of 426 pinnas, and a spadix, 
which bore about a thousand fruits, and was a load for two men. The 
palm was seen in the Orinoco, and is called Palma Jagua. 

Fungus in a Cavity of the Lung. — A married woman, mother of four 
children, and 49 years of age, was in St Thomas's Hospital from the 29th 
November to 21st December 1853. She had been labouring for two or 
three years under the ordinary symptoms of chronic bronchitis, and of 
this disease she died. She was examined on 22d December, twenty-four 
hours after death. On examining the left lung there were found in its 
apex two communicating cavities, together about equal to a pigeon's egg. 
They were empty of secretion, but their parietes were moist, somewhat 
reticulated, and covered more or less by an opaque adherent film of fibri- 
nous material. On the upper surface of the septum by which the cavities 
were imperfectly divided, was a soft velvety mass, occupying an area 
about equal to that of half a finger-nail, and measuring close upon a line 
or a line and a half in thickness. It was dry and powdery on the sur- 
face, and had a dull greenish hue. It was firmly attached to the wall of 
the cavity, and was clearly a mould or vegetable fungus growing in it. 
Under the microscope it exhibited a distinct mycelium, or a perfectly de- 
veloped fructification. The mycelium consisted of delicate- tubes, which 
terminated in nodulated roundish points, and varied betw r een l-8000th 
and l-10,000th of an inch in diameter ; they branched in different direc- 
tions, and presented here and there little bulgings, which doubtless were 
the commencement of new branches. The branches supporting the fruc- 
tification were of considerable length, and much thicker than those be- 
longing to the mycelium ; indeed, the largest measured about l-2000th 
of an inch in thickness. They were cylindrical, without transverse septa, 
presented a well-defined limiting membrane, and pellucid structureless con- 
tents. At their free extremities they enlarged into globular or flask-like 
expansions, the greatest diameter of which was generally about twice that 
of the stalk from which they sprung. Their cavity was apparently per- 
fectly continuous with that of the stalk, and their contents identical. The 
spores were situated on these expansions, and in the perfect heads these 
were so numerous and so thickly placed as almost to conceal them. The 
fungus clearly sprang from the walls of the cavity in the lungs, and most 
probably had grown during the life of the patient. The fungus resembles 
some of the Mycoderms figured by Robin, as occurring in the lungs of 
birds. It is probably much altered from its normal state, by the situation 
in which it grew. — (Bristoive in Trans, of Patholog. Soc. of London, 
vol. v. p. 38.) 

Aloe- Wood, or Aloes of Scripture. — This fragrant wood appears to be 
produced by Aquilaria Agallochum. The tree is called in Hindi and 
Bengali Aggur, Agar, or Uggor ; it is also denominated Uud, and the 
Arabic name is Aghaluji. Sanscrit writers give three varieties of Aloe- 
wood — 1. Aguru, the common sort ; 2. Calaguru or black aloes, being of 
a darker colour than the common kind ; 3. Maugalya or Maugalyagura, 
having the fragrance of the Mallica or Jasminum Sambae. The name 



Botany, 383 

Agallochum appears not to be derived from the Arabic, nor from the 
Hebrew Ahalim and Ahaloth, but from the Indian name Agaru, or with 
the Sanscrit pleonastic termination ca, Aguruca. It may be stated that 
the Portuguese Pao de Aquila, as noticed by Rumphius, is an undoubted 
corruption of the Arabic Aghaluji and the Latin Agallochum ; and it is 
by a ludicrous mistake that from this corruption has grown the name 
Lignum Aquilae, whence the gen as of the plant now receives a botanic 
appellation, and which many authors have vainly attempted to distin- 
guish from the Lignum- Aloes and Calambac. The generic and speci- 
fic names of this plant are thus both drawn from the same original 
term. — (Colebrooke in Lin. Trans, xxi. 199.) 

Origin of the Cultivated Wheat. — Much interest has been excited of 
late by the statements of M. Fabre and M. Dunal, who affirm that the cul- 
tivated wheat [Triticum sativum) is a variety of a grass called jEgilops 
ovata found in the south of Europe. This grass, under cultivation, is 
said to assume the form called sEgilops triticoides, and finally to become 
wheat. M. Fabre says that the complete change was produced in twelve 
years by constant cultivation. If this view is correct, then botanists are 
wrong in supposing wheat to be a Triticum, and it must be regarded merely 
as a sport of Aegilops, kept up entirely by the art of the agriculturist. 
We do not see common wheat in a wild state, but we meet with the grass 
whence it is derived. Wheat would seem to be a variety rendered per- 
manent by cultivation. These opinions of Fabre have been supported by 
strong evidence. Of late, however, M. Godron has published a paper in 
the Annales des Sciences Naturelles in which he maintains that Agilops 
triticoides is not a mere sport of Ae. ovata, but that it is a hybrid between 
the cultivated wheat and the latter plant. This statement seems, at all 
events, to confirm the idea that wheat and the ^Egilops are nearly allied 
plants, for hybrids are not easily produced except between plants which 
resemble each other closely. This would be the first known instance of a 
hybrid among grasses. There can be no doubt that the wheat and JKgi- 
lops ovata are congeners, and that they exhibit evident marks of resem- 
blance in the form of their caryopsis. There appears, therefore, to be 
much plausibility in the statement of Fabre, and the hybridization spoken 
of by M. Godron may be merely such as would occur between varieties of 
the species. The matter is therefore by no means settled, and further 
experiments are required. 

Balanophoracece. — Dr J. D. Hooker has examined thirty species of this 
order, and of twenty-six of these, both sexes. The simplest and most 
frequent form assumed by the rhizome or axis is that of a single or 
branched tuber, sessile on the root, whence it derives nourishment, and 
giving off one or more flowering peduncles. In the earliest stage of He- 
losidse or Balanophoraceae the plant appears as a cellular mass, nidulating 
in the "bark of the root, (but partially exposed), with whose cellular tissue 
its own is in organic adhesion. At first there is no trace of vessels, but 
before it reaches the cambium layer of the bark the vascular tissue makes 
its appearance. Soon afterwards the wood of the root upon which the pa- 
rasite grows appears to become affected ; its annual layers are displaced, 
and at a later period vascular bundles enclosed in a cellular sheath appear 
to have ascended out of the axis of the rhizome, and to have become con- 
tinuous with those already found in it. The rhizome sometimes attains 
great age. Helosis seems to be capable of indefinite increase. Phyllo- 
coryne, as well as Rhopalocnemis, several species of Balanophora, Lepido- 
phyton, Langsdorffia, and Sarcophyte are perennial. Cynomorium seems 
annual. The growth of the rhizome appears to be slow. 

The vascular bundles in Helosis and Langsdorffia sufficiently show 
that Balanophoraceas are Dicotyledonous. All the genera have an adherent 



384 Scientific Intelligence. 

perianth. In C} r noniorium, the only genus with hermaphrodite flowers, 
the stamen is epigynous. Balanophors are epigynous calyciflorals, and 
ought, according to Hooker, to be placed between Haloragese and Gun- 
nera in a linear series. 

A Balanophora growing on the Maple roots in Tibet produces great 
knots on the roots whence the Tibetans make cups. Cynomorium is an 
extra-tropical genus, attaining latitude 41° in Europe. Mystropetala and 
Sarcophyte inhabit South Africa. A species of Helosis is found in the 
La Plata district, and species of Balanophora and Rhopalocnemis in 
Northern India, Cynomorium coccineum ranges from the Canary 
Islands to the mouths of the Nile through 3000 miles of longitude. 
Rhopalocnemis is found in latitude 27° in East Nepal and Sikkim, on the 
Khasya mountains of East Bengal, and in Java near the line. Bala- 
nophora fungosa is found in East Australia and in Tanna, places sepa- 
rated by 1500 miles of ocean. Langsdorffia hypogaea is found in Oaxaca 
in Mexico, on the mountains of New Grenada, and at Rio Janeiro, a 
range of 4000 miles. — (Jos. Hooker in Proc. of Lin. Soc, Feb. 1855). 

Wellingtonia gigantea. — Dr Torrey has recently had an opportunity 
of counting the circles in a complete radius of the trunk of the famous 
Wellingtonia, now exhibited at New York, and he finds that they are 
1120 in number. From the data furnished by Dr Torrey, we find that, 
on the radius examined — 

Inches. Inches . 

First 100 circles occupy a \ -, ^ ; Seventh 10© circles occupy a ) ^ 

breadth of J ' 2 j breadth of J ' 4 

Second do. ... 14 Eighth do. ... 11 

Third do. ... 12* Ninth do. ... 10 

Fourth do. ... 13" Tenth do. ... 11 

Fifth do. ... 16i Eleventh do. ... 11 J 

Sixth do. ... 8f The remaining 20 layers, 1 

There are 1120 circles in a semi-diameter of 135 inches, or 11 ft. 3 inches. 
The facts show that the tree lacks about three centuries of being half as 
old as it was said to be. Its enormous size is owing rather to its con- 
tinued rapid growth. Gray thinks that there is no adequate specific dif- 
ference between Wellingtonia and Sesquoia, and that the tree must 
henceforth be called Sesquoia gigantea. — (Silliman's American Journal, 
vol. xviii. p. 286.) 

Medicinal and Economical Plants of Victoria. — " The inestimable 
truth, that we may safely deduct the closest affinities of the medicinal 
properties of plants from their natural alliances — a truth which achieved 
the most complete triumph of the natural system over all artificial classi- 
fications — has generally guided me in tracing out which plants might be 
administered in medicine. By this guidance I observed, that our Pimeleas 
are pervaded with that acridity for which the bark of Daphne Mezereum 
is employed ; that our Polygala veronicea, the only described Australian 
species of a large genus, and in close relation to one lately discovered in 
the Chinese empire, not only agrees, like some kinds of Comesperma, 
with the Austrian Polygala amara, in those qualities for whicli that plant 
has been administered in consumption, but also participates in the me- 
dicinal virtue of Polygala Senega, from North America. Gratiola lati- 
folia and Gratiola pubescens, Convolvulus erubescens, and the various 
kinds of Mentha, are not inferior to similar European species. The bark 
of Tasmania aromatica appears to me to possess the medicinal power of 
the Winter's bark, gathered from a similar tree in Tierra del Fuego ; 
and its fruit is allied to that of the North American Magnoliae used in 
cases of rheumatism and intermittent fever. The whole natural order of 



Botany. 385 

Goodeniaceae, with the exception perhaps of a few species, contains a 
tonic bicterness never recognised before, and discernible in many plants 
in so high a degree, that I was induced for this reason to bestow upon a 
new genus from the interior the name of Picrophyta. This property, 
which indicates a certain alliance to Gentianae, deserves the more con- 
sideration, as the true Gentianse are so sparingly distributed through 
Australia, while the Goodeniaceae form everywhere here a prominent feature 
in the vegetation. Our Alps, however, enrich us also with a thick-rooted 
Gentian (G. Diemensis), certainly as valuable as the officinal Gentiana 
lutea ; and in the spring, Sabaea ovata, Sabaea albidiflora, and Erythraea 
Australis, might also be collected on account of their bitterness. The 
bark of the Australian Sassafras tree (Atherospermum moschatum) has 
already obtained some celebrity as a substitute for tea ; administered in 
a greater concentration, it is diaphoretic as well as diuretic, and has for 
this reason already been practically introduced into medicine by one of 
our eminent physicians. Isotoma axillaris surpasses all other indigenous 
Lobeliaceas in its intense acridity, and can be therefore only cautiously 
employed instead of Lobelia inflata. The root of Malva Behriana scarcely 
differs from that of Althaea officinalis, and the Salep root might be col- 
lected from many Orchideae. Few may be aware that the Cajeput oil of 
India is obtained from trees very similar to our common Melaleucas ; and 
that even from the leaves of the Eucalypti an oil can be procured of equal 
utility. The Sandarac, exuding from the Callitris, or Pine-tree, the 
balsamic resin of the grass-trees, and, moreover, the Eucalyptus gum, 
which could be gathered in boundless quantities, and which for its astrin- 
gent qualities might here at least supersede the use of kino or catechu, 
will probably at a future period form articles of export. Several Acacias 
are of essential service, either for their durable wood, or for the abun- 
dance of tannin in their bark, which has rendered them already useful, or 
for their gum ; but the latter is even excelled in clearness and solubility 
by that obtained from Pittosporum acacioides. This species, as well as 
many other plants of the same order, is distinguished by a surprising, 
yet apparently harmless bitterness — a quality that warrants our expecting 
considerable medicinal power, and which deserves so much more atten- 
tion, as till now we know nothing of the usefulness of the Pittosporeae, 
although this order extends over a great part of the eastern hemisphere. 
The Australian manna consists in a saccharine secretion, condensed chiefly 
by the cicades from a few species of Eucalypti, but is chemically very dif- 
ferently constituted to the Ornus manna, and much less aperient. All our 
splendid Diosmeae — a real ornament to the country — approach more or 
less in their medicinal effect to the South African Buchu-bushes. Baekea 
utilis, from Mount Aberdeen, might serve travellers in those desolate 
localities as tea ; for the volatile oil of its leaves resembles greatly in taste 
and odour that of lemons, not without a pleasant, peculiar aroma. Tri- 
gonella suavissima proved valuable as an antiscorbutic spinach in Sir 
Thomas Mitchell's expedition ; and the Tetragonella implexicoma, the 
various Cardamines, Nasturtium terrestre, or Lawrencia spicata, may 
likewise be used for the same purpose. The root of Scorzonera Lawrencii 
— a favourite food of the natives — would form, if enlarged by culture, an 
agreeable substitute for Scorzonera hispanica, or Asparagus ; and Anis- 
tome glacialis — a large-rooted umbelliferous plant, from the snowy top of 
Mount Buller — will be added perhaps hereafter to the culinary vegetables 
of the colder climates. Seeds of the latter plants, amongst many others, 
have been procured for the Botanic Gardens. Santalum lanceolatum, 
Mesembryanthemum aequilaterale, Leptomeria pungens, and Leptomeria 
acerba, deserve notice for their agreeable fruit." — [Report by Dr F.Muller, 
Government Botanist.) 



386 Scientific Intelligence. 

In a Report by Mr Swainson, an enumeration is given of 213 (?) species 
of Casuarina, commonly called He and She Oaks, but which, according 
to Mr Swainson, are the true pines of Australia. 

MINERALOGY. 

Mineralogy of the Dolomite of the Alps. By Sartorius von 
Walterhausen. 
The author's investigations relate chiefly to the dolomite of the Bin- 
nenthal, which is remarkable from its containing in the middle of the 
deposit several small parallel veins containing a number of foreign mine- 
rals belonging to the classes of sulphurets, oxides, carbonates, silicates, 
and sulphates. Each of these groups have been separately examined. 

Sulphurets. — These consist of zinc-blende in fine twin crystals, iron 
pyrites, small scales of orpiment, and beautiful transparent crystals of 
realgar. Besides these there is a gray sulphuret which consists of seve- 
ral minerals. This gray sulphuret was first described and analyzed under 
the name of Dufrenoysite by Damour, who ascribed to it the formula 
2Pb S-f-As S 3 . It is described as crystallizing in the regular system, al- 
though its formula is identical with that of Federerz (glumosite) as ana- 
lyzed by Rose, which contains antimony in place of arsenic, and whose 
form is prismatic. The conclusion to be drawn is, either that there exist di- 
morphous forms belonging to this composition, or that Damour's descrip- 
tion refers to two substances, one examined chemically only, the other 
crystallographically. The author considers the latter to be true, having 
found by extended examination on the spot that several minerals exist 
which differ both in composition and form, but which are easily con- 
founded in the massive state. For the mineral crystallizing in the regular 
system the name of Dufrenoysite is retained. The crystals generally 
have the form of the garnet dodecahedron or icositetrahedron. They 
occur isolated in the dolomite , and seldom reach the size of a pea. Their 
colour is dark steel-gray passing into iron- black. Their analysis gave 
these results, to which we have added those obtained by Damour for his 
mineral : — 

Damour. 

Sulphur, 27*546 22-393 

Arsenic, 30-059 20'778 

Silver, 1*229 0*190 

Lead, 2-749 25-999 

Copper, 37-746 0-260 

Iron, 0-824 0*380 

100-153 100-000 
From which there can be no doubt the two substances are different. Von 
Walterhausen' s result corresponds with the formule R 2 S -\- ASS 2 -f- RS, 
and belongs to an entirely new group of minerals, being the first example 
of a sulphuret in which arsenic exists in the form of realgar. It is clear 
that Damour's analysis does not apply to the true Dufrenoysite crystal- 
lizing in the regular system ; and, as an additional proof, the author has 
carefully determined the specific gravity of the regular crystals, and 
found it to be 4-477, while Damour found that of his mineral to be 
5-549. On the examination of a large number of specimens from the 
Binnenthal lead, gray crystals belonging to the right prismatic system 
were found accompanying Dufrenoysite, which were so extraordinarily 
brittle that they could not be separated entire from the matrix. The 
ratio of the axes is a : b : c = 1 : 0*96948 : 0-63335, and several modifi- 
cations were observed. Their specific gravity was 5*393, and analysis 
afforded the following result : — 



Mineralogy. 387 

Sulphur, 25-910 

Arsenic, 28-556 

Lead, 44-564 

Silver, 0424 

Iron, 0-448 



99-902 
This analysis does not lead to any simple formula, but the author infers 
that the mineral is a mixture of two substances having the formulae 
PbS -f- AsS 3 and 2PbS -f- As S 3 in the proportion of about 3 to 1. The 
latter is obviously the mineral analyzed by Damour ; and as the author 
has retained the name of Dufrenoysite to the mineral crystallizing in the 
regular system, he proposes to call this substance Scleroclase, while 
PbS + AsS 3 , which, however, has not yet been obtained in the pure state, 
he calls Arsenomelan. The results of several other analyses show that 
these minerals may occur mixed in variable proportions although the 
crystalline form remains unchanged. 

Oxygenized Minerals. — Among these occur magnetic iron ore, rutile, 
bitter spar, spathic iron ore, rock crystal, talc mica, and white and aspa- 
ragus-green tourmaline. There are also two other substances of con- 
siderable interest. One is a fine right-prismatic crystal ; hardness 3*5, 
specific gravity 3*977 ; it is a sulphate of baryta, containing 9 per cent, 
of sulphate of strontian. The other mineral is pure white, and some- 
times perfectly transparent ; hardness between felspar and quartz, speci- 
fic gravity 2*805. Its crystals belong to the oblique prismatic system, 
and closely resemble those of adularia. The ratio of the axes is 
a : b : c =■: 1* : 0-65765 : 0*54116, and the inclination of z on y = 64° 16' 
8". Its analysis gave — 

Silica, 24*127 

Alumina, . . . . 49*929 

Lime, 1*570 

Magnesia, .... 0*420 

Soda, 5*742 

Baryta, 14*403 

Sulphuric acid, . . 2*702 

Water, 0*650 



99*543 

From this he calculates the excessively complicated formula 5(3A1 3 
Si 3 ) • 3(2110 Si 3 ) = Ba OS 3 , and gives it the name of Thyalophan. 
It is clear that this formula must at present be considered as very ques- 
tionable. 

The paper concludes with some theoretical considerations as to the 
mode in which dolomite has been produced. — (Poggendorff's Annalen, 
vol. xciv. p. 115). 

Remarkable Brazilian Diamond. — The largest and finest diamond 
which has as yet been found in Brazil, has recently been imported into 
Paris, and has received the name of the " Star of the South." In its 
rough state it weighs 807'02 grains or 254^ carats. When cut it will be 
reduced to about 127 carats, and will therefore exceed the Koh-i-noor in 
size. Independently of its magnitude it possesses much scientific interest 
from the regularity of its crystalline forms, and the indications it affords 
of the mode in which the diamond occurs. The general form of the ' ' Star 
of the South" is a rhomboidal dodecahedron, having each of its faces 
bevelled by a face set on very obliquely, so that it has in all 24 faces. On 
one of its faces there is a pretty deep cavity obviously produced by an 
octahedral crystal which has been implanted in it. The interior of this 
cavity when examined with a lens shows octahedral striae, and it cannot 



388 Scientific Intelligence. 

therefore be doubted that the crystal which has left its trace was a dia- 
mond. On the posterior face of the crystal there are two other cavities 
of less depth also showing strias, and one of them even exhibits traces of 
three or four different crystals. On the same side of the crystal there is 
a flat part where the cleavage appears, and which M. Dufrenoy considers 
to be a fracture, and possibly as the point by which the diamond was at- 
tached to its matrix. From these facts it appears that the " Star of the 
South" has been only one of a group of diamonds similar to the groups of 
rock crystal, calc spar, or any other crystalline mineral. The diamond 
is about to be cut, and will be shown at the French Exhibition, but it will 
then have lost its scientific interest. — (Comptes Rendus, vol. xl., p. 3.) 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Relative Levels of the Red Sea and Mediterranean. — The French 
engineers, at the beginning of the present century, had come to the con- 
clusion that the Red Sea was about thirty feet above the Mediterannean, 
but the observations of Mr Robert Stephenson, the English engineer, at 
Suez, of M. Negretti, the Austrian, at Tineh, near the ancient Pelusium, 
and the le veilings of Messrs Talabat, Bourdaloue, and their assistants, 
between the two seas, have proved that the low-water mark of ordinary 
tides at Suez and Tineh is very nearly on the same levels, the difference 
being, that at Suez it is rather more than one inch lower. — (Leonard 
Horner, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1855.) 

An Uprise in the South Sea Islands. — Mr Royle, missionary at Aitu- 
taki, in the South Sea Island, describes a dreadful hurricane which took 
place on that island on the 6th February 1854. He states " that the 
physical aspect of the lagoon, inside the distant reef of the island, is com- 
pletely changed by the hurricane ; so much so that he is inclined to sus- 
pect that some volcanic violence was at work. Some ten miles of new 
beach is raised up, composed of coral rock, sea shell, and rough sand, 
where before there was nothing but deep water." 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Uncertainty of Preserving Records in Walls or Foundations of 
Buildings. — It is a common practice to place the coins of the time, news- 
papers, and other documents or records in sealed vessels, under the foun- 
dation stones, or in some marked situation in the walls of new public or 
otherwise important buildings. At a meeting of the American Philoso- 
phical Society in April last, Dr Boye stated that, " On recently opening 
the corner stone of the present High School building of this city (Phila- 
delphia), erected fifteen and a half years ago, in order to deposit its con- 
tents in the new building about to be erected, the papers, coins, &c. 
which had been deposited in a sealed glass jar were found to be in a 
perfectly decayed and corroded condition, and saturated with water. 
Dr Boye' stated, that after a careful examination he is satisfied that the 
water must have got in from the outside by infiltration, fir*st through the 
mortar into the cavity, and afterwards from this through the sealing 
wax, with which the glass-stopper was secured. The corner-stone con- 
sisted of a block of blue marble, in which a rectangular excavation had 
been made, which was closed at the top by a marble slab sunk down into 
the stone and secured by common mortar. The lime used appears to 
have acted upon and corroded the sealing wax. The corrosion of the coins 
is ascribed to the sulphur in the glue or sizing in the paper. — (Proceed. 
Arner. Phil. Soc. v., p. 323-325.) 



( 389 ) 
INDEX. 



Abies Hookeriana, 289. 

Abies Pattoniana, 291. 

Acids, Organic, their action on cotton and flax fibre, 108. 

Actinia Troglodites, 178. 

Air-Engine, means of realizing advantages of, 1 

Alcohol from Asphodelus, 183. 

Alkaloids, Organic, Hyposulphites of, 47. 

Aloe wood, 382. 

Aluminates, produced artificially, 185. 

Aluminium, preparation of, 378. 

Amides, constitution of, 182. Amides and Ethers of Meconic and Comenic 
Acids, 212. 

Ammonia, production of, 250. 

Anauxite, 188. 

Anderson, Professor, on the colouring matter of Rottlera tinctoria, 296. 

Annelid, Tubicolar, remarks on a peculiar species of, 113. 

Annelid tracks in the county of Clare, 278. 

Aquarium, preparation of sea water for, 129. 

Ascidia, formation of, 371. 

Asphodelus ramosus, alcohol from its tubercules, 183. 

Australian geology, 171. 

Azores, shells of, 169. 

Babington, C. C, on Linaria sepium, 371. 

Balanopkoraceae, 383. 

Balfour, Professor, on formation of Ascidia, 371. 

Basalt, action of water and air on, 180. 

Berthelot on ethers, 181. 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, 345. 

Beyrich, Die Conchylien der Nord-Deutschen Tertiar-gebirges, 158. 

Birds in Museum of the East India Company, Catalogue of, 349. 

Boracic Acid, production of, 250. 

Botanical Intelligence, 183, 380. 

Botanical Society, Proceedings of, 371. 

Boucerosia Munbyana, 373. 

Bryson, A., on worm tracks in Silurian slates, 368. 

Buddhist Monuments, 352. 

Buist, Dr George, on the Principal Depressions on the Surface of the Globe, 253. 

Calabar Ordeal Bean, 354. 

Californian Academy, Proceedings of, 374. 

Calvert, F. C, on the action of Organic Acids on cotton and flax fibres, 108. 
On Dyeing, 265. 

Chambers, Kobert, on Glacial Phenomena in Scotland and. the North of Eng- 
land, 97. On the great Terrace of Erosion in Scotland, and its relative 
data, and connection with Glacial Phenomena, 103. 

Champion, Lieut. Col. John G., Biography of, 302. 

Charcoal, Mineral, 73. 

Chemical Intelligence, 181, 378. 

Chevreul on the Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colours, 166. 

Chlorophyll in Infusoria, 177. 

Christison, Prof., on the Calabar Ordeal Bean, 354. 

Clerk-Maxwell, James, on Colour, 359. 

Coal in Turkey, 172. 

Colour Blindness, 359. 

Comenic Acid, Ethers and Amides of, 212. 

Compass, 78. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. — APRIL 1855. 2 D 



390 Index. 

Coniferous Trees of California, 284. 

Conistonite, 366. 

Cotteswold Naturalists' Club, 346. 

Crimea, Plants of, 184. 

Cumming, Rev. J. G., on some of the more recent changes in the area of the 

Irish Sea, 57 
Cupressus Lawsoniana, 292. 
Cupressus M'Nabiana, 293. 
Cyperus polystachyus, 382. 
Dalton, Memoir of, 163. 

D'Archiac, Coupe Geologique des Environs des Bains de Kenno3, 341. 
Datholite, analysis of, 369. 
Datura ferox, 183. 
Datura Stramonium, 183. 

Davy, Dr John, Miscellaneous Observations on the Salmonidse, 176. 
Dead Sea, 261. 

De Candolle on Stramonium, 183. 
Delvauxite, 187. 

Deville, M. St Claire, on Aluminium, 378. 
Diamond, remarkable Brazilian, 387. 
Diatomaceae in Braemar, 373. In Silurian Slate, 368. 
Diplarche, 184. 

Dolomite, colour of, 377. Dolmite of the Alp?, 386. 
Dyeing Action of Gallic and Tannic Acids, 265. 

Elliot, James, on certain Mechanical Illustrations of the Planetary Motions, 310. 
Equinoxes, precession of, 312. 
Erianthus japonicus, 374. 
Erosion, great Terrace of, in Scotland, 103. 
Eschara cervicornis, 377. 
Ethers, remarks on, 181. 

Ethers and Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids, 212. 
Euxenite, 63. 

Fish, shoals of, in a dead state, in the Atlantic, 271. 
Fleming on the structural character of Rocks, 176. 
Fluorescence, 83. 

Forbes, David, on the Chemical Composition of some Norwegian Minerals, 62. 
Forbes, Prof. Edward, Biography of, 133. Introductory Lecture by, 145. 
Lines on the Death of, 307. 

Forbes, Prof. J. D., on Measurement of Heights, 174. 
Frost, remarks on its effects, 369. 

Fungus in the Lungs, 382. 

Geikie, A., on Fossils from Pabba and Skye, 366. 

Geological Intelligence, 180, 377. 

Germanic Races, their intrusion into Europe, 33. 

Gieseckite, 188. 

Glacial Phenomena in Scotland and the North of England, 97. 

Glaciers, Movements of, 355, 356. 

Gladstone, J. II., Notes on some substances which exhibit the Phenomena of 
Fluorescence, 83. 

Glenmessan Moraines, 196. 

Glensluan Moraines, 189. 

Globe, Depressions on the Surface of, 253. 

Greville on Diatomaceae, 373. 

Gutta Percha in India, 352. In Singapore, 380. 

Darkness, Prof., on Mineral Charcoal, 73. On Annelid Tracks, 278. 

Heat, Light, and Motion, 90. 

Heat and Mechanical Power, 1. Mechanical Hypothesis of Heat, 4. 

Heddle, Dr F. Forster, on Oxalates in the Mineral kingdom, 365. Analysis of 
Datholite, 369. 

Heddlite, 366. 

Heights, Measurement of, by boiling point of water, 174. 

Himalayan Plants, 184. Himalayan Geology, 351. 



Index. 391 

How, Prof., on the Hyposulphites of the Organic Alkaloids, 47. On the Ethers 
and Amides of Meconic and Comenic Acids, 212. 

Huxley, T. A., on a Hermaphrodite and Fissiparous Species of Tubicolar 
Annelid, 113. 

Hyposulphites of Organic Alkaloids, 47. 

Irish Sea, changes in the area of, 57. 

Iron, Meteoric, from Greenland, 186. 

Jacob, Captain W. S., on the Physical Features of Saturn and Mars, 203. On 
the Catalogue of Stars published by the British Association in 1845, 206. 

Kakoxene, 187. 

Keilhauite, 69. 

Lakes, Dimensions of, 255. 

Lawson, G., on Stellaria umbrosa, 372. 

Lepidoptera near Edinburgh, 364. 

Liasic Fossils of Skye, 366. 

Light, Distribution of Diverging Ray of, on any azimuthal angle, 273. 

Light, Heat, and Motion, 90. 

Lighthouse-illumination, 273. 

Linaria sepium, characters of, 371. 

Low, Prof., on the Chemical Equivalents of certain bodies, and the relations be- 
tween Oxygen and Azote, 175. 

Lowe, Dr, on Lepidoptera near Edinburgh, 364 . 

M'Andrew on Shells of the Azores, 170. On Geographical Range of Testaceous 
Mollusca, 178. 

Maclaren on Ancient Moraines in the parishes of Strachur and Kilmun, Argyle- 
shire, 189. 

Maddenia, 184. 

Malvern Naturalists' Field Club, 347. ^ 

Manu-Mea of Samoa, 350. 

Mars, Physical Features of, 203. 

Mangosteen, Chemical Examination of the Rind of, 380. 

Meconic Acid, Ethers and Amides of, 212. 

Melanerpes formicivorus, 376. 

Mineralogical Intelligence, 185, 386. 

Minerals, Analysis of, 187. 

Mines of the United States, 181. 

Mollusca, testaceous, 178. 

Moon's Nodes, retrogradation of, 324. 

Moon's Parallax, 358. 

Moon's Surface, Remarks on, 353. 

Mora excelsa, 381. 

Moraines in Argyleshire, 189. 

Murray, Andrew, on Californian Coniferae, 284. 

Natal Geology, 350. 

Neptunian Rocks, colour of, 377. 

Noctiluca Miliaris, 177. 

Oils, Vegetable, in the Amazon and Rio Negro districts, 381. 

Oldham on Himalayan Geology, 351. 

Owl, Scops, notice of, 365. 

Oxalates in the Mineral kingdom, 365. 

Page, Text Book of Geology, 348. 

Physical Geography, 388. 

Pinus Beardsleyi, 286. 

Pinus Craigana, 288. 

Placentation, remarks on, 372. 

Planetary Motions, Mechanical Illustrations of, 310. 

Pleistocene Classification, 180. 

Pliocene Shells in Greenland, 362. 

Pterygotus problematicus, Geologic range of, 269. 

Rankine, W. J. M., on the Means of realizing the advantages of the Air- 
Engine, 1. 

Red Sea and Mediterranean, levels of, 358. 



392 Index. 

Reviews, 158, 336. 

Koemer, Die Kreidebildungen, Westphalens, 336. 

Rottlera tinctoria, colouring matter of, 296. 

Rottlerine, 297. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, Proceedings of, 174, 359. 

Royal Physical Society, Proceedings of, 363. 

Salmon, foreign species of, 377. 

Salmonidae, Observations on, 176. 

Sang, Edward, on inaccuracy in computing the Moon's Parallax, 358. 

Saturn, Physical features of, 203. 

Saturn's Ring, 327. 

Schmid, Dr, on the Rind of Mangosteen, 380. 

Scientific Intelligence, 177, 376. 

Sclater, P. L., on the arrangement of the genus Thamnophilus, 226. 

Selwyn on Australian Geology, 171. 

Silicates produced artificially, 185. 

Smith, Dr J. A., on the Scops-eared Owl, 365. 

Smyth, Prof., on the Moon's Surface, 353. 

Soda, Carbonate of, its solubility, 379. 

South Sea Islands, uprise in, 388. 

Spratt on Coal in Turkey, 172. 

Stainton, Entomologist's Annual, 342. 

Standing-stones of Scotland, 352. 

Stars, Catalogue of, by British Association, 206. 

Stellaria umbrosa, characters of, 372. 

Survey, Geological, of Great Britain, 106. 

Swan, William, on a simple Variation Compass, 78. 

Symonds, Rev. W. S., on the Geologic range of Pterygotus problematicus, 269. 
Notice of Shoals of Dead Pish, 271. 

Tannic acid in dyeing, 265. 

Taxus Lindleyana, 294. 

Telluro-methyle and its compounds, 379. 

Tertiary Plants in Greenland, 362. 

Thamnophilus, arrangement of, 226. 

Thermo-Dynamic Engines, 1, 6, 19. 

Thomson, Prof. William, on Mechanical Antecedents of Motion, Heat, and 
Light, 90. 

Trap-rocks near Edinburgh, 176. 

Tricyrtis pilosa, 373. 

Tyrite, 67. 

Victoria, Medicinal and Economical Plants of, 384. 

Walterhausen on the Dolomite of the Alps, 386. 

Warington, Robert, on the production of Boracic Acid and Ammonia by Vol- 
canic Action, 250. 

Wellingtonia gigantea, 384. 

Wheat, its origin, 383. 

Wilson, Dr G., on artificial preparation of sea-water for the Aquarium, 129. 
Lines on the Death of Professor E. Forbes, 308. 

Wohler on Telluro-methyle, 379. 

Woodpeckers in California, 363, 376. /£s 

Worm-tracks in Silurian Slates, 368. 

Yttrotitanite, 69. 

Zoological Intelligence, 177, 376. 



END OF VOLUME FIRST NEW 



Neill & Co., Printers, Edinburgh 




-jy